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Information about the strength of donor–acceptor interactions in push–pull alkenes is valuable, as this so-called “push–pull effect” influences their chemical reactivity and dynamic behaviour. In this paper, we discuss the applicability of NMR spectral data and barriers to rotation around the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond to quantify the push–pull effect in biologically important 2-alkylidene-4-oxothiazolidines. While olefinic proton chemical shifts and differences in 13C NMR chemical shifts of the two carbons constituting the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond fail to give the correct trend in the electron withdrawing ability of the substituents attached to the exocyclic carbon of the double bond, barriers to rotation prove to be a reliable quantity in providing information about the extent of donor–acceptor interactions in the push–pull systems studied. In particular all relevant kinetic data, that is the Arrhenius parameters (apparent activation energy Ea and frequency factor A) and activation parameters (ΔS‡, ΔH‡ and ΔG‡), were determined from the data of the experimentally studied configurational isomerization of (E)-9a. These results were compared to previously published related data for other two compounds, (Z)-1b and (2E,5Z)-7, showing that experimentally determined ΔG‡ values are a good indicator of the strength of push–pull character. Theoretical calculations of the rotational barriers of eight selected derivatives excellently correlate with the calculated C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond lengths and corroborate the applicability of ΔG‡ for estimation of the strength of the push–pull effect in these and related systems.

Chiral dopants were obtained by acylation of enantiomerically pure ephedrine and pseudoephedrine with promesogenic carbonyl reagents. The products have been investigated with respect to their chiral transfer ability on nematic host matrices characterized by extreme differences of the dielectric anisotropy. It has been found that the medium dependence of the helicity induction nearly disappears at reduced temperatures. Based on variable temperature H-1 NMR studies on monoacylated homologues, the estimated coalescence temperatures and free activation enthalpies for the hindered rotation around C-N bonds could be correlated with the helical twisting power. Measurements by dielectric spectroscopy reveal the correlation between the molar mass of substituents linked to the chiral building block and the dynamic glass transition of corresponding chiral dopants. Furthermore, the effect of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds has been studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

Are para-nitro-pyridine N-oxides quinonoid or benzenoid? An answer given by spatial NICS (TSNMRS)
(2015)

The spatial magnetic properties (Through-Space NMR Shieldings-TSNMRS) of a number of substituted para-nitro-pyridine N-oxides have been computed, visualized as Iso-Chemical-Shielding-Surfaces (ICSS) of various size and direction, and were examined subject to the present quinonoid or benzenoid pi-relectron distribution of the six-membered ring. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The complete H-1 and C-13 NMR chemical shifts assignment for various 2-substituted and 2,2-disubstituted adamantane derivatives 1-38 in CDCl3 solution was realized on the basis of NMR experiments combined with chemical structure information and DFT-GIAO (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)-GIAO) calculations of chemical shifts in solution. Substituent-induced C-13 NMR chemical shifts (SCS) are discussed. C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts are a textbook prototype of steric hindrance in organic chemistry. The nature of these contacts will be further investigated in this work on basis of new adamantane derivatives, which are substituted at C-2 to provide models for 1,4-C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax and 1,5-C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts. The B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations predicted the presence of NBO hyperconjugative attractive interactions between C-H-ax and Y-ax groups along C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contacts. The H-1 NMR signal separation, Delta delta(gamma-CH2), reflects the strength of the H-bonded C-H-ax center dot center dot center dot Y-ax contact. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The spatial magnetic properties (through Space NAIR shieldings, TSNMRSs) of cyclopropane; of the heteroanalogous oxirane, thiirane, and aziridine; and of various substituted dis-, and tris-cyclic analogues have been computed by the GIAO perturbation method employing the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) concept and visualized as iso-chemical-shielding surfaces (ICSSs) of various size and direction. The TSNMRS values, thus obtained, can be employed to visualize the anisotropy (ring current) effect of I the cyclopropane ring moiety. This approach has been employed to qualify and quantify substituent influences and contributions of appropriate ring heteroatoms O, NH, and S on the anisotropy (ring current) effect of three-mernbered ring moieties, and to assign the stereochemistry of mono-, bis-, and tris cyclic structures containing cyclopropane as a structural element. Characteristic examples are included.

The molecular structure and conformational behavior of 3-methyl-3-phenyl-3-silatetrahydropyran 1 was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED-MS), low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy (LT NMR) and theoretical calculations. The 1-Ph-eq and 1-Ph-ax conformers were located on the potential energy surface. Rotation about the Si-C-ph bond revealed the phenyl ring orthogonal to the averaged plane of the silatetrahydropyran ring for 1-Ph-eq and a twisted orientation for 1-Ph-ax. Theoretical calculations and GED analysis indicate the predominance of 1-Ph-ax in the gas phase with the ratio of conformers (GED) 1-Ph-eq:1-Ph-ax=38:62 (Delta G degrees(307)=-0.29 kcal/mol). In solution, LT NMR spectroscopy gives almost the opposite ratio Ph-eq:1-Ph-ax=68:32 (Delta G degrees(103)=0.16 kcal/mol). Simulation of solvent effects using the PCM continuum model or by calculation of the solvent-solute complexes allowed us to rationalize the experimentally observed opposite conformational predominance of the conformers of compound 1 in the gas phase and in solution. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Characterization and quantification of quasi-aromaticity by spatial magnetic properties (TSNMRS)
(2015)

The spatial magnetic properties (Through Space NMR Shieldings-TSNMRS) of various types of structures with suggested quasi-aromaticity (a summaring topic: in detail push pull, captodative, chelate, supramolecular aromaticity, etc.) have been computed, are visualized as Isochemical Shielding Surfaces (ICSS) of various size/direction and examined subject to identify and quantify present (partial) aromaticity. While the TSNMRS approach proves really helpful [even in cases of (4n+2) pi-electron cyclic moieties formed via non-covalent polar interactions] quasi-aromaticity suggested for enol forms of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds via resonance-assisted intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding cannot be confirmed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Molecular structure and conformational behavior of 3-isopropoxy-3-methyl-3-oxasilinane is studied by low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers, 1-ROax and 1-ROeq, were found experimentally and located on the potential energy surface. LT C-13 NMR spectroscopy gives almost equal population of the two conformers at 98 K with Delta G(98K)degrees=0.02 kcal/mol in favor of 1-ROax and Delta G(98K)(#)=4.5 kcal/mol. The corresponding DFT calculated values (Delta G(98K)degrees=0.03 kcal/mol, Delta G(98K)(#)=5.1 kcal/mol) are in excellent agreement with the experiment. Detailed DFT and MP2 calculations of the solvent effect on the conformational equilibrium were performed and highlighted the leveling out of the two conformers when transferred from gas to solution. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

3-Methyl-3-silatetrahydropyran 1 was synthesized and its molecular structure and conformational behavior was studied by gas-phase electron diffraction (GED), FTIR, low temperature H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopy, and by theoretical calculations (DFT, MP2). Two conformers; 1-ax and 1-eq; were located on the potential energy Surface. In the gas phase; a slight predominance of the axial conformer was determined, with the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 54(9):46(9) (from GED) or 53:47 or 61;39 (from IR). In solution, LT NMR spectroscopy at 103 K gives the ratio 1-ax:1-eq = 35:65 (-Delta G(103)degrees = 0.13 kcal/mol). Simulation of solvent effects using the PCM continuum model or by calculation of the corresponding solvent-solute complexes allowed us to rationalize the experimentally observed opposite conformational predominance of the conformers of 3-methyl-3-silatettahydropyran in the gas phase and in solution. Comparative analysis of the effect of heteroatom in 1-hetero-3-methyl-3-silacyclohexanes on the structure, stereoelectronic interactions, and relative energies of the conformers is done.

As a part of searching for fully aromatic chelate compounds, copper complexes of malondialdehyde as well as its sulfur and selenium derivatives were investigated using the DFT quantum chemical methods. Chelate complexes of both Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions wereconsidered. Aromaticity of the metal complexes studied were analyzed using NICS(0), NICS(1), PDI, I-ring, MCI, ICMCI and I-B aromaticity indices, and by TSNMRS visualizations of the spatial magnetic properties. It seems that partial aromaticityof studied chelates increases when oxygen atoms in malondialdehyde are replaced by sulfur and selenium.