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In der brandenburgischen Landesverwaltung und Justiz sollen in den nächsten Jahren noch ca. 8.000 Stellen eingespart werden. Gleichzeitig sind die Landesverwaltung und die Justiz an die demografische Entwicklung und die damit verbundenen Aufgabenveränderungen anzupassen. Das ressortübergreifende Personalmanagement gewinnt hierdurch an Bedeutung. Um den Prozess zu gestalten, hat die Landesregierung eine Besetzungsrichtlinie erlassen und mit den Gewerkschaften einen Tarifvertrag zum Verwaltungsumbau (TV Umbau) abgeschlossen, die in diesem Band ebenso abgedruckt sind, wie die Durchführungshinweise des Ministeriums des Innern. Darüber hinaus enthält der Band die aktuell geltende Personalbedarfsplanung bis Ende 2015, die Dr. Folke Schneider erläutert. In einem Beitrag von Volker-Gerd Westphal wird eine Gesamtschau der Rahmenbedingungen für das Personalmanagement in der brandenburgischen Landesverwaltung und Justiz vorgenommen.

Produktion von Eigennamen
(2011)

In the living cell, the organization of the complex internal structure relies to a large extent on molecular motors. Molecular motors are proteins that are able to convert chemical energy from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into mechanical work. Being about 10 to 100 nanometers in size, the molecules act on a length scale, for which thermal collisions have a considerable impact onto their motion. In this way, they constitute paradigmatic examples of thermodynamic machines out of equilibrium. This study develops a theoretical description for the energy conversion by the molecular motor myosin V, using many different aspects of theoretical physics. Myosin V has been studied extensively in both bulk and single molecule experiments. Its stepping velocity has been characterized as a function of external control parameters such as nucleotide concentration and applied forces. In addition, numerous kinetic rates involved in the enzymatic reaction of the molecule have been determined. For forces that exceed the stall force of the motor, myosin V exhibits a 'ratcheting' behaviour: For loads in the direction of forward stepping, the velocity depends on the concentration of ATP, while for backward loads there is no such influence. Based on the chemical states of the motor, we construct a general network theory that incorporates experimental observations about the stepping behaviour of myosin V. The motor's motion is captured through the network description supplemented by a Markov process to describe the motor dynamics. This approach has the advantage of directly addressing the chemical kinetics of the molecule, and treating the mechanical and chemical processes on equal grounds. We utilize constraints arising from nonequilibrium thermodynamics to determine motor parameters and demonstrate that the motor behaviour is governed by several chemomechanical motor cycles. In addition, we investigate the functional dependence of stepping rates on force by deducing the motor's response to external loads via an appropriate Fokker-Planck equation. For substall forces, the dominant pathway of the motor network is profoundly different from the one for superstall forces, which leads to a stepping behaviour that is in agreement with the experimental observations. The extension of our analysis to Markov processes with absorbing boundaries allows for the calculation of the motor's dwell time distributions. These reveal aspects of the coordination of the motor's heads and contain direct information about the backsteps of the motor. Our theory provides a unified description for the myosin V motor as studied in single motor experiments.

Eye fixation durations during normal reading correlate with processing difficulty but the specific cognitive mechanisms reflected in these measures are not well understood. This study finds support in German readers’ eyefixations for two distinct difficulty metrics: surprisal, which reflects the change in probabilities across syntactic analyses as new words are integrated, and retrieval, which quantifies comprehension difficulty in terms of working memory constraints. We examine the predictions of both metrics using a family of dependency parsers indexed by an upper limit on the number of candidate syntactic analyses they retain at successive words. Surprisal models all fixation measures and regression probability. By contrast, retrieval does not model any measure in serial processing. As more candidate analyses are considered in parallel at each word, retrieval can account for the same measures as surprisal. This pattern suggests an important role for ranked parallelism in theories of sentence comprehension.

The use of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) for environmental remediation is a promising new technique for in situ remediation. Due to its high surface area and high reactivity, nZVI is able to dechlorinate organic contaminants and render them harmless. Limited mobility, due to fast aggregation and sedimentation of nZVI, limits the capability for source and plume remediation. Carbo-Iron is a newly developed material consisting of activated carbon particles (d50 = 0,8 µm) that are plated with nZVI particles. These particles combine the mobility of activated carbon and the reactivity of nZVI. This paper presents the first results of the transport experiments.

The Arctic is a particularly sensitive area with respect to climate change due to the high surface albedo of snow and ice and the extreme radiative conditions. Clouds and aerosols as parts of the Arctic atmosphere play an important role in the radiation budget, which is, as yet, poorly quantified and understood. The LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements presented in this PhD thesis contribute with continuous altitude resolved aerosol profiles to the understanding of occurrence and characteristics of aerosol layers above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The attention was turned to the analysis of periods with high aerosol load. As the Arctic spring troposphere exhibits maximum aerosol optical depths (AODs) each year, March and April of both the years 2007 and 2009 were analyzed. Furthermore, stratospheric aerosol layers of volcanic origin were analyzed for several months, subsequently to the eruptions of the Kasatochi and Sarychev volcanoes in summer 2008 and 2009, respectively. The Koldewey Aerosol Raman LIDAR (KARL) is an instrument for the active remote sensing of atmospheric parameters using pulsed laser radiation. It is operated at the AWIPEV research base and was fundamentally upgraded within the framework of this PhD project. It is now equipped with a new telescope mirror and new detection optics, which facilitate atmospheric profiling from 450m above sea level up to the mid-stratosphere. KARL provides highly resolved profiles of the scattering characteristics of aerosol and cloud particles (backscattering, extinction and depolarization) as well as water vapor profiles within the lower troposphere. Combination of KARL data with data from other instruments on site, namely radiosondes, sun photometer, Micro Pulse LIDAR, and tethersonde system, resulted in a comprehensive data set of scattering phenomena in the Arctic atmosphere. The two spring periods March and April 2007 and 2009 were at first analyzed based on meteorological parameters, like local temperature and relative humidity profiles as well as large scale pressure patterns and air mass origin regions. Here, it was not possible to find a clear correlation between enhanced AOD and air mass origin. However, in a comparison of two cloud free periods in March 2007 and April 2009, large AOD values in 2009 coincided with air mass transport through the central Arctic. This suggests the occurrence of aerosol transformation processes during the aerosol transport to Ny-Ålesund. Measurements on 4 April 2009 revealed maximum AOD values of up to 0.12 and aerosol size distributions changing with altitude. This and other performed case studies suggest the differentiation between three aerosol event types and their origin: Vertically limited aerosol layers in dry air, highly variable hygroscopic boundary layer aerosols and enhanced aerosol load across wide portions of the troposphere. For the spring period 2007, the available KARL data were statistically analyzed using a characterization scheme, which is based on optical characteristics of the scattering particles. The scheme was validated using several case studies. Volcanic eruptions in the northern hemisphere in August 2008 and June 2009 arose the opportunity to analyze volcanic aerosol layers within the stratosphere. The rate of stratospheric AOD change was similar within both years with maximum values above 0.1 about three to five weeks after the respective eruption. In both years, the stratospheric AOD persisted at higher rates than usual until the measurements were stopped in late September due to technical reasons. In 2008, up to three aerosol layers were detected, the layer structure in 2009 was characterized by up to six distinct and thin layers which smeared out to one broad layer after about two months. The lowermost aerosol layer was continuously detected at the tropopause altitude. Three case studies were performed, all revealed rather large indices of refraction of m = (1.53–1.55) - 0.02i, suggesting the presence of an absorbing carbonaceous component. The particle radius, derived with inversion calculations, was also similar in both years with values ranging from 0.16 to 0.19 μm. However, in 2009, a second mode in the size distribution was detected at about 0.5 μm. The long term measurements with the Koldewey Aerosol Raman LIDAR in Ny-Ålesund provide the opportunity to study Arctic aerosols in the troposphere and the stratosphere not only in case studies but on longer time scales. In this PhD thesis, both, tropospheric aerosols in the Arctic spring and stratospheric aerosols following volcanic eruptions have been described qualitatively and quantitatively. Case studies and comparative studies with data of other instruments on site allowed for the analysis of microphysical aerosol characteristics and their temporal evolution.

This Thesis puts its focus on the physics of neutron stars and its description with methods of numerical relativity. In the first step, a new numerical framework the Whisky2D code will be developed, which solves the relativistic equations of hydrodynamics in axisymmetry. Therefore we consider an improved formulation of the conserved form of these equations. The second part will use the new code to investigate the critical behaviour of two colliding neutron stars. Considering the analogy to phase transitions in statistical physics, we will investigate the evolution of the entropy of the neutron stars during the whole process. A better understanding of the evolution of thermodynamical quantities, like the entropy in critical process, should provide deeper understanding of thermodynamics in relativity. More specifically, we have written the Whisky2D code, which solves the general-relativistic hydrodynamics equations in a flux-conservative form and in cylindrical coordinates. This of course brings in 1/r singular terms, where r is the radial cylindrical coordinate, which must be dealt with appropriately. In the above-referenced works, the flux operator is expanded and the 1/r terms, not containing derivatives, are moved to the right-hand-side of the equation (the source term), so that the left hand side assumes a form identical to the one of the three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian formulation. We call this the standard formulation. Another possibility is not to split the flux operator and to redefine the conserved variables, via a multiplication by r. We call this the new formulation. The new equations are solved with the same methods as in the Cartesian case. From a mathematical point of view, one would not expect differences between the two ways of writing the differential operator, but, of course, a difference is present at the numerical level. Our tests show that the new formulation yields results with a global truncation error which is one or more orders of magnitude smaller than those of alternative and commonly used formulations. The second part of the Thesis uses the new code for investigations of critical phenomena in general relativity. In particular, we consider the head-on-collision of two neutron stars in a region of the parameter space where two final states a new stable neutron star or a black hole, lay close to each other. In 1993, Choptuik considered one-parameter families of solutions, S[P], of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations for a massless scalar field in spherical symmetry, such that for every P > P⋆, S[P] contains a black hole and for every P < P⋆, S[P] is a solution not containing singularities. He studied numerically the behavior of S[P] as P → P⋆ and found that the critical solution, S[P⋆], is universal, in the sense that it is approached by all nearly-critical solutions regardless of the particular family of initial data considered. All these phenomena have the common property that, as P approaches P⋆, S[P] approaches a universal solution S[P⋆] and that all the physical quantities of S[P] depend only on |P − P⋆|. The first study of critical phenomena concerning the head-on collision of NSs was carried out by Jin and Suen in 2007. In particular, they considered a series of families of equal-mass NSs, modeled with an ideal-gas EOS, boosted towards each other and varied the mass of the stars, their separation, velocity and the polytropic index in the EOS. In this way they could observe a critical phenomenon of type I near the threshold of black-hole formation, with the putative solution being a nonlinearly oscillating star. In a successive work, they performed similar simulations but considering the head-on collision of Gaussian distributions of matter. Also in this case they found the appearance of type-I critical behaviour, but also performed a perturbative analysis of the initial distributions of matter and of the merged object. Because of the considerable difference found in the eigenfrequencies in the two cases, they concluded that the critical solution does not represent a system near equilibrium and in particular not a perturbed Tolmann-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) solution. In this Thesis we study the dynamics of the head-on collision of two equal-mass NSs using a setup which is as similar as possible to the one considered above. While we confirm that the merged object exhibits a type-I critical behaviour, we also argue against the conclusion that the critical solution cannot be described in terms of equilibrium solution. Indeed, we show that, in analogy with what is found in, the critical solution is effectively a perturbed unstable solution of the TOV equations. Our analysis also considers fine-structure of the scaling relation of type-I critical phenomena and we show that it exhibits oscillations in a similar way to the one studied in the context of scalar-field critical collapse.