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Conformational preferences of Si-Ph,H and Si-Ph,Me silacyclohexanes and 1,3-thiasilacyclohexanes. Additivity of conformational energies in 1,1-disubstituted heterocyclohexanes

  • The conformational equilibria of 1-phenyl-1-silacyclohexane 1, 3-phenyl-1,3-thiasilacyclohexane 2, 1-methyl-1-phenyl-1-silacyclohexane 3, and 3-methyl-3-phenyl-1,3-thiasilacyclohexane 4 have been studied for the first time by low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy at 103 K. Predominance of the equatorial conformer of compound 1 (Ph-eq/Ph-ax=78%:22%) is much less than in its carbon analog, phenylcyclohexane (nearly 100% of Ph-eq). And in contrast to 1-methyl-1-phenylcyclohexane, the conformers with the equatorial Ph group are predominant for compounds 3 and 4: at 103 K, Ph-eq/Ph-ax ratios are 63%:37% (3) and 68%:32% (4). As the Si-C bonds are elongated with respect to C-C bonds, the barriers to ring inversion are only between 5.2-6.0 (ax -> eq) and 5.4-6.0 (eq -> ax) kcal mol(-1). Parallel calculations at the DFT and MP2 level of theory (as well as the G2 calculations for compound 1) show qualitative agreement with the experiment. The additivity/nonadditivity of conformational energies of substituents on cyclohexane and silacyclohexaneThe conformational equilibria of 1-phenyl-1-silacyclohexane 1, 3-phenyl-1,3-thiasilacyclohexane 2, 1-methyl-1-phenyl-1-silacyclohexane 3, and 3-methyl-3-phenyl-1,3-thiasilacyclohexane 4 have been studied for the first time by low temperature C-13 NMR spectroscopy at 103 K. Predominance of the equatorial conformer of compound 1 (Ph-eq/Ph-ax=78%:22%) is much less than in its carbon analog, phenylcyclohexane (nearly 100% of Ph-eq). And in contrast to 1-methyl-1-phenylcyclohexane, the conformers with the equatorial Ph group are predominant for compounds 3 and 4: at 103 K, Ph-eq/Ph-ax ratios are 63%:37% (3) and 68%:32% (4). As the Si-C bonds are elongated with respect to C-C bonds, the barriers to ring inversion are only between 5.2-6.0 (ax -> eq) and 5.4-6.0 (eq -> ax) kcal mol(-1). Parallel calculations at the DFT and MP2 level of theory (as well as the G2 calculations for compound 1) show qualitative agreement with the experiment. The additivity/nonadditivity of conformational energies of substituents on cyclohexane and silacyclohexane derivatives is analyzed. The geminally disubstituted cyclohexanes containing a phenyl group show large deviations from additivity, whereas in 1-methyl-1-phenyl-1-silacyclohexane and 3-methyl-3-phenyl-1,3-thiasilacyclohexane the effects of the methyl and phenyl groups are almost additive. The reasons for the different conformational preferences in carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds are analyzed using the homodesmotic reactions approach.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Author:Bagrat A. Shainyan, Erich Kleinpeter
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2011.10.082
ISSN:0040-4020 (print)
Parent Title (English):Tetrahedron
Publisher:Elsevier
Place of publication:Oxford
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Year of first Publication:2012
Year of Completion:2012
Release Date:2017/03/26
Tag:Additivity of conformational energies; Conformational analysis; Dynamic NMR; Heterocycles; Theoretical calculations
Volume:68
Issue:1
Pagenumber:12
First Page:114
Last Page:125
Funder:Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR); Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) [11-03-91334]
Organizational units:Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät / Institut für Chemie
Peer Review:Referiert