## C Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

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Point processes are a common methodology to model sets of events. From earthquakes to social media posts, from the arrival times of neuronal spikes to the timing of crimes, from stock prices to disease spreading -- these phenomena can be reduced to the occurrences of events concentrated in points. Often, these events happen one after the other defining a time--series.
Models of point processes can be used to deepen our understanding of such events and for classification and prediction. Such models include an underlying random process that generates the events. This work uses Bayesian methodology to infer the underlying generative process from observed data. Our contribution is twofold -- we develop new models and new inference methods for these processes.
We propose a model that extends the family of point processes where the occurrence of an event depends on the previous events. This family is known as Hawkes processes. Whereas in most existing models of such processes, past events are assumed to have only an excitatory effect on future events, we focus on the newly developed nonlinear Hawkes process, where past events could have excitatory and inhibitory effects. After defining the model, we present its inference method and apply it to data from different fields, among others, to neuronal activity.
The second model described in the thesis concerns a specific instance of point processes --- the decision process underlying human gaze control. This process results in a series of fixated locations in an image. We developed a new model to describe this process, motivated by the known Exploration--Exploitation dilemma. Alongside the model, we present a Bayesian inference algorithm to infer the model parameters.
Remaining in the realm of human scene viewing, we identify the lack of best practices for Bayesian inference in this field. We survey four popular algorithms and compare their performances for parameter inference in two scan path models.
The novel models and inference algorithms presented in this dissertation enrich the understanding of point process data and allow us to uncover meaningful insights.

Lie group method in combination with Magnus expansion is utilized to develop a universal method applicable to solving a Sturm–Liouville Problem (SLP) of any order with arbitrary boundary conditions. It is shown that the method has ability to solve direct regular and some singular SLPs of even orders (tested up to order eight), with a mix of boundary conditions (including non-separable and finite singular endpoints), accurately and efficiently.
The present technique is successfully applied to overcome the difficulties in finding suitable sets of eigenvalues so that the inverse SLP problem can be effectively solved.
Next, a concrete implementation to the inverse Sturm–Liouville problem
algorithm proposed by Barcilon (1974) is provided. Furthermore, computational feasibility and applicability of this algorithm to solve inverse Sturm–Liouville problems of order n=2,4 is verified successfully. It is observed that the method is successful even in the presence of significant noise, provided that the assumptions of the algorithm are satisfied.
In conclusion, this work provides methods that can be adapted successfully for solving a direct (regular/singular) or inverse SLP of an arbitrary order with arbitrary boundary conditions.

While patients are known to respond differently to drug therapies, current clinical practice often still follows a standardized dosage regimen for all patients. For drugs with a narrow range of both effective and safe concentrations, this approach may lead to a high incidence of adverse events or subtherapeutic dosing in the presence of high patient variability. Model-informedprecision dosing (MIPD) is a quantitative approach towards dose individualization based on mathematical modeling of dose-response relationships integrating therapeutic drug/biomarker monitoring (TDM) data. MIPD may considerably improve the efficacy and safety of many drug therapies. Current MIPD approaches, however, rely either on pre-calculated dosing tables or on simple point predictions of the therapy outcome. These
approaches lack a quantification of uncertainties and the ability to account for effects that are delayed. In addition, the underlying models are not improved while applied to patient data. Therefore, current approaches are not well suited for informed clinical decision-making based on a differentiated understanding of the individually predicted therapy outcome.
The objective of this thesis is to develop mathematical approaches for MIPD, which (i) provide efficient fully Bayesian forecasting of the individual therapy outcome including associated uncertainties, (ii) integrate Markov decision processes via reinforcement learning (RL) for a comprehensive decision framework for dose individualization, (iii) allow for continuous learning across patients and hospitals. Cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapy with its major dose-limiting toxicity, neutropenia, serves as a therapeutically relevant application example.
For more comprehensive therapy forecasting, we apply Bayesian data assimilation (DA) approaches, integrating patient-specific TDM data into mathematical models of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that build on prior population analyses. The value of uncertainty quantification is demonstrated as it allows reliable computation of the patient-specific probabilities of relevant clinical quantities, e.g., the neutropenia grade. In view of novel home monitoring devices that increase the amount of TDM data available, the data processing of
sequential DA methods proves to be more efficient and facilitates handling of the variability between dosing events.
By transferring concepts from DA and RL we develop novel approaches for MIPD. While DA-guided dosing integrates individualized uncertainties into dose selection, RL-guided dosing provides a framework to consider delayed effects of dose selections. The combined
DA-RL approach takes into account both aspects simultaneously and thus represents a holistic approach towards MIPD. Additionally, we show that RL can be used to gain insights into important patient characteristics for dose selection. The novel dosing strategies substantially reduce the occurrence of both subtherapeutic and life-threatening neutropenia grades in a simulation study based on a recent clinical study (CEPAC-TDM trial) compared to currently used MIPD approaches.
If MIPD is to be implemented in routine clinical practice, a certain model bias with respect to the underlying model is inevitable, as the models are typically based on data from comparably small clinical trials that reflect only to a limited extent the diversity in real-world patient populations. We propose a sequential hierarchical Bayesian inference framework that enables continuous cross-patient learning to learn the underlying model parameters of the target patient population. It is important to note that the approach only requires summary information of the individual patient data to update the model. This separation of the individual inference from population inference enables implementation across different centers of care.
The proposed approaches substantially improve current MIPD approaches, taking into account new trends in health care and aspects of practical applicability. They enable progress towards more informed clinical decision-making, ultimately increasing patient benefits beyond the current practice.

Over millennia, droughts could not be understood or defined but rather were associated with mystical connotations. To understand this natural hazards, we first needed to understand the laws of physics and then develop plausible explanations of inner workings of the hydrological cycle. Consequently, modeling and predicting droughts was out of the scope of mankind until the end of the last century. In recent studies, it is estimated that this natural hazard has caused billions of dollars in losses since 1900 and that droughts have affected 2.2 billion people worldwide between 1950 and 2014.
For these reasons, droughts have been identified by the IPCC as the trigger of a web of impacts across many sectors leading to land degradation, migration and substantial socio-economic costs. This thesis summarizes a decade of research carried out at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research on the subject of drought monitoring, modeling, and forecasting, from local to continental scales. The overarching objectives of this study, systematically addressed in the twelve previous chapters, are: 1) Create the capability to seamless monitor and predict water fluxes at various spatial resolutions and temporal scales varying from days to centuries; 2) Develop and test a modeling chain for monitoring, forecasting and predicting drought events and related characteristics at national and continental scales; and 3) Develop drought indices and impact indicators that are useful for end-users. Key outputs of this study are: the development of the open source model mHM, the German Drought Monitor System, the proof of concept for an European multi-model for improving water managent from local to continental scales, and the prototype of a crop-yield drought impact model for Germany.

One third of the world's population lives in areas where earthquakes causing at least slight damage are frequently expected. Thus, the development and testing of global seismicity models is essential to improving seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-preparedness protocols for effective disaster-risk mitigation. Currently, the availability and quality of geodetic data along plate-boundary regions provides the opportunity to construct global models of plate motion and strain rate, which can be translated into global maps of forecasted seismicity. Moreover, the broad coverage of existing earthquake catalogs facilitates in present-day the calibration and testing of global seismicity models. As a result, modern global seismicity models can integrate two independent factors necessary for physics-based, long-term earthquake forecasting, namely interseismic crustal strain accumulation and sudden lithospheric stress release.
In this dissertation, I present the construction of and testing results for two global ensemble seismicity models, aimed at providing mean rates of shallow (0-70 km) earthquake activity for seismic hazard assessment. These models depend on the Subduction Megathrust Earthquake Rate Forecast (SMERF2), a stationary seismicity approach for subduction zones, based on the conservation of moment principle and the use of regional "geodesy-to-seismicity" parameters, such as corner magnitudes, seismogenic thicknesses and subduction dip angles. Specifically, this interface-earthquake model combines geodetic strain rates with instrumentally-recorded seismicity to compute long-term rates of seismic and geodetic moment. Based on this, I derive analytical solutions for seismic coupling and earthquake activity, which provide this earthquake model with the initial abilities to properly forecast interface seismicity. Then, I integrate SMERF2 interface-seismicity estimates with earthquake computations in non-subduction zones provided by the Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics based on the second iteration of the Global Strain Rate Map seismicity approach to construct the global Tectonic Earthquake Activity Model (TEAM). Thus, TEAM is designed to reduce number, and potentially spatial, earthquake inconsistencies of its predecessor tectonic earthquake model during the 2015-2017 period. Also, I combine this new geodetic-based earthquake approach with a global smoothed-seismicity model to create the World Hybrid Earthquake Estimates based on Likelihood scores (WHEEL) model. This updated hybrid model serves as an alternative earthquake-rate approach to the Global Earthquake Activity Rate model for forecasting long-term rates of shallow seismicity everywhere on Earth.
Global seismicity models provide scientific hypotheses about when and where earthquakes may occur, and how big they might be. Nonetheless, the veracity of these hypotheses can only be either confirmed or rejected after prospective forecast evaluation. Therefore, I finally test the consistency and relative performance of these global seismicity models with independent observations recorded during the 2014-2019 pseudo-prospective evaluation period. As a result, hybrid earthquake models based on both geodesy and seismicity are the most informative seismicity models during the testing time frame, as they obtain higher information scores than their constituent model components. These results support the combination of interseismic strain measurements with earthquake-catalog data for improved seismicity modeling. However, further prospective evaluations are required to more accurately describe the capacities of these global ensemble seismicity models to forecast longer-term earthquake activity.

The plasmasphere is a dynamic region of cold, dense plasma surrounding the Earth. Its shape and size are highly susceptible to variations in solar and geomagnetic conditions. Having an accurate model of plasma density in the plasmasphere is important for GNSS navigation and for predicting hazardous effects of radiation in space on spacecraft. The distribution of cold plasma and its dynamic dependence on solar wind and geomagnetic conditions remain, however, poorly quantified. Existing empirical models of plasma density tend to be oversimplified as they are based on statistical averages over static parameters. Understanding the global dynamics of the plasmasphere using observations from space remains a challenge, as existing density measurements are sparse and limited to locations where satellites can provide in-situ observations. In this dissertation, we demonstrate how such sparse electron density measurements can be used to reconstruct the global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere and capture its dynamic dependence on solar wind and geomagnetic conditions.
First, we develop an automated algorithm to determine the electron density from in-situ measurements of the electric field on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft. In particular, we design a neural network to infer the upper hybrid resonance frequency from the dynamic spectrograms obtained with the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrumentation suite, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. The developed Neural-network-based Upper hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm is applied to more than four years of EMFISIS measurements to produce the publicly available electron density data set.
We utilize the obtained electron density data set to develop a new global model of plasma density by employing a neural network-based modeling approach. In addition to the location, the model takes the time history of geomagnetic indices and location as inputs, and produces electron density in the equatorial plane as an output. It is extensively validated using in-situ density measurements from the Van Allen Probes mission, and also by comparing the predicted global evolution of the plasmasphere with the global IMAGE EUV images of He+ distribution. The model successfully reproduces erosion of the plasmasphere on the night side as well as plume formation and evolution, and agrees well with data.
The performance of neural networks strongly depends on the availability of training data, which is limited during intervals of high geomagnetic activity. In order to provide reliable density predictions during such intervals, we can employ physics-based modeling. We develop a new approach for optimally combining the neural network- and physics-based models of the plasmasphere by means of data assimilation. The developed approach utilizes advantages of both neural network- and physics-based modeling and produces reliable global plasma density reconstructions for quiet, disturbed, and extreme geomagnetic conditions.
Finally, we extend the developed machine learning-based tools and apply them to another important problem in the field of space weather, the prediction of the geomagnetic index Kp. The Kp index is one of the most widely used indicators for space weather alerts and serves as input to various models, such as for the thermosphere, the radiation belts and the plasmasphere. It is therefore crucial to predict the Kp index accurately. Previous work in this area has mostly employed artificial neural networks to nowcast and make short-term predictions of Kp, basing their inferences on the recent history of Kp and solar wind measurements at L1. We analyze how the performance of neural networks compares to other machine learning algorithms for nowcasting and forecasting Kp for up to 12 hours ahead. Additionally, we investigate several machine learning and information theory methods for selecting the optimal inputs to a predictive model of Kp. The developed tools for feature selection can also be applied to other problems in space physics in order to reduce the input dimensionality and identify the most important drivers.
Research outlined in this dissertation clearly demonstrates that machine learning tools can be used to develop empirical models from sparse data and also can be used to understand the underlying physical processes. Combining machine learning, physics-based modeling and data assimilation allows us to develop novel methods benefiting from these different approaches.

In today's world, many applications produce large amounts of data at an enormous rate. Analyzing such datasets for metadata is indispensable for effectively understanding, storing, querying, manipulating, and mining them. Metadata summarizes technical properties of a dataset which rang from basic statistics to complex structures describing data dependencies. One type of dependencies is inclusion dependency (IND), which expresses subset-relationships between attributes of datasets. Therefore, inclusion dependencies are important for many data management applications in terms of data integration, query optimization, schema redesign, or integrity checking. So, the discovery of inclusion dependencies in unknown or legacy datasets is at the core of any data profiling effort.
For exhaustively detecting all INDs in large datasets, we developed S-indd++, a new algorithm that eliminates the shortcomings of existing IND-detection algorithms and significantly outperforms them. S-indd++ is based on a novel concept for the attribute clustering for efficiently deriving INDs. Inferring INDs from our attribute clustering eliminates all redundant operations caused by other algorithms. S-indd++ is also based on a novel partitioning strategy that enables discording a large number of candidates in early phases of the discovering process. Moreover, S-indd++ does not require to fit a partition into the main memory--this is a highly appreciable property in the face of ever-growing datasets. S-indd++ reduces up to 50% of the runtime of the state-of-the-art approach.
None of the approach for discovering INDs is appropriate for the application on dynamic datasets; they can not update the INDs after an update of the dataset without reprocessing it entirely. To this end, we developed the first approach for incrementally updating INDs in frequently changing datasets. We achieved that by reducing the problem of incrementally updating INDs to the incrementally updating the attribute clustering from which all INDs are efficiently derivable. We realized the update of the clusters by designing new operations to be applied to the clusters after every data update. The incremental update of INDs reduces the time of the complete rediscovery by up to 99.999%.
All existing algorithms for discovering n-ary INDs are based on the principle of candidate generation--they generate candidates and test their validity in the given data instance. The major disadvantage of this technique is the exponentially growing number of database accesses in terms of SQL queries required for validation. We devised Mind2, the first approach for discovering n-ary INDs without candidate generation. Mind2 is based on a new mathematical framework developed in this thesis for computing the maximum INDs from which all other n-ary INDs are derivable. The experiments showed that Mind2 is significantly more scalable and effective than hypergraph-based algorithms.

Continuous insight into biological processes has led to the development of large-scale, mechanistic systems biology models of pharmacologically relevant networks. While these models are typically designed to study the impact of diverse stimuli or perturbations on multiple system variables, the focus in pharmacological research is often on a specific input, e.g., the dose of a drug, and a specific output related to the drug effect or response in terms of some surrogate marker.
To study a chosen input-output pair, the complexity of the interactions as well as the size of the models hinders easy access and understanding of the details of the input-output relationship.
The objective of this thesis is the development of a mathematical approach, in specific a model reduction technique, that allows (i) to quantify the importance of the different state variables for a given input-output relationship, and (ii) to reduce the dynamics to its essential features -- allowing for a physiological interpretation of state variables as well as parameter estimation in the statistical analysis of clinical data. We develop a model reduction technique using a control theoretic setting by first defining a novel type of time-limited controllability and observability gramians for nonlinear systems. We then show the superiority of the time-limited generalised gramians for nonlinear systems in the context of balanced truncation for a benchmark system from control theory.
The concept of time-limited controllability and observability gramians is subsequently used to introduce a state and time-dependent quantity called the input-response (ir) index that quantifies the importance of state variables for a given input-response relationship at a particular time.
We subsequently link our approach to sensitivity analysis, thus, enabling for the first time the use of sensitivity coefficients for state space reduction. The sensitivity based ir-indices are given as a product of two sensitivity coefficients. This allows not only for a computational more efficient calculation but also for a clear distinction of the extent to which the input impacts a state variable and the extent to which a state variable impacts the output.
The ir-indices give insight into the coordinated action of specific state variables for a chosen input-response relationship.
Our developed model reduction technique results in reduced models that still allow for a mechanistic interpretation in terms of the quantities/state variables of the original system, which is a key requirement in the field of systems pharmacology and systems biology and distinguished the reduced models from so-called empirical drug effect models. The ir-indices are explicitly defined with respect to a reference trajectory and thereby dependent on the initial state (this is an important feature of the measure). This is demonstrated for an example from the field of systems pharmacology, showing that the reduced models are very informative in their ability to detect (genetic) deficiencies in certain physiological entities. Comparing our novel model reduction technique to the already existing techniques shows its superiority.
The novel input-response index as a measure of the importance of state variables provides a powerful tool for understanding the complex dynamics of large-scale systems in the context of a specific drug-response relationship. Furthermore, the indices provide a means for a very efficient model order reduction and, thus, an important step towards translating insight from biological processes incorporated in detailed systems pharmacology models into the population analysis of clinical data.

Landslides are frequent natural hazards in rugged terrain, when the resisting frictional force of the surface of rupture yields to the gravitational force. These forces are functions of geological and morphological factors, such as angle of internal friction, local slope gradient or curvature, which remain static over hundreds of years; whereas more dynamic triggering events, such as rainfall and earthquakes, compromise the force balance by temporarily reducing resisting forces or adding transient loads. This thesis investigates landslide distribution and orientation due to landslide triggers (e.g. rainfall) at different scales (6-4∙10^5 km^2) and aims to link rainfall movement with the landslide distribution. It additionally explores the local impacts of the extreme rainstorms on landsliding and the role of precursory stability conditions that could be induced by an earlier trigger, such as an earthquake.
Extreme rainfall is a common landslide trigger. Although several studies assessed rainfall intensity and duration to study the distribution of thus triggered landslides, only a few case studies quantified spatial rainfall patterns (i.e. orographic effect). Quantifying the regional trajectories of extreme rainfall could aid predicting landslide prone regions in Japan. To this end, I combined a non-linear correlation metric, namely event synchronization, and radial statistics to assess the general pattern of extreme rainfall tracks over distances of hundreds of kilometers using satellite based rainfall estimates. Results showed that, although the increase in rainfall intensity and duration positively correlates with landslide occurrence, the trajectories of typhoons and frontal storms were insufficient to explain landslide distribution in Japan. Extreme rainfall trajectories inclined northwestwards and were concentrated along some certain locations, such as coastlines of southern Japan, which was unnoticed in the landslide distribution of about 5000 rainfall-triggered landslides. These landslides seemed to respond to the mean annual rainfall rates.
Above mentioned findings suggest further investigation on a more local scale to better understand the mechanistic response of landscape to extreme rainfall in terms of landslides. On May 2016 intense rainfall struck southern Germany triggering high waters and landslides. The highest damage was reported at the Braunsbach, which is located on the tributary-mouth fan formed by the Orlacher Bach. Orlacher Bach is a ~3 km long creek that drains a catchment of about ~6 km^2. I visited this catchment in June 2016 and mapped 48 landslides along the creek. Such high landslide activity was not reported in the nearby catchments within ~3300 km^2, despite similar rainfall intensity and duration based on weather radar estimates. My hypothesis was that several landslides were triggered by rainfall-triggered flash floods that undercut hillslope toes along the Orlacher Bach. I found that morphometric features such as slope and curvature play an important role in landslide distribution on this micro scale study site (<10 km^2). In addition, the high number of landslides along the Orlacher Bach could also be boosted by accumulated damages on hillslopes due karst weathering over longer time scales.
Precursory damages on hillslopes could also be induced by past triggering events that effect landscape evolution, but this interaction is hard to assess independently from the latest trigger. For example, an earthquake might influence the evolution of a landscape decades long, besides its direct impacts, such as landslides that follow the earthquake. Here I studied the consequences of the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake (MW 7.1) that triggered some 1500 landslides in an area of ~4000 km^2 in central Kyushu, Japan. Topography, i.e. local slope and curvature, both amplified and attenuated seismic waves, thus controlling the failure mechanism of those landslides (e.g. progressive). I found that topography fails in explaining the distribution and the preferred orientation of the landslides after the earthquake; instead the landslides were concentrated around the northeast of the rupture area and faced mostly normal to the rupture plane. This preferred location of the landslides was dominated mainly by the directivity effect of the strike-slip earthquake, which is the propagation of wave energy along the fault in the rupture direction; whereas amplitude variations of the seismic radiation altered the preferred orientation. I suspect that the earthquake directivity and the asymmetry of seismic radiation damaged hillslopes at those preferred locations increasing landslide susceptibility. Hence a future weak triggering event, e.g. scattered rainfall, could further trigger landslides at those damaged hillslopes.