## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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The dynamics and bifurcations of convective waves in rotating and buoyancy-driven spherical Rayleigh-Benard convection are investigated numerically. The solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced by means of path-following methods, by varying the Rayleigh number as a control parameter for different rotation rates. The dependence of the azimuthal drift frequency of the RWs on the Ekman and Rayleigh numbers is determined and discussed. The influence of the rotation rate on the generation and stability of secondary branches is demonstrated. Multistability is typical in the parameter range considered.

Context. Extrapolations of solar photospheric vector magnetograms into three-dimensional magnetic fields in the chromosphere and corona are usually done under the assumption that the fields are force-free. This condition is violated in the photosphere itself and a thin layer in the lower atmosphere above. The field calculations can be improved by preprocessing the photospheric magnetograms. The intention here is to remove a non-force-free component from the data.
Aims. We compare two preprocessing methods presently in use, namely the methods of Wiegelmann et al. (2006, Sol. Phys., 233, 215) and Fuhrmann et al. (2007, A&A, 476, 349).
Methods. The two preprocessing methods were applied to a vector magnetogram of the recently observed active region NOAA AR 10 953. We examine the changes in the magnetogram effected by the two preprocessing algorithms. Furthermore, the original magnetogram and the two preprocessed magnetograms were each used as input data for nonlinear force-free field extrapolations by means of two different methods, and we analyze the resulting fields.
Results. Both preprocessing methods managed to significantly decrease the magnetic forces and magnetic torques that act through the magnetogram area and that can cause incompatibilities with the assumption of force-freeness in the solution domain. The force and torque decrease is stronger for the Fuhrmann et al. method. Both methods also reduced the amount of small-scale irregularities in the observed photospheric field, which can sharply worsen the quality of the solutions. For the chosen parameter set, the Wiegelmann et al. method led to greater changes in strong-field areas, leaving weak-field areas mostly unchanged, and thus providing an approximation of the magnetic field vector in the chromosphere, while the Fuhrmann et al. method weakly changed the whole magnetogram, thereby better preserving patterns present in the original magnetogram. Both preprocessing methods raised the magnetic energy content of the extrapolated fields to values above the minimum energy, corresponding to the potential field. Also, the fields calculated from the preprocessed magnetograms fulfill the solenoidal condition better than those calculated without preprocessing.

The multiplicity of stable convection patterns in a rotating spherical fluid shell heated from the inner boundary and driven by a central gravity field is presented. These solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced for varying Rayleigh number while their symmetry, stability, and bifurcations are studied. At increased Rayleigh numbers all the RWs undergo transitions to modulated rotating waves (MRWs) which are classified by their spatiotemporal symmetry. The generation of a third frequency for some of the MRWs is accompanied by a further loss of symmetry. Eventually a variety of MRWs, three-frequency solutions, and chaotic saddles and attractors control the dynamics for higher Rayleigh numbers.

We study a transition to hyperchaos in the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and an external forcing term. Bifurcation diagrams are constructed by varying the Reynolds number, and a transition to hyperchaos (HC) is identified. Before the onset of HC, there is coexistence of two chaotic attractors and a hyperchaotic saddle. After the transition to HC, the two chaotic attractors merge with the hyperchaotic saddle, generating random switching between chaos and hyperchaos, which is responsible for intermittent bursts in the time series of energy and enstrophy. The chaotic mixing properties of the flow are characterized by detecting Lagrangian coherent structures. After the transition to HC, the flow displays complex Lagrangian patterns and an increase in the level of Lagrangian chaoticity during the bursty periods that can be predicted statistically by the hyperchaotic saddle prior to HC transition.

Context. Reliable measurements of the solar magnetic field are restricted to the phoptosphere. As an alternative to measurements, the field in the higher layers of the atmosphere is calculated from the measured photospheric field, mostly under the assumption that it is force-free. However, the magnetic field in the photosphere is not force-free. Moreover, most methods for the extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field into the higher layers prescribe the magnetic vector on the whole boundary of the considered volume, which overdetermines the force-free field. Finally, the extrapolation methods are very sensitive to small-scale noise in the magnetograph data, which, however, if sufficienly resolved numerically, should affect the solution only in a thin boundary layer close to the photosphere. Aims. A new method for the preprocessing of solar photospheric vector magnetograms has been developed that, by improving their compatibility with the condition of force- freeness and removing small-scale noise, makes them more suitable for extrapolations into three- dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic fields in the chromosphere and corona. Methods. A functional of the photospheric field values is minimized whereby the total magnetic force and the total magnetic torque on the considered volume above the photosphere, as well as a quantity measuring the degree of small-scale noise in the photospheric boundary data, are simultaneously made small. For the minimization, the method of simulated annealing is used and the smoothing of noisy magnetograph data is attained by windowed median averaging. Results. The method was applied to a magnetogram derived from a known nonlinear force-free test field to which an artificial noise had been added. The algorithm recovered all main structures of the magnetogram and removed small- scale noise. The main test was to extrapolate from the noisy photospheric vector magnetogram before and after the preprocessing. The preprocessing was found to significantly improve the agreement of the extrapolated with the exact field.

We investigate the dynamo effect in a flow configuration introduced by G. O. Roberts in 1972. Based on a clear energetic hierarchy of Fourier components on the steady-state dynamo branch, an approximate model of interacting modes is constructed covering all essential features of the complete system but allowing simulations with a minimum amount of computation time. We use this model to study the excitation mechanism of the dynamo, the transition from stationary to time-dependent dynamo solutions and the characteristic properties of the latter ones.