## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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We analyse mobile-immobile transport of particles that switch between the mobile and immobile phases with finite rates. Despite this seemingly simple assumption of Poissonian switching, we unveil a rich transport dynamics including significant transient anomalous diffusion and non-Gaussian displacement distributions. Our discussion is based on experimental parameters for tau proteins in neuronal cells, but the results obtained here are expected to be of relevance for a broad class of processes in complex systems. Specifically, we obtain that, when the mean binding time is significantly longer than the mean mobile time, transient anomalous diffusion is observed at short and intermediate time scales, with a strong dependence on the fraction of initially mobile and immobile particles. We unveil a Laplace distribution of particle displacements at relevant intermediate time scales. For any initial fraction of mobile particles, the respective mean squared displacement (MSD) displays a plateau. Moreover, we demonstrate a short-time cubic time dependence of the MSD for immobile tracers when initially all particles are immobile.

Modelling of an open quantum system requires knowledge of parameters that specify how it couples to its environment. However, beyond relaxation rates, realistic parameters for specific environments and materials are rarely known. Here we present a method of inferring the coupling between a generic system and its bosonic (e.g., phononic) environment from the experimentally measurable density of states (DOS). With it we confirm that the DOS of the well-known Debye model for three-dimensional solids is physically equivalent to choosing an Ohmic bath. We further match a real phonon DOS to a series of Lorentzian coupling functions, allowing us to determine coupling parameters for gold, yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron as examples. The results illustrate how to obtain material-specific dynamical properties, such as memory kernels. The proposed method opens the door to more accurate modelling of relaxation dynamics, for example for phonon-dominated spin damping in magnetic materials.

Transit observations in the helium triplet around 10 830 Angstrom are a successful tool to study exoplanetary atmospheres and their mass loss. Forming those lines requires ionization and recombination of helium in the exoplanetary atmosphere. This ionization is caused by stellar photons at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths; however, no currently active telescopes can observe this part of the stellar spectrum. The relevant part of the stellar EUV spectrum consists of individual emission lines, many of them being formed by iron at coronal temperatures. The stellar iron abundance in the corona is often observed to be depleted for high-activity low-mass stars due to the first ionization potential (FIP) effect. I show that stars with high versus low coronal iron abundances follow different scaling laws that tie together their X-ray emission and the narrow-band EUV flux that causes helium ionization. I also show that the stellar iron to oxygen abundance ratio in the corona can be measured reasonably well from X-ray CCD spectra, yielding similar results to high-resolution X-ray observations. Taking coronal iron abundance into account, the currently observed large scatter in the relationship of EUV irradiation with exoplanetary helium transit depths can be reduced, improving the target selection criteria for exoplanet transmission spectroscopy. In particular, previously puzzling non-detections of helium for Neptunic exoplanets are now in line with expectations from the revised scaling laws.

Context
Line-driven wind instability is expected to cause small-scale wind inhomogeneities, X-ray emission, and wind line profile variability. The instability can already develop around the sonic point if it is initiated close to the photosphere due to stochastic turbulent motions. In such cases, it may leave its imprint on the light curve as a result of wind blanketing.
Aims
We study the photometric signatures of the line-driven wind instability.
Methods
We used line-driven wind instability simulations to determine the wind variability close to the star. We applied two types of boundary perturbations: a sinusoidal one that enables us to study in detail the development of the instability and a stochastic one given by a Langevin process that provides a more realistic boundary perturbation. We estimated the photometric variability from the resulting mass-flux variations. The variability was simulated assuming that the wind consists of a large number of independent conical wind sectors. We compared the simulated light curves with TESS light curves of OB stars that show stochastic variability.
Results
We find two typical signatures of line-driven wind instability in photometric data: a knee in the power spectrum of magnitude fluctuations, which appears due to engulfment of small-scale structure by larger structures, and a negative skewness of the distribution of fluctuations, which is the result of spatial dominance of rarefied regions. These features endure even when combining the light curves from independent wind sectors.
Conclusions
The stochastic photometric variability of OB stars bears certain signatures of the line-driven wind instability. The distribution function of observed photometric data shows negative skewness and the power spectra of a fraction of light curves exhibit a knee. This can be explained as a result of the line-driven wind instability triggered by stochastic base perturbations.

We study the first passage dynamics for a diffusing particle experiencing a spatially varying diffusion coefficient while driven by correlated additive Gaussian white noise and multiplicative coloured non-Gaussian noise. We consider three functional forms for position dependence of the diffusion coefficient: power-law, exponential, and logarithmic. The coloured non-Gaussian noise is distributed according to Tsallis' q-distribution. Tracks of the non-Markovian systems are numerically simulated by using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm and the first passage times (FPTs) are recorded. The FPT density is determined along with the mean FPT (MFPT). Effects of the noise intensity and self-correlation of the multiplicative noise, the intensity of the additive noise, the cross-correlation strength, and the non-extensivity parameter on the MFPT are discussed.

Meter-sized ground-based telescopes are frequently used today for the follow-up of extrasolar planet candidates. While the transit signal of a Jupiter-sized object can typically be detected to a high level of confidence with small telescope apertures as well, the shallow transit dips of planets with the size of Neptune and smaller are more challenging to reveal. We employ new observational data to illustrate the photometric follow-up capabilities of meter-sized telescopes for shallow exoplanet transits. We describe in detail the capability of distinguishing the photometric signal of an exoplanet transit from an underlying trend in the light curve. The transit depths of the six targets we observed, Kepler-94b, Kepler-63b, K2-100b, K2-138b, K2-138c, and K2-138e, range from 3.9 ppt down to 0.3 ppt. For five targets of this sample, we provide the first ground-based photometric follow-up. The timing of three targets is precisely known from previous observations, and the timing of the other three targets is uncertain and we aim to constrain it. We detect or rule out the transit features significantly in single observations for the targets that show transits of 1.3 ppt or deeper. The shallower transit depths of two targets of 0.6 and 0.8 ppt were detected tentatively in single light curves, and were detected significantly by repeated observations. Only for the target of the shallowest transit depth of 0.3 ppt were we unable to draw a significant conclusion despite combining five individual light curves. An injection-recovery test on our real data shows that we detect transits of 1.3 ppt depth significantly in single light curves if the transit is fully covered, including out-of-transit data toward both sides, in some cases down to 0.7 ppt depth. For Kepler-94b, Kepler-63b, and K2-100b, we were able to verify the ephemeris. In the case of K2-138c with a 0.6 ppt deep transit, we were able to refine it, and in the case of K2-138e, we ruled out the transit in the time interval of more than ±1.5 σ of its current literature ephemeris.

State-of-the-art organic solar cells exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 18% and above. These devices benefit from the suppression of free charge recombination with regard to the Langevin limit of charge encounter in a homogeneous medium. It is recognized that the main cause of suppressed free charge recombination is the reformation and resplitting of charge-transfer (CT) states at the interface between donor and acceptor domains. Here, we use kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to understand the interplay between free charge motion and recombination in an energetically disordered phase-separated donor-acceptor blend. We identify conditions for encounter-dominated and resplitting-dominated recombination. In the former regime, recombination is proportional to mobility for all parameters tested and only slightly reduced with respect to the Langevin limit. In contrast, mobility is not the decisive parameter that determines the nongeminate recombination coefficient, k(2), in the latter case, where k2 is a sole function of the morphology, CT and charge-separated (CS) energetics, and CT-state decay properties. Our simulations also show that free charge encounter in the phase-separated disordered blend is determined by the average mobility of all carriers, while CT reformation and resplitting involves mostly states near the transport energy. Therefore, charge encounter is more affected by increased disorder than the resplitting of the CT state. As a consequence, for a given mobility, larger energetic disorder, in combination with a higher hopping rate, is preferred. These findings have implications for the understanding of suppressed recombination in solar cells with nonfullerene acceptors, which are known to exhibit lower energetic disorder than that of fullerenes.

It has been experimentally demonstrated that reaction rates for molecules embedded in microfluidic optical cavities are altered when compared to rates observed under "ordinary" reaction conditions. However, precise mechanisms of how strong coupling of an optical cavity mode to molecular vibrations affects the reactivity and how resonance behavior emerges are still under dispute. In the present work, we approach these mechanistic issues from the perspective of a thermal model reaction, the inversion of ammonia along the umbrella mode, in the presence of a single-cavity mode of varying frequency and coupling strength. A topological analysis of the related cavity Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface in combination with quantum mechanical and transition state theory rate calculations reveals two quantum effects, leading to decelerated reaction rates in qualitative agreement with experiments: the stiffening of quantized modes perpendicular to the reaction path at the transition state, which reduces the number of thermally accessible reaction channels, and the broadening of the barrier region, which attenuates tunneling. We find these two effects to be very robust in a fluctuating environment, causing statistical variations of potential parameters, such as the barrier height. Furthermore, by solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in the vibrational strong coupling regime, we identify a resonance behavior, in qualitative agreement with experimental and earlier theoretical work. The latter manifests as reduced reaction probability when the cavity frequency omega(c) is tuned resonant to a molecular reactant frequency. We find this effect to be based on the dynamical localization of the vibro-polaritonic wavepacket in the reactant well.

Tailoring the secondary surface morphology of electro-spun nanofibers has been highly desired, as such delicate structures equip nanofibers with distinct functions. Here, we report a simple strategy to directly reconstruct the surface of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) nanofibers by water evaporation. The roughness and diameter of the nanofibers depend on the temperature during vacuum drying. Surface changes of the nanofibers from smooth to rough were observed at 55 degrees C, with a significant drop in nanofiber diameter. We attribute the formation of the secondary surface morphology to the intermolecular forces in the water vapor, including capillary and the compression forces, on the basis of the results from the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The strategy is universally effective for various electro-spun polymer nanofibers, thus opening up avenues toward more detailed and sophisticated structure design and implementation for nanofibers.

We formulate a linear phase and frequency response theory for hyperbolic flows, which generalizes phase response theory for autonomous limit cycle oscillators to hyperbolic chaotic dynamics. The theory is based on a shadowing conjecture, stating the existence of a perturbed trajectory shadowing every unperturbed trajectory on the system attractor for any small enough perturbation of arbitrary duration and a corresponding unique time isomorphism, which we identify as phase such that phase shifts between the unperturbed trajectory and its perturbed shadow are well defined. The phase sensitivity function is the solution of an adjoint linear equation and can be used to estimate the average change of phase velocity to small time dependent or independent perturbations. These changes in frequency are experimentally accessible, giving a convenient way to define and measure phase response curves for chaotic oscillators. The shadowing trajectory and the phase can be constructed explicitly in the tangent space of an unperturbed trajectory using co-variant Lyapunov vectors. It can also be used to identify the limits of the regime of linear response.