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We elaborate a boundary Fourier method for studying an analogue of the Hilbert problem for analytic functions within the framework of generalised Cauchy-Riemann equations. The boundary value problem need not satisfy the Shapiro-Lopatinskij condition and so it fails to be Fredholm in Sobolev spaces. We show a solvability condition of the Hilbert problem, which looks like those for ill-posed
problems, and construct an explicit formula for approximate solutions.

We investigate nonlinear problems which appear as Euler-Lagrange equations for a variational problem. They include in particular variational boundary value problems for nonlinear elliptic equations studied by F. Browder in the 1960s. We establish a solvability criterion of such problems and elaborate an efficient orthogonal projection method for constructing approximate solutions.

We study a boundary value problem for an overdetermined elliptic system of nonlinear first order differential equations with linear boundary operators. Such a problem is solvable for a small set of data, and so we pass to its variational formulation which consists in minimising the discrepancy. The Euler-Lagrange equations for the variational problem are far-reaching analogues of the classical Laplace equation. Within the framework of Euler-Lagrange equations we specify an operator on the boundary whose zero set consists precisely of those boundary data for which the initial problem is solvable. The construction of such operator has much in common with that of the familiar Dirichlet to Neumann operator. In the case of linear problems we establish complete results.

We develop the method of Fischer-Riesz equations for general boundary value problems elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg. To this end we reduce them to a boundary problem for a (possibly overdetermined) first order system whose classical symbol has a left inverse. For such a problem there is a uniquely determined boundary value problem which is adjoint to the given one with respect to the Green formula. On using a well elaborated theory of approximation by solutions of the adjoint problem, we find the Cauchy data of solutions of our problem.

We define weak boundary values of solutions to those nonlinear differential equations which appear as Euler-Lagrange equations of variational problems. As a result we initiate the theory of Lagrangian boundary value problems in spaces of appropriate smoothness. We also analyse if the concept of mapping degree of current importance applies to the study of Lagrangian problems.