## NLD Preprints

ISSN (print) 1432-2935

URN urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-series-354

Herausgegeben von

Universität Potsdam, Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Nichtlineare Dynamik

URN urn:nbn:de:kobv:517-series-354

Herausgegeben von

Universität Potsdam, Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Nichtlineare Dynamik

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#### Keywords

- aerosol size distribution (2)
- inversion (2)
- Ill-posed problem (1)
- MHD-equations (1)
- Multiwavelength LIDAR (1)
- Planetary Rings (1)
- SPECT (1)
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#### Institute

66

The statistical analysis of the variations of the dayly-mean frequency of the maximum ionospheric electron density foF2 is performed in connection with the occurrence of (more than 60) earthquakes with magnitudes M > 6.0, depths h < 80 km and distances from the vertical sounding station R < 1000 km. For the study, data of the Tokyo sounding station are used, which were registered every hour in the years 1957-1990. It is shown that, on the average, foF2 decreases before the earthquakes. One day before the shock the decrease amounts to about 5 %. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is obtained to be better than 0.95. Further, the variations of the occurrence probability of the turbulization of the F-layer (F spread) are investigated for (more than 260) earthquakes with M > 5.5, h < 80 km, R < 1000 km. For the analysis, data of the Japanese station Akita from 1969-1990 are used, which were obtained every hour. It is found that before the earthquakes the occurrence probability of F spread decreases. In the week before the event, the decrease has values of more than 10 %. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is also larger than 0.95. Examining the seismo-ionospheric effects, here periods of time with weak heliogeomagnetic disturbances are considered, the Wolf number is less than 100 and the index ∑ Kp is smaller than 30.

65

In the present work, phenomena in the ionosphere are studied, which are connected with earthquakes (16 events) having a depth of less than 50 km and a magnitude M larger than 4. Analysed are night-time Es-spread effects using data of the vertical sounding station Petropavlovsk- Kanchatsky (φ=53.0°, λ=158.7°) from May 2004 until August 2004 registered every 15 minutes. It is found that the maximum distance of the earthquake from the sounding station, where pre-seismic phenomena are yet observable, depends on the magnitude of the earthquake. Further it is shown that 1-2 days before the earthquakes, in the premidnight hours, the appearance of Es-spread increases. The reliability of this increase amounts to 0.95.

64

A model of the generation of pulses of local electric fields with characteristic time scales of 1–10 minutes is considered for atmospheric conditions above fracture regions of earthquakes. In the model, it is proposed that aerosols, increased ionization velocity and upstreaming air flows occur at night-time conditions. The pulses of local electric fields cause respective pulses of infrared emissions. But infrared emissions with time scales of 1–10 minutes were not observed up to now experimentally. The authors think, that the considered non-stationary field and radiation effects might be a new-type of applicable earthquake indicators and ask to perform special earth-based and satellite observations of the night-time atmosphere in seismoactive fracture regions.

62

We numerically investigate nonlinear asymmetric square patterns in a horizontal convection layer with up-down reflection symmetry. As a novel feature we find the patterns to appear via the skewed varicose instability of rolls. The time-independent nonlinear state is generated by two unstable checkerboard (symmetric square) patterns and their nonlinear interaction. As the bouyancy forces increase, the interacting modes give rise to bifurcations leading to a periodic alternation between a nonequilateral hexagonal pattern and the square pattern or to different kinds of standing oscillations.

61

In this paper an analysis of the excitation conditions of mirror waves is done, which propagate parallel to an external magnetic field. There are found analytical expressions for the dispersion relations of the waves in case of different plasma conditions. These relations may be used in future to develop the nonlinear theory of mirror waves. In comparison with former analytical works, in the study the inuence of the magnetic field and nite temperatures of the ions parallel to the magnetic field are taken into account. Application is done for the earth's magnetosheath.

60

Basing on recent solar models, the excitation of ion-acoustic turbulence in the weaklycollisional, fully and partially-ionized regions of the solar atmosphere is investigated. Within the frame of hydrodynamics, conditions are found under which the heating of the plasma by ion-acoustic type waves is more effective than the Joule heating. Taking into account wave and Joule heating effects, a nonlinear differential equation is derived, which describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in the collisional plasma.

59

A numerical MHD model is developed to investigate acceleration and heating of both thermal and auroral plasma. This is done for magnetospheric flux tubes in which intensive field aligned currents flow. To give each of these tubes, the empirical Tsyganenko model of the magnetospheric field is used. The parameters of the background plasma outside the flux tube as well as the strength of the electric field of magnetospheric convection are given. Performing the numerical calculations, the distributions of the plasma densities, velocities, temperatures, parallel electric field and current, and of the coefficients of thermal conductivity are obtained in a self-consistent way. It is found that EIC turbulence develops effectively in the thermal plasma. The parallel electric field develops under the action of the anomalous resistivity. This electric field accelerates both the thermal and the auroral plasma. The thermal turbulent plasma is also subjected to an intensive heating. The increase of the plasma of the Earth's ionosphere. Besides, studying the growth and dispersion properties of oblique ion cyclotron waves excited in a drifting magnetized plasma, it is shown that under non-stationary conditions such waves may reveal the properties of bursts of polarized transverse electromagnetic waves at frequencies near the patron gyrofrequency.

58

This paper deals with the Mie scattering kernels for multi-spectral data. The kernels may be represented in form of power series. Furthermore, the singular-value spectrum and the degree of ill-posedness in dependence on the refractive index of the particles are numerically approximated. A special hybrid regularization technique allows us to determine via inversion the particle distributions of different types.

57

Contents: 1 Introduction 2 Experiment 3 Data 4 Symbolic dynamics 4.1 Symbolic dynamics as a tool for data analysis 4.2 2-symbols coding 4.3 3-symbols coding 5 Measures of complexity 5.1 Word statistics 5.2 Shannon entropy 6 Testing for stationarity 6.1 Stationarity 6.2 Time series of cycle durations 6.3 Chi-square test 7 Control parameters in the production of rhythms 8 Analysis of relative phases 9 Discussion 10 Outlook

56

A numerical bifurcation analysis of the electrically driven plane sheet pinch is presented. The electrical conductivity varies across the sheet such as to allow instability of the quiescent basic state at some critical Hartmann number. The most unstable perturbation is the two-dimensional tearing mode. Restricting the whole problem to two spatial dimensions, this mode is followed up to a time-asymptotic steady state, which proves to be sensitive to three-dimensional perturbations even close to the point where the primary instability sets in. A comprehensive three-dimensional stability analysis of the two-dimensional steady tearing-mode state is performed by varying parameters of the sheet pinch. The instability with respect to three-dimensional perturbations is suppressed by a sufficiently strong magnetic field in the invariant direction of the equilibrium. For a special choice of the system parameters, the unstably perturbed state is followed up in its nonlinear evolution and is found to approach a three-dimensional steady state.