## 530 Physik

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Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Charakterisierung von Seismizität anhand von Erdbebenkatalogen. Es werden neue Verfahren der Datenanalyse entwickelt, die Aufschluss darüber geben sollen, ob der seismischen Dynamik ein stochastischer oder ein deterministischer Prozess zugrunde liegt und was daraus für die Vorhersagbarkeit starker Erdbeben folgt. Es wird gezeigt, dass seismisch aktive Regionen häufig durch nichtlinearen Determinismus gekennzeichent sind. Dies schließt zumindest die Möglichkeit einer Kurzzeitvorhersage ein. Das Auftreten seismischer Ruhe wird häufig als Vorläuferphaenomen für starke Erdbeben gedeutet. Es wird eine neue Methode präsentiert, die eine systematische raumzeitliche Kartierung seismischer Ruhephasen ermöglicht. Die statistische Signifikanz wird mit Hilfe des Konzeptes der Ersatzdaten bestimmt. Als Resultat erhält man deutliche Korrelationen zwischen seismischen Ruheperioden und starken Erdbeben. Gleichwohl ist die Signifikanz dafür nicht hoch genug, um eine Vorhersage im Sinne einer Aussage über den Ort, die Zeit und die Stärke eines zu erwartenden Hauptbebens zu ermöglichen.

In this work, some new results to exploit the recurrence properties of quasiperiodic dynamical systems are presented by means of a two dimensional visualization technique, Recurrence Plots(RPs). Quasiperiodicity is the simplest form of dynamics exhibiting nontrivial recurrences, which are common in many nonlinear systems. The concept of recurrence was introduced to study the restricted three body problem and it is very useful for the characterization of nonlinear systems. I have analyzed in detail the recurrence patterns of systems with quasiperiodic dynamics both analytically and numerically. Based on a theoretical analysis, I have proposed a new procedure to distinguish quasiperiodic dynamics from chaos. This algorithm is particular useful in the analysis of short time series. Furthermore, this approach demonstrates to be efficient in recognizing regular and chaotic trajectories of dynamical systems with mixed phase space. Regarding the application to real situations, I have shown the capability and validity of this method by analyzing time series from fluid experiments.

This work incorporates three treatises which are commonly concerned with a stochastic theory of the Lyapunov exponents. With the help of this theory universal scaling laws are investigated which appear in coupled chaotic and disordered systems. First, two continuous-time stochastic models for weakly coupled chaotic systems are introduced to study the scaling of the Lyapunov exponents with the coupling strength (coupling sensitivity of chaos). By means of the the Fokker-Planck formalism scaling relations are derived, which are confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Next, coupling sensitivity is shown to exist for coupled disordered chains, where it appears as a singular increase of the localization length. Numerical findings for coupled Anderson models are confirmed by analytic results for coupled continuous-space Schrödinger equations. The resulting scaling relation of the localization length resembles the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent of coupled chaotic systems. Finally, the statistics of the exponential growth rate of the linear oscillator with parametric noise are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent deviates from a Gaussian one. By means of the generalized Lyapunov exponents the parameter range is determined where the non-Gaussian part of the distribution is significant and multiscaling becomes essential.

Concerns have been raised that anthropogenic climate change could lead to large-scale singular climate events, i.e., abrupt nonlinear climate changes with repercussions on regional to global scales. One central goal of this thesis is the development of models of two representative components of the climate system that could exhibit singular behavior: the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) and the Indian monsoon. These models are conceived so as to fulfill the main requirements of integrated assessment modeling, i.e., reliability, computational efficiency, transparency and flexibility. The model of the THC is an interhemispheric four-box model calibrated against data generated with a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity. It is designed to be driven by global mean temperature change which is translated into regional fluxes of heat and freshwater through a linear down-scaling procedure. Results of a large number of transient climate change simulations indicate that the reduced-form THC model is able to emulate key features of the behavior of comprehensive climate models such as the sensitivity of the THC to the amount, regional distribution and rate of change in the heat and freshwater fluxes. The Indian monsoon is described by a novel one-dimensional box model of the tropical atmosphere. It includes representations of the radiative and surface fluxes, the hydrological cycle and surface hydrology. Despite its high degree of idealization, the model satisfactorily captures relevant aspects of the observed monsoon dynamics, such as the annual course of precipitation and the onset and withdrawal of the summer monsoon. Also, the model exhibits the sensitivity to changes in greenhouse gas and sulfate aerosol concentrations that are known from comprehensive models. A simplified version of the monsoon model is employed for the identification of changes in the qualitative system behavior against changes in boundary conditions. The most notable result is that under summer conditions a saddle-node bifurcation occurs at critical values of the planetary albedo or insolation. Furthermore, the system exhibits two stable equilibria: besides the wet summer monsoon, a stable state exists which is characterized by a weak hydrological cycle. These results are remarkable insofar, as they indicate that anthropogenic perturbations of the planetary albedo such as sulfur emissions and/or land-use changes could destabilize the Indian summer monsoon. The reduced-form THC model is employed in an exemplary integrated assessment application. Drawing on the conceptual and methodological framework of the tolerable windows approach, emissions corridors (i.e., admissible ranges of CO2- emissions) are derived that limit the risk of a THC collapse while considering expectations about the socio-economically acceptable pace of emissions reductions. Results indicate, for example, a large dependency of the width of the emissions corridor on climate and hydrological sensitivity: for low values of climate and/or hydrological sensitivity, the corridor boundaries are far from being transgressed by any plausible emissions scenario for the 21st century. In contrast, for high values of both quantities low non-intervention scenarios leave the corridor already in the early decades of the 21st century. This implies that if the risk of a THC collapse is to be kept low, business-as-usual paths would need to be abandoned within the next two decades. All in all, this thesis highlights the value of reduced-form modeling by presenting a number of applications of this class of models, ranging from sensitivity and bifurcation analysis to integrated assessment. The results achieved and conclusions drawn provide a useful contribution to the scientific and policy debate about the consequences of anthropogenic climate change and the long-term goals of climate protection. --- Anmerkung: Die Autorin ist Trägerin des von der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Potsdam vergebenen Michelson-Preises für die beste Promotion des Jahres 2003/2004.

Atmospheric interactions with land surface in the arctic based on regional climate model solutions
(2014)

Microfabricated solid-state surfaces, also called atom chip', have become a well-established technique to trap and manipulate atoms. This has simplified applications in atom interferometry, quantum information processing, and studies of many-body systems. Magnetic trapping potentials with arbitrary geommetries are generated with atom chip by miniaturized current-carrying conductors integrated on a solid substrate. Atoms can be trapped and cooled to microKelvin and even nanoKelvin temperatures in such microchip trap. However, cold atoms can be significantly perturbed by the chip surface, typically held at room temperature. The magnetic field fluctuations generated by thermal currents in the chip elements may induce spin flips of atoms and result in loss, heating and decoherence. In this thesis, we extend previous work on spin flip rates induced by magnetic noise and consider the more complex geometries that are typically encountered in atom chips: layered structures and metallic wires of finite cross-section. We also discuss a few aspects of atom chips traps built with superconducting structures that have been suggested as a means to suppress magnetic field fluctuations. The thesis describes calculations of spin flip rates based on magnetic Green functions that are computed analytically and numerically. For a chip with a top metallic layer, the magnetic noise depends essentially on the thickness of that layer, as long as the layers below have a much smaller conductivity. Based on this result, scaling laws for loss rates above a thin metallic layer are derived. A good agreement with experiments is obtained in the regime where the atom-surface distance is comparable to the skin depth of metal. Since in the experiments, metallic layers are always etched to separate wires carrying different currents, the impact of the finite lateral wire size on the magnetic noise has been taken into account. The local spectrum of the magnetic field near a metallic microstructure has been investigated numerically with the help of boundary integral equations. The magnetic noise significantly depends on polarizations above flat wires with finite lateral width, in stark contrast to an infinitely wide wire. Correlations between multiple wires are also taken into account. In the last part, superconducting atom chips are considered. Magnetic traps generated by superconducting wires in the Meissner state and the mixed state are studied analytically by a conformal mapping method and also numerically. The properties of the traps created by superconducting wires are investigated and compared to normal conducting wires: they behave qualitatively quite similar and open a route to further trap miniaturization, due to the advantage of low magnetic noise. We discuss critical currents and fields for several geometries.

The mammalian brain is, with its numerous neural elements and structured complex connectivity, one of the most complex systems in nature. Recently, large-scale corticocortical connectivities, both structural and functional, have received a great deal of research attention, especially using the approach of complex networks. Here, we try to shed some light on the relationship between structural and functional connectivities by studying synchronization dynamics in a realistic anatomical network of cat cortical connectivity. We model the cortical areas by a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons (multilevel model) and by a neural mass model (population model). With weak couplings, the multilevel model displays biologically plausible dynamics and the synchronization patterns reveal a hierarchical cluster organization in the network structure. We can identify a group of brain areas involved in multifunctional tasks by comparing the dynamical clusters to the topological communities of the network. With strong couplings of multilevel model and by using neural mass model, the dynamics are characterized by well-defined oscillations. The synchronization patterns are mainly determined by the node intensity (total input strengths of a node); the detailed network topology is of secondary importance. The biologically improved multilevel model exhibits similar dynamical patterns in the two regimes. Thus, the study of synchronization in a multilevel complex network model of cortex can provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks.

The recent discovery of an intricate and nontrivial interaction topology among the elements of a wide range of natural systems has altered the manner we understand complexity. For example, the axonal fibres transmitting electrical information between cortical regions form a network which is neither regular nor completely random. Their structure seems to follow functional principles to balance between segregation (functional specialisation) and integration. Cortical regions are clustered into modules specialised in processing different kinds of information, e.g. visual or auditory. However, in order to generate a global perception of the real world, the brain needs to integrate the distinct types of information. Where this integration happens, nobody knows. We have performed an extensive and detailed graph theoretical analysis of the cortico-cortical organisation in the brain of cats, trying to relate the individual and collective topological properties of the cortical areas to their function. We conclude that the cortex possesses a very rich communication structure, composed of a mixture of parallel and serial processing paths capable of accommodating dynamical processes with a wide variety of time scales. The communication paths between the sensory systems are not random, but largely mediated by a small set of areas. Far from acting as mere transmitters of information, these central areas are densely connected to each other, strongly indicating their functional role as integrators of the multisensory information. In the quest of uncovering the structure-function relationship of cortical networks, the peculiarities of this network have led us to continuously reconsider the stablished graph measures. For example, a normalised formalism to identify the “functional roles” of vertices in networks with community structure is proposed. The tools developed for this purpose open the door to novel community detection techniques which may also characterise the overlap between modules. The concept of integration has been revisited and adapted to the necessities of the network under study. Additionally, analytical and numerical methods have been introduced to facilitate understanding of the complicated statistical interrelations between the distinct network measures. These methods are helpful to construct new significance tests which may help to discriminate the relevant properties of real networks from side-effects of the evolutionary-growth processes.

In this work the first observation of new type of liquid crystals is presented. This is ionic self-assembly (ISA) liquid crystals formed by introduction of oppositely charged ions between different low molecular tectonic units. As practically all conventional liquid crystals consist of rigid core and alkyl chains the attention is focused to the simplest case where oppositely charged ions are placed between a rigid core and alkyl tails. The aim of this work is to investigate and understand liquid crystalline and alignment properties of these materials. It was found that ionic interactions within complexes play the main role. Presence of these interactions restricts transition to isotropic phase. In addition, these interactions hold the system (like network) allowing crystallization into a single domain from aligned LC state. Alignment of these simple ISA complexes was spontaneous on a glass substrate. In order to show potentials for application perylenediimide and azobenzene containing ISA complexes have been investigated for correlations between phase behavior and their alignment properties. The best results of macroscopic alignment of perylenediimide-based ISA complexes have been obtained by zone-casting method. In the aligned films the columns of the complex align perpendicular to the phase-transition front. The obtained anisotropy (DR = 18) is thermally stable. The investigated photosensitive (azobenzene-based) ISA complexes show formation of columnar LC phases. It was demonstrated that photo alignment of such complexes was very effective (DR = 50 has been obtained). It was shown that photo-reorientation in the photosensitive ISA complexes is cooperative process. The size of domains has direct influence on efficiency of the photo-reorientation process. In the case of small domains the photo-alignment is the most effective. Under irradiation with linearly polarized light domains reorient in the plane of the film leading to macroscopic alignment of columns parallel to the light polarization and joining of small domains into big ones. Finally, the additional distinguishable properties of the ISA liquid crystalline complexes should be noted: (I) the complexes do not solve in water but readily solve in organic solvents; (II) the complexes have good film-forming properties when cast or spin-coated from organic solvent; (III) alignment of the complexes depends on their structure and secondary interactions between tectonic units.

CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) is a German small satellite mission to study the earth's gravity field, magnetic field and upper atmosphere. Thanks to the good condition of the satellite so far, the planned 5 years mission is extended to year 2009. The satellite provides continuously a large quantity of measurement data for the purpose of Earth study. The measurements of the magnetic field are undertaken by two Fluxgate Magnetometers (vector magnetometer) and one Overhauser Magnetometer (scalar magnetometer) flown on CHAMP. In order to ensure the quality of the data during the whole mission, the calibration of the magnetometers has to be performed routinely in orbit. The scalar magnetometer serves as the magnetic reference and its readings are compared with the readings of the vector magnetometer. The readings of the vector magnetometer are corrected by the parameters that are derived from this comparison, which is called the scalar calibration. In the routine processing, these calibration parameters are updated every 15 days by means of scalar calibration. There are also magnetic effects coming from the satellite which disturb the measurements. Most of them have been characterized during tests before launch. Among them are the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft and fields generated by currents. They are all considered to be constant over the mission life. The 8 years of operation experience allow us to investigate the long-term behaviors of the magnetometers and the satellite systems. According to the investigation, it was found that for example the scale factors of the FGM show obvious long-term changes which can be described by logarithmic functions. The other parameters (offsets and angles between the three components) can be considered constant. If these continuous parameters are applied for the FGM data processing, the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings is limited to \pm1nT over the whole mission. This demonstrates, the magnetometers on CHAMP exhibit a very good stability. However, the daily correction of the parameter Z component offset of the FGM improves the agreement between the magnetometers markedly. The Z component offset plays a very important role for the data quality. It exhibits a linear relationship with the standard deviation of the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings. After Z offset correction, the errors are limited to \pm0.5nT (equivalent to a standard deviation of 0.2nT). We improved the corrections of the spacecraft field which are not taken into account in the routine processing. Such disturbance field, e.g. from the power supply system of the satellite, show some systematic errors in the FGM data and are misinterpreted in 9-parameter calibration, which brings false local time related variation of the calibration parameters. These corrections are made by applying a mathematical model to the measured currents. This non-linear model is derived from an inversion technique. If the disturbance field of the satellite body are fully corrected, the standard deviation of scalar error \triangle B remains about 0.1nT. Additionally, in order to keep the OVM readings a reliable standard, the imperfect coefficients of the torquer current correction for the OVM are redetermined by solving a minimization problem. The temporal variation of the spacecraft remanent field is investigated. It was found that the average magnetic moment of the magneto-torquers reflects well the moment of the satellite. This allows for a continuous correction of the spacecraft field. The reasons for the possible unknown systemic error are discussed in this thesis. Particularly, both temperature uncertainties and time errors have influence on the FGM data. Based on the results of this thesis the data processing of future magnetic missions can be designed in an improved way. In particular, the upcoming ESA mission Swarm can take advantage of our findings and provide all the auxiliary measurements needed for a proper recovery of the ambient magnetic field.