Developmental Gains in Physical Fitness Components of Keyage and Older-than-Keyage Third-Graders

  • Children who were enrolled according to legal enrollment dates (i.e., keyage third-graders aged eight to nine years) exhibit a positive linear physical fitness development (Fühner et al., 2021). However, children who were enrolled with a delay of one year or who repeated a grade (i.e., older-than-keyage children [OTK] aged nine to ten years in third grade) appear to exhibit a poorer physical fitness relative to what could be expected given their chronological age (Fühner et al., 2022). However, because Fühner et al. (2022) compared the performance of OTK children to predicted test scores that were extrapolated based on the data of keyage children, the observed physical fitness of these children could either indicate a delayed physical-fitness development or some physiological or psychological changes occurring during the tenth year of life. We investigate four hypotheses about this effect. (H1) OTK children are biologically younger than keyage children. A formula transforming OTK’s chronological age into a proxy for their biologicalChildren who were enrolled according to legal enrollment dates (i.e., keyage third-graders aged eight to nine years) exhibit a positive linear physical fitness development (Fühner et al., 2021). However, children who were enrolled with a delay of one year or who repeated a grade (i.e., older-than-keyage children [OTK] aged nine to ten years in third grade) appear to exhibit a poorer physical fitness relative to what could be expected given their chronological age (Fühner et al., 2022). However, because Fühner et al. (2022) compared the performance of OTK children to predicted test scores that were extrapolated based on the data of keyage children, the observed physical fitness of these children could either indicate a delayed physical-fitness development or some physiological or psychological changes occurring during the tenth year of life. We investigate four hypotheses about this effect. (H1) OTK children are biologically younger than keyage children. A formula transforming OTK’s chronological age into a proxy for their biological age brings some of the observed cross-sectional age-related development in line with the predicted age-related development based on the data of keyage children, but large negative group differences remain. Hypotheses 2 to 4 were tested with a longitudinal assessment. (H2) Physiological changes due to biological maturation or psychological factors cause a stagnation of physical fitness development in the tenth year of life. H2 predicts a decline of performance from third to fourth grade also for keyage children. (H3) OTK children exhibit an age-related (temporary) developmental delay in the tenth year of life, but later catch up to the performance of age-matched keyage children. H3 predicts a larger developmental gain for OTK than for keyage children from third to fourth grade. (H4) OTK children exhibit a sustained physical fitness deficit and do not catch up over time. H4 predicts a positive development for keyage and OTK children, with no greater development for OTK compared to keyage children. The longitudinal study was based on a subset of children from the EMOTIKON project (www.uni-potsdam.de/emotikon). The physical fitness (cardiorespiratory endurance [6-minute-run test], coordination [star-run test], speed [20-m sprint test], lower [standing long jump test] and upper [ball push test] limbs muscle power, and balance [one-legged stance test]) of 1,274 children (1,030 keyage and 244 OTK children) from 32 different schools was tested in third grade and retested one year later in fourth grade. Results: (a) Both keyage and OTK children exhibit a positive longitudinal development from third to fourth grade in all six physical fitness components. (b) There is no evidence for a different longitudinal development of keyage and OTK children. (c) Keyage children (approximately 9.5 years in fourth grade) outperform age-matched OTK children (approximately 9.5 years in third grade) in all six physical fitness components. The results show that the physical fitness of OTK children is indeed impaired and are in support of a sustained difference in physical fitness between the groups of keyage and OTK children (H4).show moreshow less

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Author details:Reinhold KlieglORCiDGND, Paula TeichORCiD, Urs GranacherORCiDGND, Thea Heidi FühnerORCiDGND
URN:urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-opus4-560870
DOI:https://doi.org/10.25932/publishup-56087
Publication type:Conference Proceeding
Language:English
Date of first publication:2022/10/24
Publication year:2022
Publishing institution:Universität Potsdam
Release date:2022/10/24
Tag:Developmental gains; EMOTIKON; Keyage children; Linear Mixed Models; Older-than-keyage children; Physical Fitness; Primary school children
Number of pages:14
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Gewünschte Zitationsform: APA

Kliegl, R., Teich, P., Granacher, U., & Fühner, T. (2022). "Developmental Gains in Physical Fitness Components of Keyage and Older-than-Keyage Third-Graders". 54. Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Sportpsychologie (asp 2022) in Münster, 2022-06-16 (revised 2022-09-09).
Organizational units:Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Strukturbereich Kognitionswissenschaften / Department Sport- und Gesundheitswissenschaften
DDC classification:3 Sozialwissenschaften / 30 Sozialwissenschaften, Soziologie / 300 Sozialwissenschaften
Peer review:Nicht referiert
License (German):License LogoKeine öffentliche Lizenz: Unter Urheberrechtsschutz
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