## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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- Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Dynamik komplexer Systeme (38) (remove)

Observational data of natural systems, as measured in medical measurements are typically quite different from those obtained in laboratories. Due to the peculiarities of these data, wellknown characteristics, such as power spectra or fractal dimension, often do not provide a suitable description. To study such data, we present here some measures of complexity, which are basing on symbolic dynamics. Firstly, a motivation for using symbolic dynamics and measures of complexity in data analysis based on the logistic map is given and next, two applications to medical data are shown. We demonstrate that symbolic dynamics is a useful tool for the risk assessment of patients after myocardial infarction as well as for the evaluation of th e architecture of human cancellous bone.

CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) is a German small satellite mission to study the earth's gravity field, magnetic field and upper atmosphere. Thanks to the good condition of the satellite so far, the planned 5 years mission is extended to year 2009. The satellite provides continuously a large quantity of measurement data for the purpose of Earth study. The measurements of the magnetic field are undertaken by two Fluxgate Magnetometers (vector magnetometer) and one Overhauser Magnetometer (scalar magnetometer) flown on CHAMP. In order to ensure the quality of the data during the whole mission, the calibration of the magnetometers has to be performed routinely in orbit. The scalar magnetometer serves as the magnetic reference and its readings are compared with the readings of the vector magnetometer. The readings of the vector magnetometer are corrected by the parameters that are derived from this comparison, which is called the scalar calibration. In the routine processing, these calibration parameters are updated every 15 days by means of scalar calibration. There are also magnetic effects coming from the satellite which disturb the measurements. Most of them have been characterized during tests before launch. Among them are the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft and fields generated by currents. They are all considered to be constant over the mission life. The 8 years of operation experience allow us to investigate the long-term behaviors of the magnetometers and the satellite systems. According to the investigation, it was found that for example the scale factors of the FGM show obvious long-term changes which can be described by logarithmic functions. The other parameters (offsets and angles between the three components) can be considered constant. If these continuous parameters are applied for the FGM data processing, the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings is limited to \pm1nT over the whole mission. This demonstrates, the magnetometers on CHAMP exhibit a very good stability. However, the daily correction of the parameter Z component offset of the FGM improves the agreement between the magnetometers markedly. The Z component offset plays a very important role for the data quality. It exhibits a linear relationship with the standard deviation of the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings. After Z offset correction, the errors are limited to \pm0.5nT (equivalent to a standard deviation of 0.2nT). We improved the corrections of the spacecraft field which are not taken into account in the routine processing. Such disturbance field, e.g. from the power supply system of the satellite, show some systematic errors in the FGM data and are misinterpreted in 9-parameter calibration, which brings false local time related variation of the calibration parameters. These corrections are made by applying a mathematical model to the measured currents. This non-linear model is derived from an inversion technique. If the disturbance field of the satellite body are fully corrected, the standard deviation of scalar error \triangle B remains about 0.1nT. Additionally, in order to keep the OVM readings a reliable standard, the imperfect coefficients of the torquer current correction for the OVM are redetermined by solving a minimization problem. The temporal variation of the spacecraft remanent field is investigated. It was found that the average magnetic moment of the magneto-torquers reflects well the moment of the satellite. This allows for a continuous correction of the spacecraft field. The reasons for the possible unknown systemic error are discussed in this thesis. Particularly, both temperature uncertainties and time errors have influence on the FGM data. Based on the results of this thesis the data processing of future magnetic missions can be designed in an improved way. In particular, the upcoming ESA mission Swarm can take advantage of our findings and provide all the auxiliary measurements needed for a proper recovery of the ambient magnetic field.

Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Experiment 3 Data 4 Symbolic dynamics 4.1 Symbolic dynamics as a tool for data analysis 4.2 2-symbols coding 4.3 3-symbols coding 5 Measures of complexity 5.1 Word statistics 5.2 Shannon entropy 6 Testing for stationarity 6.1 Stationarity 6.2 Time series of cycle durations 6.3 Chi-square test 7 Control parameters in the production of rhythms 8 Analysis of relative phases 9 Discussion 10 Outlook

A numerical bifurcation analysis of the electrically driven plane sheet pinch is presented. The electrical conductivity varies across the sheet such as to allow instability of the quiescent basic state at some critical Hartmann number. The most unstable perturbation is the two-dimensional tearing mode. Restricting the whole problem to two spatial dimensions, this mode is followed up to a time-asymptotic steady state, which proves to be sensitive to three-dimensional perturbations even close to the point where the primary instability sets in. A comprehensive three-dimensional stability analysis of the two-dimensional steady tearing-mode state is performed by varying parameters of the sheet pinch. The instability with respect to three-dimensional perturbations is suppressed by a sufficiently strong magnetic field in the invariant direction of the equilibrium. For a special choice of the system parameters, the unstably perturbed state is followed up in its nonlinear evolution and is found to approach a three-dimensional steady state.

We investigate numerically the appearance of heteroclinic behavior in a three-dimensional, buoyancy-driven fluid layer with stress-free top and bottom boundaries, a square horizontal periodicity with a small aspect ratio, and rotation at low to moderate rates about a vertical axis. The Prandtl number is 6.8. If the rotation is not too slow, the skewed-varicose instability leads from stationary rolls to a stationary mixed-mode solution, which in turn loses stability to a heteroclinic cycle formed by unstable roll states and connections between them. The unstable eigenvectors of these roll states are also of the skewed-varicose or mixed-mode type and in some parameter regions skewed-varicose like shearing oscillations as well as square patterns are involved in the cycle. Always present weak noise leads to irregular horizontal translations of the convection pattern and makes the dynamics chaotic, which is verified by calculating Lyapunov exponents. In the nonrotating case, the primary rolls lose, depending on the aspect ratio, stability to traveling waves or a stationary square pattern. We also study the symmetries of the solutions at the intermittent fixed points in the heteroclinic cycle.

The nonlinear interaction of waves excited by the modified two-stream instability (Farley-Buneman instability) is considered. It is found that, during the linear stage of wave growth, the enhanced pressure of the high-frequency part of the waves locally generates a ponderomotive force. This force acts on the plasma particles and redistributes them. Thus an additional electrostatic polarization field occurs, which influences the low-frequency part of the waves. Then, the low-frequency waves also cause a redistribution of the high-frequency waves. In the paper, a self-consistent system of equations is obtained, which describes the nonlinear interaction of the waves. It is shown that the considered mechanism of wave interaction causes a nonlinear stabilization of the high-frequency waves’ growth and a formation of local density structures of the charged particles. The density modifications of the charged particles during the non-linear stage of wave growth and the possible interval of aspect angles of the high-frequency waves are estimated.

The aim of this paper is to describe an efficient strategy for descritizing ill-posed linear operator equations of the first kind: we consider Tikhonov-Phillips-regularization χ^δ α = (a * a + α I)^-1 A * y ^δ with a finite dimensional approximation A n instead of A. We propose a sparse matrix structure which still leads to optimal convergences rates but requires substantially less scalar products for computing A n compared with standard methods.

We have numerically studied the bifurcations and transition to chaos in a two-dimensional fluid for varying values of the Reynolds number. These investigations have been motivated by experiments in fluids, where an array of vortices was driven by an electromotive force. In these experiments, successive changes leading to a complex motion of the vortices, due to increased forcing, have been explored [Tabeling, Perrin, and Fauve, J. Fluid Mech. 213, 511 (1990)]. We model this experiment by means of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a special external forcing, driving a linear chain of eight counter-rotating vortices, imposing stress-free boundary conditions in the vertical direction and periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction. As the strength of the forcing or the Reynolds number is raised, the original stationary vortex array becomes unstable and a complex sequence of bifurcations is observed. Several steady states and periodic branches and a period doubling cascade appear on the route to chaos. For increasing values of the Reynolds number, shear flow develops, for which the spatial scale is large compared to the scale of the forcing. Furthermore, we have investigated the influence of the aspect ratio of the container as well as the effect of no-slip boundary conditions at the top and bottom, on the bifurcation scenario.

This paper deals with the electrical conductivity problem in geophysics. It is formulated as an elliptic boundary value problem of second order for a large class of bounded and unbounded domains. A special boundary condition, the so called "Complete Electrode Model", is used. Poincaré inequalities are formulated and proved in the context of weighted Sobolev spaces, leading to existence and uniqueness statements for the boundary value problem. In addition, a parameter-to-solution operator arising from the inverse conductivity problem in medicine (EIT) and geophysics is investigated mathematically and is shown to be smooth and analytic.

The stability of the quiescent ground state of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting fluid sheet, bounded by stress-free parallel planes and driven by an external electric field tangential to the boundaries, is studied numerically. The electrical conductivity varies as cosh–2(x1/a), where x1 is the cross-sheet coordinate and a is the half width of a current layer centered about the midplane of the sheet. For a <~ 0.4L, where L is the distance between the boundary planes, the ground state is unstable to disturbances whose wavelengths parallel to the sheet lie between lower and upper bounds depending on the value of a and on the Hartmann number. Asymmetry of the configuration with respect to the midplane of the sheet, modelled by the addition of an externally imposed constant magnetic field to a symmetric equilibrium field, acts as a stabilizing factor.