## 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik

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Business process management aims at capturing, understanding, and improving work in organizations. The central artifacts are process models, which serve different purposes. Detailed process models are used to analyze concrete working procedures, while high-level models show, for instance, handovers between departments. To provide different views on process models, business process model abstraction has emerged. While several approaches have been proposed, a number of abstraction use case that are both relevant for industry and scientifically challenging are yet to be addressed. In this paper we systematically develop, classify, and consolidate different use cases for business process model abstraction. The reported work is based on a study with BPM users in the health insurance sector and validated with a BPM consultancy company and a large BPM vendor. The identified fifteen abstraction use cases reflect the industry demand. The related work on business process model abstraction is evaluated against the use cases, which leads to a research agenda.

Data obtained from foreign data sources often come with only superficial structural information, such as relation names and attribute names. Other types of metadata that are important for effective integration and meaningful querying of such data sets are missing. In particular, relationships among attributes, such as foreign keys, are crucial metadata for understanding the structure of an unknown database. The discovery of such relationships is difficult, because in principle for each pair of attributes in the database each pair of data values must be compared. A precondition for a foreign key is an inclusion dependency (IND) between the key and the foreign key attributes. We present with Spider an algorithm that efficiently finds all INDs in a given relational database. It leverages the sorting facilities of DBMS but performs the actual comparisons outside of the database to save computation. Spider analyzes very large databases up to an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. We also evaluate in detail the effectiveness of several heuristics to reduce the number of necessary comparisons. Furthermore, we generalize Spider to find composite INDs covering multiple attributes, and partial INDs, which are true INDs for all but a certain number of values. This last type is particularly relevant when integrating dirty data as is often the case in the life sciences domain - our driving motivation.

A deterministic cycle scheduling of partitions at the operating system level is supposed for a multiprocessor system. In this paper, we propose a tool for generating such schedules. We use constraint based programming and develop methods and concepts for a combined interactive and automatic partition scheduling system. This paper is also devoted to basic methods and techniques for modeling and solving this partition scheduling problem. Initial application of our partition scheduling tool has proved successful and demonstrated the suitability of the methods used.

In the most abstract definition of its operational semantics, the declarative and concurrent programming language CHR is trivially non-terminating for a significant class of programs. Common refinements of this definition, in closing the gap to real-world implementations, compromise on declarativity and/or concurrency. Building on recent work and the notion of persistent constraints, we introduce an operational semantics avoiding trivial non-termination without compromising on its essential features.

Different properties of programs, implemented in Constraint Handling Rules (CHR), have already been investigated. Proving these properties in CHR is fairly simpler than proving them in any type of imperative programming language, which triggered the proposal of a methodology to map imperative programs into equivalent CHR. The equivalence of both programs implies that if a property is satisfied for one, then it is satisfied for the other. The mapping methodology could be put to other beneficial uses. One such use is the automatic generation of global constraints, at an attempt to demonstrate the benefits of having a rule-based implementation for constraint solvers.

Deductive databases need general formulas in rule bodies, not only conjuctions of literals. This is well known since the work of Lloyd and Topor about extended logic programming. Of course, formulas must be restricted in such a way that they can be effectively evaluated in finite time, and produce only a finite number of new tuples (in each iteration of the TP-operator: the fixpoint can still be infinite). It is also necessary to respect binding restrictions of built-in predicates: many of these predicates can be executed only when certain arguments are ground. Whereas for standard logic programming rules, questions of safety, allowedness, and range-restriction are relatively easy and well understood, the situation for general formulas is a bit more complicated. We give a syntactic analysis of formulas that guarantees the necessary properties.

Abstract interpretation-based model checking provides an approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. In practice, most previous work on abstract model checking is either restricted to verifying universal properties, or develops special techniques for temporal logics such as modal transition systems or other dual transition systems. By contrast we apply completely standard techniques for constructing abstract interpretations to the abstraction of a CTL semantic function, without restricting the kind of properties that can be verified. Furthermore we show that this leads directly to implementation of abstract model checking algorithms for abstract domains based on constraints, making use of an SMT solver.

The interest in extensions of the logic programming paradigm beyond the class of normal logic programs is motivated by the need of an adequate representation and processing of knowledge. One of the most difficult problems in this area is to find an adequate declarative semantics for logic programs. In the present paper a general preference criterion is proposed that selects the ‘intended’ partial models of generalized logic programs which is a conservative extension of the stationary semantics for normal logic programs of [Prz91]. The presented preference criterion defines a partial model of a generalized logic program as intended if it is generated by a stationary chain. It turns out that the stationary generated models coincide with the stationary models on the class of normal logic programs. The general wellfounded semantics of such a program is defined as the set-theoretical intersection of its stationary generated models. For normal logic programs the general wellfounded semantics equals the wellfounded semantics.

We propose a paraconsistent declarative semantics of possibly inconsistent generalized logic programs which allows for arbitrary formulas in the body and in the head of a rule (i.e. does not depend on the presence of any specific connective, such as negation(-as-failure), nor on any specific syntax of rules). For consistent generalized logic programs this semantics coincides with the stable generated models introduced in [HW97], and for normal logic programs it yields the stable models in the sense of [GL88].

We present the tool Kato which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first tool for plagiarism detection that is directly tailored for answer-set programming (ASP). Kato aims at finding similarities between (segments of) logic programs to help detecting cases of plagiarism. Currently, the tool is realised for DLV programs but it is designed to handle various logic-programming syntax versions. We review basic features and the underlying methodology of the tool.