## 530 Physik

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- Doctoral Thesis (17)
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#### Keywords

- Magnetismus (2)
- stochastic processes (2)
- stochastische Prozesse (2)
- ATP hydrolysis (1)
- ATP-Hydrolyse (1)
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#### Institute

- Institut für Physik und Astronomie (18)
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This thesis is focussed on the electronic properties of the new material class named topological insulators. Spin and angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy have been applied to reveal several unique properties of the surface state of these materials. The first part of this thesis introduces the methodical background of these quite established experimental techniques.
In the following chapter, the theoretical concept of topological insulators is introduced. Starting from the prominent example of the quantum Hall effect, the application of topological invariants to classify material systems is illuminated. It is explained how, in presence of time reversal symmetry, which is broken in the quantum Hall phase, strong spin orbit coupling can drive a system into a topologically non trivial phase. The prediction of the spin quantum Hall effect in two dimensional insulators an the generalization to the three dimensional case of topological insulators is reviewed together with the first experimental realization of a three dimensional topological insulator in the Bi1-xSbx alloys given in the literature.
The experimental part starts with the introduction of the Bi2X3 (X=Se, Te) family of materials. Recent theoretical predictions and experimental findings on the bulk and surface electronic structure of these materials are introduced in close discussion to our own experimental results. Furthermore, it is revealed, that the topological surface state of Bi2Te3 shares its orbital symmetry with the bulk valence band and the observation of a temperature induced shift of the chemical potential is to a high probability unmasked as a doping effect due to residual gas adsorption.
The surface state of Bi2Te3 is found to be highly spin polarized with a polarization value of about 70% in a macroscopic area, while in Bi2Se3 the polarization appears reduced, not exceeding 50%. We, however, argue that the polarization is most likely only extrinsically limited in terms of the finite angular resolution and the lacking detectability of the out of plane component of the electron spin. A further argument is based on the reduced surface quality of the single crystals after cleavage and, for Bi2Se3 a sensitivity of the electronic structure to photon exposure.
We probe the robustness of the topological surface state in Bi2X3 against surface impurities in Chapter 5. This robustness is provided through the protection by the time reversal symmetry. Silver, deposited on the (111) surface of Bi2Se3 leads to a strong electron doping but the surface state is observed up to a deposited Ag mass equivalent to one atomic monolayer. The opposite sign of doping, i.e., hole-like, is observed by exposing oxygen to Bi2Te3. But while the n-type shift of Ag on Bi2Se3 appears to be more or less rigid, O2 is lifting the Dirac point of the topological surface state in Bi2Te3 out of the valence band minimum at $\Gamma$. After increasing the oxygen dose further, it is possible to shift the Dirac point to the Fermi level, while the valence band stays well beyond. The effect is found reversible, by warming up the samples which is interpreted in terms of physisorption of O2.
For magnetic impurities, i.e., Fe, we find a similar behavior as for the case of Ag in both Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. However, in that case the robustness is unexpected, since magnetic impurities are capable to break time reversal symmetry which should introduce a gap in the surface state at the Dirac point which in turn removes the protection. We argue, that the fact that the surface state shows no gap must be attributed to a missing magnetization of the Fe overlayer. In Bi2Te3 we are able to observe the surface state for deposited iron mass equivalents in the monolayer regime. Furthermore, we gain control over the sign of doping through the sample temperature during deposition.
Chapter6 is devoted to the lifetime broadening of the photoemission signal from the topological surface states of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. It is revealed that the hexagonal warping of the surface state in Bi2Te3 introduces an anisotropy for electrons traveling along the two distinct high symmetry directions of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., $\Gamma$K and $\Gamma$M. We show that the phonon coupling strength to the surface electrons in Bi2Te3 is in nice agreement with the theoretical prediction but, nevertheless, higher than one may expect. We argue that the electron-phonon coupling is one of the main contributions to the decay of photoholes but the relatively small size of the Fermi surface limits the number of phonon modes that may scatter off electrons. This effect is manifested in the energy dependence of the imaginary part of the electron self energy of the surface state which shows a decay to higher binding energies in contrast to the monotonic increase proportional to E$^2$ in the Fermi liquid theory due to electron-electron interaction.
Furthermore, the effect of the surface impurities of Chapter 5 on the quasiparticle life- times is investigated. We find that Fe impurities have a much stronger influence on the lifetimes as compared to Ag. Moreover, we find that the influence is stronger independently of the sign of the doping. We argue that this observation suggests a minor contribution of the warping on increased scattering rates in contrast to current belief. This is additionally confirmed by the observation that the scattering rates increase further with increasing silver amount while the doping stays constant and by the fact that clean Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 show very similar scattering rates regardless of the much stronger warping in Bi2Te3.
In the last chapter we report on a strong circular dichroism in the angle distribution of the photoemission signal of the surface state of Bi2Te3. We show that the color pattern obtained by calculating the difference between photoemission intensities measured with opposite photon helicity reflects the pattern expected for the spin polarization. However, we find a strong influence on strength and even sign of the effect when varying the photon energy. The sign change is qualitatively confirmed by means of one-step photoemission calculations conducted by our collaborators from the LMU München, while the calculated spin polarization is found to be independent of the excitation energy. Experiment and theory together unambiguously uncover the dichroism in these systems as a final state effect and the question in the title of the chapter has to be negated: Circular dichroism in the angle distribution is not a new spin sensitive technique.

Nucleation and growth of unsubstituted metal phthalocyanine films from solution on planar substrates
(2012)

In den vergangenen Jahren wurden kosteneffiziente nasschemische Beschichtungsverfahren für die Herstellung organischer Dünnfilme für verschiedene opto-elektronische Anwendungen entdeckt und weiterentwickelt. Unter anderem wurden Phthalocyanin-Moleküle in photoaktiven Schichten für die Herstellung von Solarzellen intensiv erforscht. Aufgrund der kleinen bzw. unbekannten Löslichkeit wurden Phthalocyanin-Schichten durch Aufdampfverfahren im Vakuum hergestellt. Des Weiteren wurde die Löslichkeit durch chemische Synthese erhöht, was aber die Eigenschaften von Pc beeinträchtigte. In dieser Arbeit wurde die Löslichkeit, optische Absorption und Stabilität von 8 verschiedenen unsubstituierten Metall-Phthalocyaninen in 28 verschiedenen Lösungsmitteln quantitativ gemessen. Wegen ausreichender Löslichkeit, Stabilität und Anwendbarkeit in organischen Solarzellen wurde Kupferphthalocyanin (CuPc) in Trifluoressigsäure (TFA) für weitere Untersuchungen ausgewählt. Durch die Rotationsbeschichtung von CuPc aus TFA Lösung wurde ein dünner Film aus der verdampfenden Lösung auf dem Substrat platziert. Nach dem Verdampfen des Lösungsmittels, die Nanobändern aus CuPc bedecken das Substrat. Die Nanobänder haben eine Dicke von etwa ~ 1 nm (typische Dimension eines CuPc-Molekül) und variierender Breite und Länge, je nach Menge des Materials. Solche Nanobändern können durch Rotationsbeschichtung oder auch durch andere Nassbeschichtungsverfahren, wie Tauchbeschichtung, erzeugt werden. Ähnliche Fibrillen-Strukturen entstehen durch Nassbeschichtung von anderen Metall-Phthalocyaninen, wie Eisen- und Magnesium-Phthalocyanin, aus TFA-Lösung sowie auf anderen Substraten, wie Glas oder Indium Zinnoxid. Materialeigenschaften von aufgebrachten CuPc aus TFA Lösung und CuPc in der Lösung wurden ausführlich mit Röntgenbeugung, Spektroskopie- und Mikroskopie Methoden untersucht. Es wird gezeigt, dass die Nanobänder nicht in der Lösung, sondern durch Verdampfen des Lösungsmittels und der Übersättigung der Lösung entstehen. Die Rasterkraftmikroskopie wurde dazu verwendet, um die Morphologie des getrockneten Films bei unterschiedlicher Konzentration zu studieren. Der Mechanismus der Entstehung der Nanobändern wurde im Detail studiert. Gemäß der Keimbildung und Wachstumstheorie wurde die Entstehung der CuPc Nanobänder aus einer übersättigt Lösung diskutiert. Die Form der Nanobändern wurde unter Berücksichtigung der Wechselwirkung zwischen den Molekülen und dem Substrat diskutiert. Die nassverarbeitete CuPc-Dünnschicht wurde als Donorschicht in organischen Doppelschicht Solarzellen mit C60-Molekül, als Akzeptor eingesetzt. Die Effizienz der Energieumwandlung einer solchen Zelle wurde entsprechend den Schichtdicken der CuPc Schicht untersucht.

In dieser Arbeit werden die Effekte der Synchronisation nichtlinearer, akustischer Oszillatoren am Beispiel zweier Orgelpfeifen untersucht. Aus vorhandenen, experimentellen Messdaten werden die typischen Merkmale der Synchronisation extrahiert und dargestellt. Es folgt eine detaillierte Analyse der Übergangsbereiche in das Synchronisationsplateau, der Phänomene während der Synchronisation, als auch das Austreten aus der Synchronisationsregion beider Orgelpfeifen, bei verschiedenen Kopplungsstärken. Die experimentellen Befunde werfen Fragestellungen nach der Kopplungsfunktion auf. Dazu wird die Tonentstehung in einer Orgelpfeife untersucht. Mit Hilfe von numerischen Simulationen der Tonentstehung wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche fluiddynamischen und aero-akustischen Ursachen die Tonentstehung in der Orgelpfeife hat und inwiefern sich die Mechanismen auf das Modell eines selbsterregten akustischen Oszillators abbilden lässt. Mit der Methode des Coarse Graining wird ein Modellansatz formuliert.

Estimation of the self-similarity exponent has attracted growing interest in recent decades and became a research subject in various fields and disciplines. Real-world data exhibiting self-similar behavior and/or parametrized by self-similarity exponent (in particular Hurst exponent) have been collected in different fields ranging from finance and human sciencies to hydrologic and traffic networks. Such rich classes of possible applications obligates researchers to investigate qualitatively new methods for estimation of the self-similarity exponent as well as identification of long-range dependencies (or long memory). In this thesis I present the Bayesian estimation of the Hurst exponent. In contrast to previous methods, the Bayesian approach allows the possibility to calculate the point estimator and confidence intervals at the same time, bringing significant advantages in data-analysis as discussed in this thesis. Moreover, it is also applicable to short data and unevenly sampled data, thus broadening the range of systems where the estimation of the Hurst exponent is possible. Taking into account that one of the substantial classes of great interest in modeling is the class of Gaussian self-similar processes, this thesis considers the realizations of the processes of fractional Brownian motion and fractional Gaussian noise. Additionally, applications to real-world data, such as the data of water level of the Nile River and fixational eye movements are also discussed.

Actin is one of the most abundant and highly conserved proteins in eukaryotic cells. The globular protein assembles into long filaments, which form a variety of different networks within the cytoskeleton. The dynamic reorganization of these networks - which is pivotal for cell motility, cell adhesion, and cell division - is based on cycles of polymerization (assembly) and depolymerization (disassembly) of actin filaments. Actin binds ATP and within the filament, actin-bound ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP on a time scale of a few minutes. As ADP-actin dissociates faster from the filament ends than ATP-actin, the filament becomes less stable as it grows older. Recent single filament experiments, where abrupt dynamical changes during filament depolymerization have been observed, suggest the opposite behavior, however, namely that the actin filaments become increasingly stable with time. Several mechanisms for this stabilization have been proposed, ranging from structural transitions of the whole filament to surface attachment of the filament ends. The key issue of this thesis is to elucidate the unexpected interruptions of depolymerization by a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. In new depolymerization experiments on single filaments, we confirm that filaments cease to shrink in an abrupt manner and determine the time from the initiation of depolymerization until the occurrence of the first interruption. This duration differs from filament to filament and represents a stochastic variable. We consider various hypothetical mechanisms that may cause the observed interruptions. These mechanisms cannot be distinguished directly, but they give rise to distinct distributions of the time until the first interruption, which we compute by modeling the underlying stochastic processes. A comparison with the measured distribution reveals that the sudden truncation of the shrinkage process neither arises from blocking of the ends nor from a collective transition of the whole filament. Instead, we predict a local transition process occurring at random sites within the filament. The combination of additional experimental findings and our theoretical approach confirms the notion of a local transition mechanism and identifies the transition as the photo-induced formation of an actin dimer within the filaments. Unlabeled actin filaments do not exhibit pauses, which implies that, in vivo, older filaments become destabilized by ATP hydrolysis. This destabilization can be identified with an acceleration of the depolymerization prior to the interruption. In the final part of this thesis, we theoretically analyze this acceleration to infer the mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. We show that the rate of ATP hydrolysis is constant within the filament, corresponding to a random as opposed to a vectorial hydrolysis mechanism.

This work investigates diffusion in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems. The diffusion, more precisely subdiffusion, in such systems is induced by the intrinsic chaotic behavior of trajectories and thus is called chaotic diffusion''. Its properties are studied on the example of one- or two-dimensional lattices of harmonic or nonlinear oscillators with nearest neighbor couplings. The fundamental observation is the spreading of energy for localized initial conditions. Methods of quantifying this spreading behavior are presented, including a new quantity called excitation time. This new quantity allows for a more precise analysis of the spreading than traditional methods. Furthermore, the nonlinear diffusion equation is introduced as a phenomenologic description of the spreading process and a number of predictions on the density dependence of the spreading are drawn from this equation. Two mathematical techniques for analyzing nonlinear Hamiltonian systems are introduced. The first one is based on a scaling analysis of the Hamiltonian equations and the results are related to similar scaling properties of the NDE. From this relation, exact spreading predictions are deduced. Secondly, the microscopic dynamics at the edge of spreading states are thoroughly analyzed, which again suggests a scaling behavior that can be related to the NDE. Such a microscopic treatment of chaotically spreading states in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems has not been done before and the results present a new technique of connecting microscopic dynamics with macroscopic descriptions like the nonlinear diffusion equation. All theoretical results are supported by heavy numerical simulations, partly obtained on one of Europe's fastest supercomputers located in Bologna, Italy. In the end, the highly interesting case of harmonic oscillators with random frequencies and nonlinear coupling is studied, which resembles to some extent the famous Discrete Anderson Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation. For this model, a deviation from the widely believed power-law spreading is observed in numerical experiments. Some ideas on a theoretical explanation for this deviation are presented, but a conclusive theory could not be found due to the complicated phase space structure in this case. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the techniques and results presented in this work will help to eventually understand this controversely discussed case as well.

We investigate properties of quantum mechanical systems in the light of quantum information theory. We put an emphasize on systems with infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, so-called continuous-variable systems'', which are needed to describe quantum optics beyond the single photon regime and other Bosonic quantum systems. We present methods to obtain a description of such systems from a series of measurements in an efficient manner and demonstrate the performance in realistic situations by means of numerical simulations. We consider both unconditional quantum state tomography, which is applicable to arbitrary systems, and tomography of matrix product states. The latter allows for the tomography of many-body systems because the necessary number of measurements scales merely polynomially with the particle number, compared to an exponential scaling in the generic case. We also present a method to realize such a tomography scheme for a system of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the possibilities and limitations of using continuous-variable systems for measurement-based quantum computing. We will see that the distinction between Gaussian and non-Gaussian quantum states and measurements plays an crucial role. We also provide an algorithm to solve the large and interesting class of naturally occurring Hamiltonians, namely frustration free ones, efficiently and use this insight to obtain a simple approximation method for slightly frustrated systems. To achieve this goals, we make use of, among various other techniques, the well developed theory of matrix product states, tensor networks, semi-definite programming, and matrix analysis.

The microscopic origin of ultrafast demagnetization, i.e. the quenching of the magnetization of a ferromagnetic metal on a sub-picosecond timescale after laser excitation, is still only incompletely understood, despite a large body of experimental and theoretical work performed since the discovery of the effect more than 15 years ago. Time- and element-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements can provide insight into the microscopic processes behind ultrafast demagnetization as well as its dependence on materials properties. Using the BESSY II Femtoslicing facility, a storage ring based source of 100 fs short soft x-ray pulses, ultrafast magnetization dynamics of ferromagnetic NiFe and GdTb alloys as well as a Au/Ni layered structure were investigated in laser pump – x-ray probe experiments. After laser excitation, the constituents of Ni50Fe50 and Ni80Fe20 exhibit distinctly different time constants of demagnetization, leading to decoupled dynamics, despite the strong exchange interaction that couples the Ni and Fe sublattices under equilibrium conditions. Furthermore, the time constants of demagnetization for Ni and Fe are different in Ni50Fe50 and Ni80Fe20, and also different from the values for the respective pure elements. These variations are explained by taking the magnetic moments of the Ni and Fe sublattices, which are changed from the pure element values due to alloying, as well as the strength of the intersublattice exchange interaction into account. GdTb exhibits demagnetization in two steps, typical for rare earths. The time constant of the second, slower magnetization decay was previously linked to the strength of spin-lattice coupling in pure Gd and Tb, with the stronger, direct spin-lattice coupling in Tb leading to a faster demagnetization. In GdTb, the demagnetization of Gd follows Tb on all timescales. This is due to the opening of an additional channel for the dissipation of spin angular momentum to the lattice, since Gd magnetic moments in the alloy are coupled via indirect exchange interaction to neighboring Tb magnetic moments, which are in turn strongly coupled to the lattice. Time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast demagnetization of a Ni layer buried under a Au cap layer, thick enough to absorb nearly all of the incident pump laser light, showed a somewhat slower but still sub-picosecond demagnetization of the buried Ni layer in Au/Ni compared to a Ni reference sample. Supported by simulations, I conclude that demagnetization can thus be induced by transport of hot electrons excited in the Au layer into the Ni layer, without the need for direct interaction between photons and spins.

Structural dynamics of photoexcited nanolayered perovskites studied by ultrafast x-ray diffraction
(2012)

This publication-based thesis represents a contribution to the active research field of ultrafast structural dynamics in laser-excited nanostructures. The investigation of such dynamics is mandatory for the understanding of the various physical processes on microscopic scales in complex materials which have great potentials for advances in many technological applications. I theoretically and experimentally examine the coherent, incoherent and anharmonic lattice dynamics of epitaxial metal-insulator heterostructures on timescales ranging from femtoseconds up to nanoseconds. To infer information on the transient dynamics in the photoexcited crystal lattices experimental techniques using ultrashort optical and x-ray pulses are employed. The experimental setups include table-top sources as well as large-scale facilities such as synchrotron sources. At the core of my work lies the development of a linear-chain model to simulate and analyze the photoexcited atomic-scale dynamics. The calculated strain fields are then used to simulate the optical and x-ray response of the considered thin films and multilayers in order to relate the experimental signatures to particular structural processes. This way one obtains insight into the rich lattice dynamics exhibiting coherent transport of vibrational energy from local excitations via delocalized phonon modes of the samples. The complex deformations in tailored multilayers are identified to give rise to highly nonlinear x-ray diffraction responses due to transient interference effects. The understanding of such effects and the ability to precisely calculate those are exploited for the design of novel ultrafast x-ray optics. In particular, I present several Phonon Bragg Switch concepts to efficiently generate ultrashort x-ray pulses for time-resolved structural investigations. By extension of the numerical models to include incoherent phonon propagation and anharmonic lattice potentials I present a new view on the fundamental research topics of nanoscale thermal transport and anharmonic phonon-phonon interactions such as nonlinear sound propagation and phonon damping. The former issue is exemplified by the time-resolved heat conduction from thin SrRuO3 films into a SrTiO3 substrate which exhibits an unexpectedly slow heat conductivity. Furthermore, I discuss various experiments which can be well reproduced by the versatile numerical models and thus evidence strong lattice anharmonicities in the perovskite oxide SrTiO3. The thesis also presents several advances of experimental techniques such as time-resolved phonon spectroscopy with optical and x-ray photons as well as concepts for the implementation of x-ray diffraction setups at standard synchrotron beamlines with largely improved time-resolution for investigations of ultrafast structural processes. This work forms the basis for ongoing research topics in complex oxide materials including electronic correlations and phase transitions related to the elastic, magnetic and polarization degrees of freedom.

In the western hemisphere, the piano is one of the most important instruments. While its evolution lasted for more than three centuries, and the most important physical aspects have already been investigated, some parts in the characterization of the piano remain not well understood. Considering the pivotal piano soundboard, the effect of ribs mounted on the board exerted on the sound radiation and propagation in particular, is mostly neglected in the literature. The present investigation deals exactly with the sound wave propagation effects that emerge in the presence of an array of equally-distant mounted ribs at a soundboard. Solid-state theory proposes particular eigenmodes and -frequencies for such arrangements, which are comparable to single units in a crystal. Following this 'linear chain model' (LCM), differences in the frequency spectrum are observable as a distinct band structure. Also, the amplitudes of the modes are changed, due to differences of the damping factor. These scattering effects were not only investigated for a well-understood conceptional rectangular soundboard (multichord), but also for a genuine piano resonance board manufactured by the piano maker company 'C. Bechstein Pianofortefabrik'. To obtain the possibility to distinguish between the characterizing spectra both with and without mounted ribs, the typical assembly plan for the Bechstein instrument was specially customized. Spectral similarities and differences between both boards are found in terms of damping and tone. Furthermore, specially prepared minimal-invasive piezoelectric polymer sensors made from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used to record solid-state vibrations of the investigated system. The essential calibration and characterization of these polymer sensors was performed by determining the electromechanical conversion, which is represented by the piezoelectric coefficient. Therefore, the robust 'sinusoidally varying external force' method was applied, where a dynamic force perpendicular to the sensor's surface, generates movable charge carriers. Crucial parameters were monitored, with the frequency response function as the most important one for acousticians. Along with conventional condenser microphones, the sound was measured as solid-state vibration as well as airborne wave. On this basis, statements can be made about emergence, propagation, and also the overall radiation of the generated modes of the vibrating system. Ultimately, these results acoustically characterize the entire system.