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The stress pattern of Iceland

  • Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which is the plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. It is one of the few places on earth where an active spreading centre is located onshore but the stress pattern has not been extensively investigated so far. In this paper we present a comprehensive compilation of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (S-Hmax). In particular we interpret borehole breakouts and drilling induced fractures from borehole image logs in 57 geothermal wells onshore Iceland. The borehole results are combined with other stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanism solutions, geological information and overcoring measurements resulting in a dataset with 495 data records for the S-Hmax orientation. The reliability of each indicator is assessed according to the quality criteria of the World Stress Map project The majority of S-Hmax orientation data records in Iceland is derived from earthquake focal mechanism solutions (35%) and geological fault slip inversions (26%). 20%Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which is the plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. It is one of the few places on earth where an active spreading centre is located onshore but the stress pattern has not been extensively investigated so far. In this paper we present a comprehensive compilation of the orientation of maximum horizontal stress (S-Hmax). In particular we interpret borehole breakouts and drilling induced fractures from borehole image logs in 57 geothermal wells onshore Iceland. The borehole results are combined with other stress indicators including earthquake focal mechanism solutions, geological information and overcoring measurements resulting in a dataset with 495 data records for the S-Hmax orientation. The reliability of each indicator is assessed according to the quality criteria of the World Stress Map project The majority of S-Hmax orientation data records in Iceland is derived from earthquake focal mechanism solutions (35%) and geological fault slip inversions (26%). 20% of the data are borehole related stress indicators. In addition minor shares of S-Hmax orientations are compiled, amongst others, from focal mechanism inversions and the alignment of fissure eruptions. The results show that the S-Hmax orientations derived from different depths and stress indicators are consistent with each other. The resulting pattern of the present-day stress in Iceland has four distinct subsets of S-Hmax orientations. The S-Hmax orientation is parallel to the rift axes in the vicinity of the active spreading regions. It changes from NE-SW in the South to approximately N-S in central Iceland and NNW-SSE in the North. In the Westfjords which is located far away from the ridge the regional S-Hmax rotates and is parallel to the plate motion. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Moritz Ziegler, Mojtaba Rajabi, Oliver Heidbach, Gylfi Pall Hersir, Kristjan Agustsson, Sigurveig Arnadottir, Arno Zang
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.02.008
ISSN:0040-1951
ISSN:1879-3266
Parent Title (English):Tectonophysics : international journal of geotectonics and the geology and physics of the interior of the earth
Publisher:Elsevier
Place of publication:Amsterdam
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2016
Year of Completion:2016
Release Date:2020/03/22
Tag:Borehole image logs; Iceland; Stress field; Stress pattern
Volume:674
Pagenumber:13
First Page:101
Last Page:113
Funder:European Community [608553]
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften
Peer Review:Referiert