## 530 Physik

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The connection between the macroscopic description of collective chaos and the underlying microscopic dynamics is thoroughly analysed in mean-field models of one-dimensional oscillators. We investigate to what extent infinitesimal perturbations of the microscopic configurations can provide information also on the stability of the corresponding macroscopic phase. In ensembles of identical one-dimensional dynamical units, it is possible to represent the microscopic configurations so as to make transparent their connection with the macroscopic world. As a result, we find evidence of an intermediate, mesoscopic, range of distances, over which the instability is neither controlled by the microscopic equations nor by the macroscopic ones. We examine a whole series of indicators, ranging from the usual microscopic Lyapunov exponents, to the collective ones, including finite-amplitude exponents. A system of pulse-coupled oscillators is also briefly reviewed as an example of non-identical phase oscillators where collective chaos spontaneously emerges.

We combine ultrafast X-ray diffraction (UXRD) and time-resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) measurements to monitor the strain pulses in laser-excited TbFe2/Nb heterostructures. Spatial separation of the Nb detection layer from the laser excitation region allows for a background-free characterization of the laser-generated strain pulses. We clearly observe symmetric bipolar strain pulses if the excited TbFe2 surface terminates the sample and a decomposition of the strain wavepacket into an asymmetric bipolar and a unipolar pulse, if a SiO2 glass capping layer covers the excited TbFe2 layer. The inverse magnetostriction of the temporally separated unipolar strain pulses in this sample leads to a MOKE signal that linearly depends on the strain pulse amplitude measured through UXRD. Linear chain model simulations accurately predict the timing and shape of UXRD and MOKE signals that are caused by the strain reflections from multiple interfaces in the heterostructure.

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and table-top sources of x-rays based upon high harmonic generation (HHG) have revolutionized the field of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics, largely due to an explosive growth in capabilities in the past decade. XFELs now provide unprecedented intensity (1020 W cm−2) of x-rays at wavelengths down to ~1 Ångstrom, and HHG provides unprecedented time resolution (~50 attoseconds) and a correspondingly large coherent bandwidth at longer wavelengths. For context, timescales can be referenced to the Bohr orbital period in hydrogen atom of 150 attoseconds and the hydrogen-molecule vibrational period of 8 femtoseconds; wavelength scales can be referenced to the chemically significant carbon K-edge at a photon energy of ~280 eV (44 Ångstroms) and the bond length in methane of ~1 Ångstrom. With these modern x-ray sources one now has the ability to focus on individual atoms, even when embedded in a complex molecule, and view electronic and nuclear motion on their intrinsic scales (attoseconds and Ångstroms). These sources have enabled coherent diffractive imaging, where one can image non-crystalline objects in three dimensions on ultrafast timescales, potentially with atomic resolution. The unprecedented intensity available with XFELs has opened new fields of multiphoton and nonlinear x-ray physics where behavior of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. The unprecedented time resolution and pulse synchronization provided by HHG sources has kindled fundamental investigations of time delays in photoionization, charge migration in molecules, and dynamics near conical intersections that are foundational to AMO physics and chemistry. This roadmap coincides with the year when three new XFEL facilities, operating at Ångstrom wavelengths, opened for users (European XFEL, Swiss-FEL and PAL-FEL in Korea) almost doubling the present worldwide number of XFELs, and documents the remarkable progress in HHG capabilities since its discovery roughly 30 years ago, showcasing experiments in AMO physics and other applications. Here we capture the perspectives of 17 leading groups and organize the contributions into four categories: ultrafast molecular dynamics, multidimensional x-ray spectroscopies; high-intensity x-ray phenomena; attosecond x-ray science.

The power spectral density (PSD) of any time-dependent stochastic processX (t) is ameaningful feature of its spectral content. In its text-book definition, the PSD is the Fourier transform of the covariance function of X-t over an infinitely large observation timeT, that is, it is defined as an ensemble-averaged property taken in the limitT -> infinity. Alegitimate question is what information on the PSD can be reliably obtained from single-trajectory experiments, if one goes beyond the standard definition and analyzes the PSD of a single trajectory recorded for a finite observation timeT. In quest for this answer, for a d-dimensional Brownian motion (BM) we calculate the probability density function of a single-trajectory PSD for arbitrary frequency f, finite observation time T and arbitrary number k of projections of the trajectory on different axes. We show analytically that the scaling exponent for the frequency-dependence of the PSD specific to an ensemble of BM trajectories can be already obtained from a single trajectory, while the numerical amplitude in the relation between the ensemble-averaged and single-trajectory PSDs is afluctuating property which varies from realization to realization. The distribution of this amplitude is calculated exactly and is discussed in detail. Our results are confirmed by numerical simulations and single-particle tracking experiments, with remarkably good agreement. In addition we consider a truncated Wiener representation of BM, and the case of a discrete-time lattice random walk. We highlight some differences in the behavior of a single-trajectory PSD for BM and for the two latter situations. The framework developed herein will allow for meaningful physical analysis of experimental stochastic trajectories.

We propose a novel cluster-based reduced-order modelling (CROM) strategy for unsteady flows. CROM combines the cluster analysis pioneered in Gunzburger's group (Burkardt, Gunzburger & Lee, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng, vol. 196, 2006a, pp. 337-355) and transition matrix models introduced in fluid dynamics in Eckhardt's group (Schneider, Eckhardt & Vollmer, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 75, 2007, art. 066313). CROM constitutes a potential alternative to POD models and generalises the Ulam-Galerkin method classically used in dynamical systems to determine a finite-rank approximation of the Perron-Frobenius operator. The proposed strategy processes a time-resolved sequence of flow snapshots in two steps. First, the snapshot data are clustered into a small number of representative states, called centroids, in the state space. These centroids partition the state space in complementary non-overlapping regions (centroidal Voronoi cells). Departing from the standard algorithm, the probabilities of the clusters are determined, and the states are sorted by analysis of the transition matrix. Second, the transitions between the states are dynamically modelled using a Markov process. Physical mechanisms are then distilled by a refined analysis of the Markov process, e. g. using finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) and entropic methods. This CROM framework is applied to the Lorenz attractor (as illustrative example), to velocity fields of the spatially evolving incompressible mixing layer and the three-dimensional turbulent wake of a bluff body. For these examples, CROM is shown to identify non-trivial quasi-attractors and transition processes in an unsupervised manner. CROM has numerous potential applications for the systematic identification of physical mechanisms of complex dynamics, for comparison of flow evolution models, for the identification of precursors to desirable and undesirable events, and for flow control applications exploiting nonlinear actuation dynamics.

Many previous studies have shown that the turbulent mixing layer under periodic forcing tends to adopt a lock-on state, where the major portion of the fluctuations in the flow are synchronized at the forcing frequency. The goal of this experimental study is to apply closed-loop control in order to provoke the lock-on state, using information from the flow itself. We aim to determine the range of frequencies for which the closed-loop control can establish the lock-on, and what mechanisms are contributing to the selection of a feedback frequency. In order to expand the solution space for optimal closed-loop control laws, we use the genetic programming control (CPC) framework. The best closed-loop control laws obtained by CPC are analysed along with the associated physical mechanisms in the mixing layer flow. The resulting closed-loop control significantly outperforms open-loop forcing in terms of robustness to changes in the free-stream velocities. In addition, the selection of feedback frequencies is not locked to the most amplified local mode, but rather a range of frequencies around it.

Abstract
The emerging diffusive dynamics in many complex systems show a characteristic crossover behaviour from anomalous to normal diffusion which is otherwise fitted by two independent power-laws. A prominent example for a subdiffusive–diffusive crossover are viscoelastic systems such as lipid bilayer membranes, while superdiffusive–diffusive crossovers occur in systems of actively moving biological cells. We here consider the general dynamics of a stochastic particle driven by so-called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, that is noise with Gaussian amplitude and power-law correlations, which are cut off at some mesoscopic time scale. Concretely we consider such noise with built-in exponential or power-law tempering, driving an overdamped Langevin equation (fractional Brownian motion) and fractional Langevin equation motion. We derive explicit expressions for the mean squared displacement and correlation functions, including different shapes of the crossover behaviour depending on the concrete tempering, and discuss the physical meaning of the tempering. In the case of power-law tempering we also find a crossover behaviour from faster to slower superdiffusion and slower to faster subdiffusion. As a direct application of our model we demonstrate that the obtained dynamics quantitatively describes the subdiffusion–diffusion and subdiffusion–subdiffusion crossover in lipid bilayer systems. We also show that a model of tempered fractional Brownian motion recently proposed by Sabzikar and Meerschaert leads to physically very different behaviour with a seemingly paradoxical ballistic long time scaling.

Hot localised charge carriers on the Si(111)-7×7 surface are modelled by small charged clusters. Such resonances induce non-local desorption, i.e. more than 10 nm away from the injection site, of chlorobenzene in scanning tunnelling microscope experiments. We used such a cluster model to characterise resonance localisation and vibrational activation for positive and negative resonances recently. In this work, we investigate to which extent the model depends on details of the used cluster or quantum chemistry methods and try to identify the smallest possible cluster suitable for a description of the neutral surface and the ion resonances. Furthermore, a detailed analysis for different chemisorption orientations is performed. While some properties, as estimates of the resonance energy or absolute values for atomic changes, show such a dependency, the main findings are very robust with respect to changes in the model and/or the chemisorption geometry.

A dramatic efficiency improvement of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on electron-donating conjugated polymers in combination with soluble fullerene derivatives has been achieved over the past years. Certified and reported power conversion efficiencies now reach over 9% for single junctions and exceed the 10% benchmark for tandem solar cells. This trend brightens the vision of organic photovoltaics becoming competitive with inorganic solar cells including the realization of low-cost and large-area organic photovoltaics. For the best performing organic materials systems, the yield of charge generation can be very efficient. However, a detailed understanding of the free charge carrier generation mechanisms at the donor acceptor interface and the energy loss associated with it needs to be established. Moreover, organic solar cells are limited by the competition between charge extraction and free charge recombination, accounting for further efficiency losses. A conclusive picture and the development of precise methodologies for investigating the fundamental processes in organic solar cells are crucial for future material design, efficiency optimization, and the implementation of organic solar cells into commercial products.
In order to advance the development of organic photovoltaics, my thesis focuses on the comprehensive understanding of charge generation, recombination and extraction in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells summarized in 6 chapters on the cumulative basis of 7 individual publications.
The general motivation guiding this work was the realization of an efficient hybrid inorganic/organic tandem solar cell with sub-cells made from amorphous hydrogenated silicon and organic bulk heterojunctions. To realize this project aim, the focus was directed to the low band-gap copolymer PCPDTBT and its derivatives, resulting in the examination of the charge carrier dynamics in PCPDTBT:PC70BM blends in relation to by the blend morphology. The phase separation in this blend can be controlled by the processing additive diiodooctane, enhancing domain purity and size. The quantitative investigation of the free charge formation was realized by utilizing and improving the time delayed collection field technique. Interestingly, a pronounced field dependence of the free carrier generation for all blends is found, with the field dependence being stronger without the additive. Also, the bimolecular recombination coefficient for both blends is rather high and increases with decreasing internal field which we suggest to be caused by a negative field dependence of mobility. The additive speeds up charge extraction which is rationalized by the threefold increase in mobility.
By fluorine attachment within the electron deficient subunit of PCPDTBT, a new polymer F-PCPDTBT is designed. This new material is characterized by a stronger tendency to aggregate as compared to non-fluorinated PCPDTBT. Our measurements show that for F-PCPDTBT:PCBM blends the charge carrier generation becomes more efficient and the field-dependence of free charge carrier generation is weakened. The stronger tendency to aggregate induced by the fluorination also leads to increased polymer rich domains, accompanied in a threefold reduction in the non-geminate recombination coefficient at conditions of open circuit. The size of the polymer domains is nicely correlated to the field-dependence of charge generation and the Langevin reduction factor, which highlights the importance of the domain size and domain purity for efficient charge carrier generation. In total, fluorination of PCPDTBT causes the PCE to increase from 3.6 to 6.1% due to enhanced fill factor, short circuit current and open circuit voltage. Further optimization of the blend ratio, active layer thickness, and polymer molecular weight resulted in 6.6% efficiency for F-PCPDTBT:PC70BM solar cells.
Interestingly, the double fluorinated version 2F-PCPDTBT exhibited poorer FF despite a further reduction of geminate and non-geminate recombination losses. To further analyze this finding, a new technique is developed that measures the effective extraction mobility under charge carrier densities and electrical fields comparable to solar cell operation conditions. This method involves the bias enhanced charge extraction technique. With the knowledge of the carrier density under different electrical field and illumination conditions, a conclusive picture of the changes in charge carrier dynamics leading to differences in the fill factor upon fluorination of PCPDTBT is attained. The more efficient charge generation and reduced recombination with fluorination is counterbalanced by a decreased extraction mobility. Thus, the highest fill factor of 60% and efficiency of 6.6% is reached for F-PCPDTBT blends, while 2F-PCPDTBT blends have only moderate fill factors of 54% caused by the lower effective extraction mobility, limiting the efficiency to 6.5%.
To understand the details of the charge generation mechanism and the related losses, we evaluated the yield and field-dependence of free charge generation using time delayed collection field in combination with sensitive measurements of the external quantum efficiency and absorption coefficients for a variety of blends. Importantly, both the yield and field-dependence of free charge generation is found to be unaffected by excitation energy, including direct charge transfer excitation below the optical band gap. To access the non-detectable absorption at energies of the relaxed charge transfer emission, the absorption was reconstructed from the CT emission, induced via the recombination of thermalized charges in electroluminescence. For a variety of blends, the quantum yield at energies of charge transfer emission was identical to excitations with energies well above the optical band-gap. Thus, the generation proceeds via the split-up of the thermalized charge transfer states in working solar cells. Further measurements were conducted on blends with fine-tuned energy levels and similar blend morphologies by using different fullerene derivatives. A direct correlation between the efficiency of free carrier generation and the energy difference of the relaxed charge transfer state relative to the energy of the charge separated state is found. These findings open up new guidelines for future material design as new high efficiency materials require a minimum energetic offset between charge transfer and the charge separated state while keeping the HOMO level (and LUMO level) difference between donor and acceptor as small as possible.