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This article assesses the distance between the laws of stochastic differential equations with multiplicative Lévy noise on path space in terms of their characteristics. The notion of transportation distance on the set of Lévy kernels introduced by Kosenkova and Kulik yields a natural and statistically tractable upper bound on the noise sensitivity. This extends recent results for the additive case in terms of coupling distances to the multiplicative case. The strength of this notion is shown in a statistical implementation for simulations and the example of a benchmark time series in paleoclimate.

When trying to extend the Hodge theory for elliptic complexes on compact closed manifolds to the case of compact manifolds with boundary one is led to a boundary value problem for
the Laplacian of the complex which is usually referred to as Neumann problem. We study the Neumann problem for a larger class of sequences of differential operators on
a compact manifold with boundary. These are sequences of small curvature, i.e., bearing the property that the composition of any two neighbouring operators has order less than two.

The main results of this thesis are formulated in a class of surfaces (varifolds) generalizing closed and connected smooth submanifolds of Euclidean space which allows singularities. Given an indecomposable varifold with dimension at least two in some Euclidean space such that the first variation is locally bounded, the total variation is absolutely continuous with respect to the weight measure, the density of the weight measure is at least one outside a set of weight measure zero and the generalized mean curvature is locally summable to a natural power (dimension of the varifold minus one) with respect to the weight measure. The thesis presents an improved estimate of the set where the lower density is small in terms of the one dimensional Hausdorff measure. Moreover, if the support of the weight measure is compact, then the intrinsic diameter with respect to the support of the weight measure is estimated in terms of the generalized mean curvature. This estimate is in analogy to the diameter control for closed connected manifolds smoothly immersed in some Euclidean space of Peter Topping. Previously, it was not known whether the hypothesis in this thesis implies that two points in the support of the weight measure have finite geodesic distance.

It is "scientific folklore" coming from physical heuristics that solutions to the heat equation on a Riemannian manifold can be represented by a path integral. However, the problem with such path integrals is that they are notoriously ill-defined. One way to make them rigorous (which is often applied in physics) is finite-dimensional approximation, or time-slicing approximation: Given a fine partition of the time interval into small subintervals, one restricts the integration domain to paths that are geodesic on each subinterval of the partition. These finite-dimensional integrals are well-defined, and the (infinite-dimensional) path integral then is defined as the limit of these (suitably normalized) integrals, as the mesh of the partition tends to zero.
In this thesis, we show that indeed, solutions to the heat equation on a general compact Riemannian manifold with boundary are given by such time-slicing path integrals. Here we consider the heat equation for general Laplace type operators, acting on sections of a vector bundle. We also obtain similar results for the heat kernel, although in this case, one has to restrict to metrics satisfying a certain smoothness condition at the boundary. One of the most important manipulations one would like to do with path integrals is taking their asymptotic expansions; in the case of the heat kernel, this is the short time asymptotic expansion. In order to use time-slicing approximation here, one needs the approximation to be uniform in the time parameter. We show that this is possible by giving strong error estimates.
Finally, we apply these results to obtain short time asymptotic expansions of the heat kernel also in degenerate cases (i.e. at the cut locus). Furthermore, our results allow to relate the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel to a formal asymptotic expansion of the infinite-dimensional path integral, which gives relations between geometric quantities on the manifold and on the loop space. In particular, we show that the lowest order term in the asymptotic expansion of the heat kernel is essentially given by the Fredholm determinant of the Hessian of the energy functional. We also investigate how this relates to the zeta-regularized determinant of the Jacobi operator along minimizing geodesics.

We consider a statistical inverse learning problem, where we observe the image of a function f through a linear operator A at i.i.d. random design points X_i, superposed with an additional noise. The distribution of the design points is unknown and can be very general. We analyze simultaneously the direct (estimation of Af) and the inverse (estimation of f) learning problems. In this general framework, we obtain strong and weak minimax optimal rates of convergence (as the number of observations n grows large) for a large class of spectral regularization methods over regularity classes defined through appropriate source conditions. This improves on or completes previous results obtained in related settings. The optimality of the obtained rates is shown not only in the exponent in n but also in the explicit dependence of the constant factor in the variance of the noise and the radius of the source condition set.

We study the interplay between analysis on manifolds with singularities and complex analysis and develop new structures of operators based on the Mellin transform and tools for iterating the calculus for higher singularities. We refer to the idea of interpreting boundary value problems (BVPs) in terms of pseudo-differential operators with a principal symbolic hierarchy, taking into account that BVPs are a source of cone and edge operator algebras. The respective cone and edge pseudo-differential algebras in turn are the starting point of higher corner theories. In addition there are deep relationships between corner operators and complex analysis. This will be illustrated by the Mellin symbolic calculus.

This thesis is focused on the study and the exact simulation of two classes of real-valued Brownian diffusions: multi-skew Brownian motions with constant drift and Brownian diffusions whose drift admits a finite number of jumps.
The skew Brownian motion was introduced in the sixties by Itô and McKean, who constructed it from the reflected Brownian motion, flipping its excursions from the origin with a given probability. Such a process behaves as the original one except at the point 0, which plays the role of a semipermeable barrier. More generally, a skew diffusion with several semipermeable barriers, called multi-skew diffusion, is a diffusion everywhere except when it reaches one of the barriers, where it is partially reflected with a probability depending on that particular barrier. Clearly, a multi-skew diffusion can be characterized either as solution of a stochastic differential equation involving weighted local times (these terms providing the semi-permeability) or by its infinitesimal generator as Markov process.
In this thesis we first obtain a contour integral representation for the transition semigroup of the multiskew Brownian motion with constant drift, based on a fine analysis of its complex properties. Thanks to this representation we write explicitly the transition densities of the two-skew Brownian motion with constant drift as an infinite series involving, in particular, Gaussian functions and their tails.
Then we propose a new useful application of a generalization of the known rejection sampling method. Recall that this basic algorithm allows to sample from a density as soon as one finds an - easy to sample - instrumental density verifying that the ratio between the goal and the instrumental densities is a bounded function. The generalized rejection sampling method allows to sample exactly from densities for which indeed only an approximation is known. The originality of the algorithm lies in the fact that one finally samples directly from the law without any approximation, except the machine's.
As an application, we sample from the transition density of the two-skew Brownian motion with or without constant drift. The instrumental density is the transition density of the Brownian motion with constant drift, and we provide an useful uniform bound for the ratio of the densities. We also present numerical simulations to study the efficiency of the algorithm.
The second aim of this thesis is to develop an exact simulation algorithm for a Brownian diffusion whose drift admits several jumps. In the literature, so far only the case of a continuous drift (resp. of a drift with one finite jump) was treated. The theoretical method we give allows to deal with any finite number of discontinuities. Then we focus on the case of two jumps, using the transition densities of the two-skew Brownian motion obtained before. Various examples are presented and the efficiency of our approach is discussed.

In many statistical applications, the aim is to model the relationship between covariates and some outcomes. A choice of the appropriate model depends on the outcome and the research objectives, such as linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes and the Cox model for time-to-event data. In epidemiological, medical, biological, societal and economic studies, the logistic regression is widely used to describe the relationship between a response variable as binary outcome and explanatory variables as a set of covariates. However, epidemiologic cohort studies are quite expensive regarding data management since following up a large number of individuals takes long time. Therefore, the case-cohort design is applied to reduce cost and time for data collection. The case-cohort sampling collects a small random sample from the entire cohort, which is called subcohort. The advantage of this design is that the covariate and follow-up data are recorded only on the subcohort and all cases (all members of the cohort who develop the event of interest during the follow-up process).
In this thesis, we investigate the estimation in the logistic model for case-cohort design. First, a model with a binary response and a binary covariate is considered. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) is described and its asymptotic properties are established. An estimator for the asymptotic variance of the estimator based on the maximum likelihood approach is proposed; this estimator differs slightly from the estimator introduced by Prentice (1986). Simulation results for several proportions of the subcohort show that the proposed estimator gives lower empirical bias and empirical variance than Prentice's estimator.
Then the MLE in the logistic regression with discrete covariate under case-cohort design is studied. Here the approach of the binary covariate model is extended. Proving asymptotic normality of estimators, standard errors for the estimators can be derived. The simulation study demonstrates the estimation procedure of the logistic regression model with a one-dimensional discrete covariate. Simulation results for several proportions of the subcohort and different choices of the underlying parameters indicate that the estimator developed here performs reasonably well. Moreover, the comparison between theoretical values and simulation results of the asymptotic variance of estimator is presented.
Clearly, the logistic regression is sufficient for the binary outcome refers to be available for all subjects and for a fixed time interval. Nevertheless, in practice, the observations in clinical trials are frequently collected for different time periods and subjects may drop out or relapse from other causes during follow-up. Hence, the logistic regression is not appropriate for incomplete follow-up data; for example, an individual drops out of the study before the end of data collection or an individual has not occurred the event of interest for the duration of the study. These observations are called censored observations. The survival analysis is necessary to solve these problems. Moreover, the time to the occurence of the event of interest is taken into account. The Cox model has been widely used in survival analysis, which can effectively handle the censored data. Cox (1972) proposed the model which is focused on the hazard function. The Cox model is assumed to be
λ(t|x) = λ0(t) exp(β^Tx)
where λ0(t) is an unspecified baseline hazard at time t and X is the vector of covariates, β is a p-dimensional vector of coefficient.
In this thesis, the Cox model is considered under the view point of experimental design. The estimability of the parameter β0 in the Cox model, where β0 denotes the true value of β, and the choice of optimal covariates are investigated. We give new representations of the observed information matrix In(β) and extend results for the Cox model of Andersen and Gill (1982). In this way conditions for the estimability of β0 are formulated. Under some regularity conditions, ∑ is the inverse of the asymptotic variance matrix of the MPLE of β0 in the Cox model and then some properties of the asymptotic variance matrix of the MPLE are highlighted. Based on the results of asymptotic estimability, the calculation of local optimal covariates is considered and shown in examples. In a sensitivity analysis, the efficiency of given covariates is calculated. For neighborhoods of the exponential models, the efficiencies have then been found. It is appeared that for fixed parameters β0, the efficiencies do not change very much for different baseline hazard functions. Some proposals for applicable optimal covariates and a calculation procedure for finding optimal covariates are discussed.
Furthermore, the extension of the Cox model where time-dependent coefficient are allowed, is investigated. In this situation, the maximum local partial likelihood estimator for estimating the coefficient function β(·) is described. Based on this estimator, we formulate a new test procedure for testing, whether a one-dimensional coefficient function β(·) has a prespecified parametric form, say β(·; ϑ). The score function derived from the local constant partial likelihood function at d distinct grid points is considered. It is shown that the distribution of the properly standardized quadratic form of this d-dimensional vector under the null hypothesis tends to a Chi-squared distribution. Moreover, the limit statement remains true when replacing the unknown ϑ0 by the MPLE in the hypothetical model and an asymptotic α-test is given by the quantiles or p-values of the limiting Chi-squared distribution. Finally, we propose a bootstrap version of this test. The bootstrap test is only defined for the special case of testing whether the coefficient function is constant. A simulation study illustrates the behavior of the bootstrap test under the null hypothesis and a special alternative. It gives quite good results for the chosen underlying model.
References
P. K. Andersen and R. D. Gill. Cox's regression model for counting processes: a large samplestudy. Ann. Statist., 10(4):1100{1120, 1982.
D. R. Cox. Regression models and life-tables. J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 34:187{220, 1972.
R. L. Prentice. A case-cohort design for epidemiologic cohort studies and disease prevention trials. Biometrika, 73(1):1{11, 1986.