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We present a method employing Answer Set Programming in combination with Approximate Model Counting for fast and accurate calculation of error propagation probabilities in digital circuits. By an efficient problem encoding, we achieve an input data format similar to a Verilog netlist so that extensive preprocessing is avoided. By a tight interconnection of our application with the underlying solver, we avoid iterating over fault sites and reduce calls to the solver. Several circuits were analyzed with varying numbers of considered cycles and different degrees of approximation. Our experiments show, that the runtime can be reduced by approximation by a factor of 91, whereas the error compared to the exact result is below 1%.

Eine übliche Erzählung verknüpft lange Studienzeiten und hohe Abbrecherquoten im Informatikstudium zum einen mit der sehr gut bezahlten Nebentätigkeit von Studierenden in der Informatikbranche, die deutlich studienzeitverlängernd sei; zum anderen werde wegen des hohen Bedarfs an Informatikern ein formeller Studienabschluss von den Studierenden häufig als entbehrlich betrachtet und eine Karriere in der Informatikbranche ohne abgeschlossenes Studium begonnen. In dieser Studie, durchgeführt an der Universität Potsdam, untersuchen wir, wie viele Informatikstudierende neben dem Studium innerhalb und außerhalb der Informatikbranche arbeiten, welche Erwartungen sie neben der Bezahlung damit verbinden und wie sich die Tätigkeit auf ihr Studium und ihre spätere berufliche Perspektive auswirkt. Aus aktuellem Anlass interessieren uns auch die Auswirkungen der Covid-19-Pandemie auf die Arbeitstätigkeiten der Informatikstudierenden.

Die Fachtagungen HDI (Hochschuldidaktik Informatik) beschäftigen sich mit den unterschiedlichen Aspekten informatischer Bildung im Hochschulbereich. Neben den allgemeinen Themen wie verschiedenen Lehr- und Lernformen, dem Einsatz von Informatiksystemen in der Hochschullehre oder Fragen der Gewinnung von geeigneten Studierenden, deren Kompetenzerwerb oder auch der Betreuung der Studierenden widmet sich die HDI immer auch einem Schwerpunktthema.
Im Jahr 2021 war dies die Berücksichtigung von Diversität in der Lehre. Diskutiert wurden beispielsweise die Einbeziehung von besonderen fachlichen und überfachlichen Kompetenzen Studierender, der Unterstützung von Durchlässigkeit aus nichtakademischen Berufen, aber auch die Gestaltung inklusiver Lehr- und Lernszenarios, Aspekte des Lebenslangen Lernens oder sich an die Diversität von Studierenden adaptierte oder adaptierende Lehrsysteme.
Dieser Band enthält ausgewählte Beiträge der 9. Fachtagung 2021, die in besonderer Weise die Konferenz und die dort diskutierten Themen repräsentieren.

Due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, Earth’s average surface temperature is steadily increasing. As a consequence, many weather extremes are likely to become more frequent and intense. This poses a threat to natural and human systems, with local impacts capable of destroying exposed assets and infrastructure, and disrupting economic and societal activity. Yet, these effects are not locally confined to the directly affected regions, as they can trigger indirect economic repercussions through loss propagation along supply chains. As a result, local extremes yield a potentially global economic response. To build economic resilience and design effective adaptation measures that mitigate adverse socio-economic impacts of ongoing climate change, it is crucial to gain a comprehensive understanding of indirect impacts and the underlying economic mechanisms.
Presenting six articles in this thesis, I contribute towards this understanding. To this end, I expand on local impacts under current and future climate, the resulting global economic response, as well as the methods and tools to analyze this response.
Starting with a traditional assessment of weather extremes under climate change, the first article investigates extreme snowfall in the Northern Hemisphere until the end of the century. Analyzing an ensemble of global climate model projections reveals an increase of the most extreme snowfall, while mean snowfall decreases.
Assessing repercussions beyond local impacts, I employ numerical simulations to compute indirect economic effects from weather extremes with the numerical agent-based shock propagation model Acclimate. This model is used in conjunction with the recently emerged storyline framework, which involves analyzing the impacts of a particular reference extreme event and comparing them to impacts in plausible counterfactual scenarios under various climate or socio-economic conditions. Using this approach, I introduce three primary storylines that shed light on the complex mechanisms underlying economic loss propagation.
In the second and third articles of this thesis, I analyze storylines for the historical Hurricanes Sandy (2012) and Harvey (2017) in the USA. For this, I first estimate local economic output losses and then simulate the resulting global economic response with Acclimate. The storyline for Hurricane Sandy thereby focuses on global consumption price anomalies and the resulting changes in consumption. I find that the local economic disruption leads to a global wave-like economic price ripple, with upstream effects propagating in the supplier direction and downstream effects in the buyer direction. Initially, an upstream demand reduction causes consumption price decreases, followed by a downstream supply shortage and increasing prices, before the anomalies decay in a normalization phase. A dominant upstream or downstream effect leads to net consumption gains or losses of a region, respectively. Moreover, I demonstrate that a longer direct economic shock intensifies the downstream effect for many regions, leading to an overall consumption loss.
The third article of my thesis builds upon the developed loss estimation method by incorporating projections to future global warming levels. I use these projections to explore how the global production response to Hurricane Harvey would change under further increased global warming. The results show that, while the USA is able to nationally offset direct losses in the reference configuration, other countries have to compensate for increasing shares of counterfactual future losses. This compensation is mainly achieved by large exporting countries, but gradually shifts towards smaller regions. These findings not only highlight the economy’s ability to flexibly mitigate disaster losses to a certain extent, but also reveal the vulnerability and economic disadvantage of regions that are exposed to extreme weather events.
The storyline in the fourth article of my thesis investigates the interaction between global economic stress and the propagation of losses from weather extremes. I examine indirect impacts of weather extremes — tropical cyclones, heat stress, and river floods — worldwide under two different economic conditions: an unstressed economy and a globally stressed economy, as seen during the Covid-19 pandemic. I demonstrate that the adverse effects of weather extremes on global consumption are strongly amplified when the economy is under stress. Specifically, consumption losses in the USA and China double and triple, respectively, due to the global economy’s decreased capacity for disaster loss compensation. An aggravated scarcity intensifies the price response, causing consumption losses to increase.
Advancing on the methods and tools used here, the final two articles in my thesis extend the agent-based model Acclimate and formalize the storyline approach. With the model extension described in the fifth article, regional consumers make rational choices on the goods bought such that their utility is maximized under a constrained budget. In an out-of-equilibrium economy, these rational consumers are shown to temporarily increase consumption of certain goods in spite of rising prices.
The sixth article of my thesis proposes a formalization of the storyline framework, drawing on multiple studies including storylines presented in this thesis. The proposed guideline defines eight central elements that can be used to construct a storyline.
Overall, this thesis contributes towards a better understanding of economic repercussions of weather extremes. It achieves this by providing assessments of local direct impacts, highlighting mechanisms and impacts of loss propagation, and advancing on methods and tools used.

Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a prominent knowledge representation language with roots in logic programming and non-monotonic reasoning. Biennial ASP competitions are organized in order to furnish challenging benchmark collections and assess the advancement of the state of the art in ASP solving. In this paper, we report on the design and results of the Seventh ASP Competition, jointly organized by the University of Calabria (Italy), the University of Genova (Italy), and the University of Potsdam (Germany), in affiliation with the 14th International Conference on Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning (LPNMR 2017).

In this bachelor’s thesis I implement the automatic theorem prover nanoCoP-Ω. This system is the result of porting arithmetic and equality handling procedures first introduced in the automatic theorem prover with arithmetic leanCoP-Ω into the similar system nanoCoP 2.0. To understand these procedures, I first introduce the mathematical background to both automatic theorem proving and arithmetic expressions. I present the predecessor projects leanCoP, nanoCoP and leanCoP-Ω, out of which nanCoP-Ω was developed. This is followed by an extensive description of the concepts the non-clausal connection calculus needed to be extended by, to allow for proving arithmetic expressions and equalities, as well as of their implementation into nanoCoP-Ω. An extensive comparison between both the runtimes and the number of solved problems of the systems nanoCoP-Ω and leanCoP-Ω was made. I come to the conclusion, that nanoCoP-Ω is considerably faster than leanCoP-Ω for small problems, though less well suited for larger problems. Additionally, I was able to construct a non-theorem that nanoCoP-Ω generates a false proof for. I discuss how this pressing issue could be resolved, as well as some possible optimizations and expansions of the system.

Arousal is one of the dimensions of core affect and frequently used to describe experienced or observed emotional states. While arousal ratings of facial expressions are collected in many studies it is not well understood how arousal is displayed in or interpreted from facial expressions. In the context of socioemotional disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, this poses the question of a differential use of facial information for arousal perception. In this study, we demonstrate how automated face-tracking tools can be used to extract predictors of arousal judgments. We find moderate to strong correlations among all measures of static information on one hand and all measures of dynamic information on the other. Based on these results, we tested two measures, average distance to the neutral face and average facial movement speed, within and between neurotypical individuals (N = 401) and individuals with autism (N = 19). Distance to the neutral face was predictive of arousal in both groups. Lower mean arousal ratings were found for the autistic group, but no difference in correlation of the measures and arousal ratings could be found between groups. Results were replicated in an high autistic traits group. The findings suggest a qualitatively similar perception of arousal for individuals with and without autism. No correlations between valence ratings and any of the measures could be found, emphasizing the specificity of our tested measures. Distance and speed predictors share variability and thus speed should not be discarded as a predictor of arousal ratings.

This paper is part of the investigation of some operations on words and languages with motivations coming from DNA biochemistry, namely three variants of hairpin completion and three variants of hairpin reduction. Since not all the hairpin completions or reductions of semilinear languages remain semilinear, we study sufficient conditions for semilinear languages to preserve their semilinearity property after applying the non-iterated hairpin completion or hairpin reduction. A similar approach is then applied to the iterated variants of these operations. Along these lines, we define the hairpin reduction root of a language and show that the hairpin reduction root of a semilinear language is not necessarily semilinear except the universal language. A few open problems are finally discussed.

Xenikoudakis et al. report a partial mitochondrial genome of the extinct giant beaver Castoroides and estimate the origin of aquatic behavior in beavers to approximately 20 million years. This time estimate coincides with the extinction of terrestrial beavers and raises the question whether the two events had a common cause.

Many knowledge representation tasks involve trees or similar structures as abstract datatypes. However, devising compact and efficient declarative representations of such structural properties is non-obvious and can be challenging indeed. In this article, we take a number of acyclicity properties into consideration and investigate various logic-based approaches to encode them. We use answer set programming as the primary representation language but also consider mappings to related formalisms, such as propositional logic, difference logic and linear programming. We study the compactness of encodings and the resulting computational performance on benchmarks involving acyclic or tree structures.

Image feature detection is a key task in computer vision. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is a prevalent and well known algorithm for robust feature detection. However, it is computationally demanding and software implementations are not applicable for real-time performance. In this paper, a versatile and pipelined hardware implementation is proposed, that is capable of computing keypoints and rotation invariant descriptors on-chip. All computations are performed in single precision floating-point format which makes it possible to implement the original algorithm with little alteration. Various rotation resolutions and filter kernel sizes are supported for images of any resolution up to ultra-high definition. For full high definition images, 84 fps can be processed. Ultra high definition images can be processed at 21 fps.

We introduce a new measure of descriptional complexity on finite automata, called the number of active states. Roughly speaking, the number of active states of an automaton A on input w counts the number of different states visited during the most economic computation of the automaton A for the word w. This concept generalizes to finite automata and regular languages in a straightforward way. We show that the number of active states of both finite automata and regular languages is computable, even with respect to nondeterministic finite automata. We further compare the number of active states to related measures for regular languages. In particular, we show incomparability to the radius of regular languages and that the difference between the number of active states and the total number of states needed in finite automata for a regular language can be of exponential order.

User Experience (UX) describes the holistic experience of a user before, during, and after interaction with a platform, product, or service. UX adds value and attraction to their sole functionality and is therefore highly relevant for firms. The increased interest in UX has produced a vast amount of scholarly research since 1983. The research field is, therefore, complex and scattered. Conducting a bibliometric analysis, we aim at structuring the field quantitatively and rather abstractly. We employed citation analyses, co-citation analyses, and content analyses to evaluate productivity and impact of extant research. We suggest that future research should focus more on business and management related topics.

Use of a standard non-rad-hard digital cell library in the rad-hard design can be a cost-effective solution for space applications. In this paper we demonstrate how a standard non-rad-hard flip-flop, as one of the most vulnerable digital cells, can be converted into a rad-hard flip-flop without modifying its internal structure. We present five variants of a Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) flip-flop: baseline TMR flip-flop, latch-based TMR flip-flop, True-Single Phase Clock (TSPC) TMR flip-flop, scannable TMR flip-flop and self-correcting TMR flipflop. For all variants, the multi-bit upsets have been addressed by applying special placement constraints, while the Single Event Transient (SET) mitigation was achieved through the usage of customized SET filters and selection of optimal inverter sizes for the clock and reset trees. The proposed flip-flop variants feature differing performance, thus enabling to choose the optimal solution for every sensitive node in the circuit, according to the predefined design constraints. Several flip-flop designs have been validated on IHP's 130nm BiCMOS process, by irradiation of custom-designed shift registers. It has been shown that the proposed TMR flip-flops are robust to soft errors with a threshold Linear Energy Transfer (LET) from (32.4 MeV.cm(2)/mg) to (62.5 MeV.cm(2)/mg), depending on the variant.

We study the derivational complexity of context-free and context-sensitive grammars by counting the maximal number of non-regular and non-context-free rules used in a derivation, respectively. The degree of non-regularity/non-context-freeness of a language is the minimum degree of non-regularity/non-context-freeness of context-free/context-sensitive grammars generating it. A language has finite degree of non-regularity iff it is regular. We give a condition for deciding whether the degree of non-regularity of a given unambiguous context-free grammar is finite. The problem becomes undecidable for arbitrary linear context-free grammars. The degree of non-regularity of unambiguous context-free grammars generating non-regular languages as well as that of grammars generating deterministic context-free languages that are not regular is of order Omega(n). Context-free non-regular languages of sublinear degree of non-regularity are presented. A language has finite degree of non-context-freeness if it is context-free. Context-sensitive grammars with a quadratic degree of non-context-freeness are more powerful than those of a linear degree.

We elaborate upon the theoretical foundations of a metric temporal extension of Answer Set Programming. In analogy to previous extensions of ASP with constructs from Linear Temporal and Dynamic Logic, we accomplish this in the setting of the logic of Here-and-There and its non-monotonic extension, called Equilibrium Logic. More precisely, we develop our logic on the same semantic underpinnings as its predecessors and thus use a simple time domain of bounded time steps. This allows us to compare all variants in a uniform framework and ultimately combine them in a common implementation.

We study the concept of reversibility in connection with parallel communicating systems of finite automata (PCFA in short). We define the notion of reversibility in the case of PCFA (also covering the non-deterministic case) and discuss the relationship of the reversibility of the systems and the reversibility of its components. We show that a system can be reversible with non-reversible components, and the other way around, the reversibility of the components does not necessarily imply the reversibility of the system as a whole. We also investigate the computational power of deterministic centralized reversible PCFA. We show that these very simple types of PCFA (returning or non-returning) can recognize regular languages which cannot be accepted by reversible (deterministic) finite automata, and that they can even accept languages that are not context-free. We also separate the deterministic and non-deterministic variants in the case of systems with non-returning communication. We show that there are languages accepted by non-deterministic centralized PCFA, which cannot be recognized by any deterministic variant of the same type.

Stripe rust (Pst) is a major disease of wheat crops leading untreated to severe yield losses. The use of fungicides is often essential to control Pst when sudden outbreaks are imminent. Sensors capable of detecting Pst in wheat crops could optimize the use of fungicides and improve disease monitoring in high-throughput field phenotyping. Now, deep learning provides new tools for image recognition and may pave the way for new camera based sensors that can identify symptoms in early stages of a disease outbreak within the field. The aim of this study was to teach an image classifier to detect Pst symptoms in winter wheat canopies based on a deep residual neural network (ResNet). For this purpose, a large annotation database was created from images taken by a standard RGB camera that was mounted on a platform at a height of 2 m. Images were acquired while the platform was moved over a randomized field experiment with Pst-inoculated and Pst-free plots of winter wheat. The image classifier was trained with 224 x 224 px patches tiled from the original, unprocessed camera images. The image classifier was tested on different stages of the disease outbreak. At patch level the image classifier reached a total accuracy of 90%. To test the image classifier on image level, the image classifier was evaluated with a sliding window using a large striding length of 224 px allowing for fast test performance. At image level, the image classifier reached a total accuracy of 77%. Even in a stage with very low disease spreading (0.5%) at the very beginning of the Pst outbreak, a detection accuracy of 57% was obtained. Still in the initial phase of the Pst outbreak with 2 to 4% of Pst disease spreading, detection accuracy with 76% could be attained. With further optimizations, the image classifier could be implemented in embedded systems and deployed on drones, vehicles or scanning systems for fast mapping of Pst outbreaks.

This paper continues the line of research aimed at investigating the relationship between logic programs and first-order theories. We extend the definition of program completion to programs with input and output in a subset of the input language of the ASP grounder gringo, study the relationship between stable models and completion in this context, and describe preliminary experiments with the use of two software tools, anthem and vampire, for verifying the correctness of programs with input and output. Proofs of theorems are based on a lemma that relates the semantics of programs studied in this paper to stable models of first-order formulas.

Full error detection and correction method applied on pipelined structure using two approaches
(2020)

In this paper, two approaches are evaluated using the Full Error Detection and Correction (FEDC) method for a pipelined structure. The approaches are referred to as Full Duplication with Comparison (FDC) and Concurrent Checking with Parity Prediction (CCPP). Aforementioned approaches are focused on the borderline cases of FEDC method which implement Error Detection Circuit (EDC) in two manners for the purpose of protection of combinational logic to address the soft errors of unspecified duration. The FDC approach implements a full duplication of the combinational circuit, as the most complex and expensive implementation of the FEDC method, and the CCPP approach implements only the parity prediction bit, being the simplest and cheapest technique, for soft error detection. Both approaches are capable of detecting soft errors in the combinational logic, with single faults being injected into the design. On the one hand, the FDC approach managed to detect and correct all injected faults while the CCPP approach could not detect multiple faults created at the output of combinational circuit. On the other hand, the FDC approach leads to higher power consumption and area increase compared to the CCPP approach.