## 530 Physik

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- anomalous diffusion (5)
- transport (3)
- nonergodicity (2)
- Auger electron spectroscopy (1)
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Recent advances in single particle tracking and supercomputing techniques demonstrate the emergence of normal or anomalous, viscoelastic diffusion in conjunction with non-Gaussian distributions in soft, biological, and active matter systems. We here formulate a stochastic model based on a generalised Langevin equation in which non-Gaussian shapes of the probability density function and normal or anomalous diffusion have a common origin, namely a random parametrisation of the stochastic force. We perform a detailed analysis demonstrating how various types of parameter distributions for the memory kernel result in exponential, power law, or power-log law tails of the memory functions. The studied system is also shown to exhibit a further unusual property: the velocity has a Gaussian one point probability density but non-Gaussian joint distributions. This behaviour is reflected in the relaxation from a Gaussian to a non-Gaussian distribution observed for the position variable. We show that our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulations.

We combine ultrafast X-ray diffraction (UXRD) and time-resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) measurements to monitor the strain pulses in laser-excited TbFe2/Nb heterostructures. Spatial separation of the Nb detection layer from the laser excitation region allows for a background-free characterization of the laser-generated strain pulses. We clearly observe symmetric bipolar strain pulses if the excited TbFe2 surface terminates the sample and a decomposition of the strain wavepacket into an asymmetric bipolar and a unipolar pulse, if a SiO2 glass capping layer covers the excited TbFe2 layer. The inverse magnetostriction of the temporally separated unipolar strain pulses in this sample leads to a MOKE signal that linearly depends on the strain pulse amplitude measured through UXRD. Linear chain model simulations accurately predict the timing and shape of UXRD and MOKE signals that are caused by the strain reflections from multiple interfaces in the heterostructure.

We consider synchronization properties of arrays of spin-torque nano-oscillators coupled via an RC load. We show that while the fully synchronized state of identical oscillators may be locally stable in some parameter range, this synchrony is not globally attracting. Instead, regimes of different levels of compositional complexity are observed. These include chimera states (a part of the array forms a cluster while other units are desynchronized), clustered chimeras (several clusters plus desynchronized oscillators), cluster state (all oscillators form several clusters), and partial synchronization (no clusters but a nonvanishing mean field). Dynamically, these states are also complex, demonstrating irregular and close to quasiperiodic modulation. Remarkably, when heterogeneity of spin-torque oscillators is taken into account, dynamical complexity even increases: close to the onset of a macroscopic mean field, the dynamics of this field is rather irregular.

Molecules often fragment after photoionization in the gas phase. Usually, this process can only be investigated spectroscopically as long as there exists electron correlation between the photofragments. Important parameters, like their kinetic energy after separation, cannot be investigated. We are reporting on a femtosecond time-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy study concerning the photofragmentation dynamics of thymine. We observe the appearance of clearly distinguishable signatures from thymine′s neutral photofragment isocyanic acid. Furthermore, we observe a time-dependent shift of its spectrum, which we can attribute to the influence of the charged fragment on the Auger electron. This allows us to map our time-dependent dataset onto the fragmentation coordinate. The time dependence of the shift supports efficient transformation of the excess energy gained from photoionization into kinetic energy of the fragments. Our method is broadly applicable to the investigation of photofragmentation processes.

We present a temperature and fluence dependent Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction study of a laser-heated antiferromagnetic dysprosium thin film. The loss of antiferromagnetic order is evidenced by a pronounced lattice contraction. We devise a method to determine the energy flow between the phonon and spin system from calibrated Bragg peak positions in thermal equilibrium. Reestablishing the magnetic order is much slower than the cooling of the lattice, especially around the Néel temperature. Despite the pronounced magnetostriction, the transfer of energy from the spin system to the phonons in Dy is slow after the spin-order is lost.

A considerable number of systems have recently been reported in which
Brownian yet non-Gaussian dynamics was observed. These are processes characterised by a linear growth in time of the mean squared displacement, yet the probability density function of the particle displacement is distinctly non-Gaussian, and often of exponential(Laplace) shape. This apparently ubiquitous behaviour observed in very different physical systems has been interpreted as resulting from diffusion in inhomogeneous environments and mathematically represented through a variable, stochastic diffusion coefficient. Indeed different models describing a fluctuating diffusivity have been studied. Here we present a new view of the stochastic basis describing time dependent random diffusivities within a broad spectrum of distributions. Concretely, our study is based on the very generic class of the generalised Gamma distribution. Two models for the particle spreading in such random diffusivity settings are studied. The first belongs to the class of generalised grey Brownian motion while the second follows from the idea of diffusing diffusivities. The two processes exhibit significant characteristics which reproduce experimental results from different biological and physical systems. We promote these two physical models for the description of stochastic particle motion in complex environments.

We measure valence-to-core x-ray emission spectra of compressed crystalline GeO₂ up to 56 GPa and of amorphous GeO₂ up to 100 GPa. In a novel approach, we extract the Ge coordination number and mean Ge-O distances from the emission energy and the intensity of the Kβ'' emission line. The spectra of high-pressure polymorphs are calculated using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Trends observed in the experimental and calculated spectra are found to match only when utilizing an octahedral model. The results reveal persistent octahedral Ge coordination with increasing distortion, similar to the compaction mechanism in the sequence of octahedrally coordinated crystalline GeO₂ high-pressure polymorphs.

Anomalous diffusion is being discovered in a fast growing number of systems. The exact nature of this anomalous diffusion provides important information on the physical laws governing the studied system. One of the central properties analysed for finite particle motion time series is the intrinsic variability of the apparent diffusivity, typically quantified by the ergodicity breaking parameter EB. Here we demonstrate that frequently EB is insufficient to provide a meaningful measure for the observed variability of the data. Instead, important additional information is provided by the higher order moments entering by the skewness and kurtosis. We analyse these quantities for three popular anomalous diffusion models. In particular, we find that even for the Gaussian fractional Brownian motion a significant skewness in the results of physical measurements occurs and needs to be taken into account. Interestingly, the kurtosis and skewness may also provide sensitive estimates of the anomalous diffusion exponent underlying the data. We also derive a new result for the EB parameter of fractional Brownian motion valid for the whole range of the anomalous diffusion parameter. Our results are important for the analysis of anomalous diffusion but also provide new insights into the theory of anomalous stochastic processes.

Wir schlagen einen allgemein anwendbaren Algorithmus vor, der unter Verwendung des Skalarprodukts von Kraft und Weg zum richtigen Vorzeichen in den Gleichungen für die Arbeit und die Potentielle Energie bei reversiblen Prozessen (Druck-Volumen-Änderung, Dehnung, Elektrostatische Wechselwirkung, Hub)führt. Wir zeigen, dass es dabei möglich ist, systemimmanente oder externe Kräfte zu benutzen. Wir zeigen, dass bei Verwendung von systemimmanenten Kräften das Skalarprodukt mit negativem Vorzeichen anzusetzen ist. Zudem ist es sehr wichtig, nötige Vorzeichenwechsel bei den einzelnen Schritten zu beachten. Wir betonen dies, weil gelegentlich übersehen wird, dass ein Vorzeichenwechsel nötig ist, wenn das Wegdifferential ds durch das Höhendifferential dh beziehungsweise durch das Abstandsdifferential dx oder dr ersetzt werden muss.

For the calculation of the work in an irreversible pressure-volume change, we propose approxima-tions, which in contrast to the usual representation in the literature reflect the work performed during expansion and compression symmetrically. The calculations are based on the Reversible-Share-Theorem: Is used the force to overcome for calculating the work, so it captures only the configurational reversible work share.