## 530 Physik

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During the last few years there was a tremendous growth of scientific activities in the fields related to both Physics and Control theory: nonlinear dynamics, micro- and nanotechnologies, self-organization and complexity, etc. New horizons were opened and new exciting applications emerged. Experts with different backgrounds starting to work together need more opportunities for information exchange to improve mutual understanding and cooperation. The Conference "Physics and Control 2007" is the third international conference focusing on the borderland between Physics and Control with emphasis on both theory and applications. With its 2007 address at Potsdam, Germany, the conference is located for the first time outside of Russia. The major goal of the Conference is to bring together researchers from different scientific communities and to gain some general and unified perspectives in the studies of controlled systems in physics, engineering, chemistry, biology and other natural sciences. We hope that the Conference helps experts in control theory to get acquainted with new interesting problems, and helps experts in physics and related fields to know more about ideas and tools from the modern control theory.

Subject of this work is the investigation of universal scaling laws which are observed in coupled chaotic systems. Progress is made by replacing the chaotic fluctuations in the perturbation dynamics by stochastic processes. First, a continuous-time stochastic model for weakly coupled chaotic systems is introduced to study the scaling of the Lyapunov exponents with the coupling strength (coupling sensitivity of chaos). By means of the the Fokker-Planck equation scaling relations are derived, which are confirmed by results of numerical simulations. Next, the new effect of avoided crossing of Lyapunov exponents of weakly coupled disordered chaotic systems is described, which is qualitatively similar to the energy level repulsion in quantum systems. Using the scaling relations obtained for the coupling sensitivity of chaos, an asymptotic expression for the distribution function of small spacings between Lyapunov exponents is derived and compared with results of numerical simulations. Finally, the synchronization transition in strongly coupled spatially extended chaotic systems is shown to resemble a continuous phase transition, with the coupling strength and the synchronization error as control and order parameter, respectively. Using results of numerical simulations and theoretical considerations in terms of a multiplicative noise partial differential equation, the universality classes of the observed two types of transition are determined (Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation with saturating term, directed percolation).

In the present work, we study wave phenomena in strongly nonlinear lattices. Such lattices are characterized by the absence of classical linear waves. We demonstrate that compactons – strongly localized solitary waves with tails decaying faster than exponential – exist and that they play a major role in the dynamics of the system under consideration. We investigate compactons in different physical setups. One part deals with lattices of dispersively coupled limit cycle oscillators which find various applications in natural sciences such as Josephson junction arrays or coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Another part deals with Hamiltonian lattices. Here, a prominent example in which compactons can be found is the granular chain. In the third part, we study systems which are related to the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing, for example, coupled optical wave-guides or the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. Our investigations are based on a numerical method to solve the traveling wave equation. This results in a quasi-exact solution (up to numerical errors) which is the compacton. Another ansatz which is employed throughout this work is the quasi-continuous approximation where the lattice is described by a continuous medium. Here, compactons are found analytically, but they are defined on a truly compact support. Remarkably, both ways give similar qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, we study the dynamical properties of compactons by means of numerical simulation of the lattice equations. Especially, we concentrate on their emergence from physically realizable initial conditions as well as on their stability due to collisions. We show that the collisions are not exactly elastic but that a small part of the energy remains at the location of the collision. In finite lattices, this remaining part will then trigger a multiple scattering process resulting in a chaotic state.

Since their discovery in 1610 by Galileo Galilei, Saturn's rings continue to fascinate both experts and amateurs. Countless numbers of icy grains in almost Keplerian orbits reveal a wealth of structures such as ringlets, voids and gaps, wakes and waves, and many more. Grains are found to increase in size with increasing radial distance to Saturn. Recently discovered "propeller" structures in the Cassini spacecraft data, provide evidence for the existence of embedded moonlets. In the wake of these findings, the discussion resumes about origin and evolution of planetary rings, and growth processes in tidal environments. In this thesis, a contact model for binary adhesive, viscoelastic collisions is developed that accounts for agglomeration as well as restitution. Collisional outcomes are crucially determined by the impact speed and masses of the collision partners and yield a maximal impact velocity at which agglomeration still occurs. Based on the latter, a self-consistent kinetic concept is proposed. The model considers all possible collisional outcomes as there are coagulation, restitution, and fragmentation. Emphasizing the evolution of the mass spectrum and furthermore concentrating on coagulation alone, a coagulation equation, including a restricted sticking probability is derived. The otherwise phenomenological Smoluchowski equation is reproduced from basic principles and denotes a limit case to the derived coagulation equation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the relevance of adhesion to force-free granular gases and to those under the influence of Keplerian shear is investigated. Capture probability, agglomerate stability, and the mass spectrum evolution are investigated in the context of adhesive interactions. A size dependent radial limit distance from the central planet is obtained refining the Roche criterion. Furthermore, capture probability in the presence of adhesion is generally different compared to the case of pure gravitational capture. In contrast to a Smoluchowski-type evolution of the mass spectrum, numerical simulations of the obtained coagulation equation revealed, that a transition from smaller grains to larger bodies cannot occur via a collisional cascade alone. For parameters used in this study, effective growth ceases at an average size of centimeters.

The theory of atomic Boson-Fermion mixtures in the dilute limit beyond mean-field is considered in this thesis. Extending the formalism of quantum field theory we derived expressions for the quasi-particle excitation spectra, the ground state energy, and related quantities for a homogenous system to first order in the dilute gas parameter. In the framework of density functional theory we could carry over the previous results to inhomogeneous systems. We then determined to density distributions for various parameter values and identified three different phase regions: (i) a stable mixed regime, (ii) a phase separated regime, and (iii) a collapsed regime. We found a significant contribution of exchange-correlation effects in the latter case. Next, we determined the shift of the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature caused by Boson-Fermion interactions in a harmonic trap due to redistribution of the density profiles. We then considered Boson-Fermion mixtures in optical lattices. We calculated the criterion for stability against phase separation, identified the Mott-insulating and superfluid regimes both, analytically within a mean-field calculation, and numerically by virtue of a Gutzwiller Ansatz. We also found new frustrated ground states in the limit of very strong lattices. ----Anmerkung: Der Autor ist Träger des durch die Physikalische Gesellschaft zu Berlin vergebenen Carl-Ramsauer-Preises 2004 für die jeweils beste Dissertation der vier Universitäten Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Technische Universität Berlin und Universität Potsdam.

In Allefeld & Kurths [2004], we introduced an approach to multivariate phase synchronization analysis in the form of a Synchronization Cluster Analysis (SCA). A statistical model of a synchronization cluster was described, and an abbreviated instruction on how to apply this model to empirical data was given, while an implementation of the corresponding algorithm was (and is) available from the authors. In this letter, the complete details on how the data analysis algorithm is to be derived from the model are filled in.

The topic of synchronization forms a link between nonlinear dynamics and neuroscience. On the one hand, neurobiological research has shown that the synchronization of neuronal activity is an essential aspect of the working principle of the brain. On the other hand, recent advances in the physical theory have led to the discovery of the phenomenon of phase synchronization. A method of data analysis that is motivated by this finding - phase synchronization analysis - has already been successfully applied to empirical data. The present doctoral thesis ties up to these converging lines of research. Its subject are methodical contributions to the further development of phase synchronization analysis, as well as its application to event-related potentials, a form of EEG data that is especially important in the cognitive sciences. The methodical contributions of this work consist firstly in a number of specialized statistical tests for a difference in the synchronization strength in two different states of a system of two oscillators. Secondly, in regard of the many-channel character of EEG data an approach to multivariate phase synchronization analysis is presented. For the empirical investigation of neuronal synchronization a classic experiment on language processing was replicated, comparing the effect of a semantic violation in a sentence context with that of the manipulation of physical stimulus properties (font color). Here phase synchronization analysis detects a decrease of global synchronization for the semantic violation as well as an increase for the physical manipulation. In the latter case, by means of the multivariate analysis the global synchronization effect can be traced back to an interaction of symmetrically located brain areas.<BR> The findings presented show that the method of phase synchronization analysis motivated by physics is able to provide a relevant contribution to the investigation of event-related potentials in the cognitive sciences.

Phase synchronization analysis, including our recently introduced multivariate approach, is applied to event-related EEG data from an experiment on language processing, following a classic psycholinguistic paradigm. For the two types of experimental manipulation distinct effects in overall synchronization are found; for one of them they can also be localized. The synchronization effects occur earlier than those found by the conventional analysis method, indicating that the new approach provides additional information on the underlying neuronal process.

In order to investigate the temporal characteristics of cognitive processing, we apply multivariate phase synchronization analysis to event-related potentials. The experimental design combines a semantic incongruity in a sentence context with a physical mismatch (color change). In the ERP average, these result in an N400 component and a P300-like positivity, respectively. The synchronization analysis shows an effect of global desynchronization in the theta band around 288ms after stimulus presentation for the semantic incongruity, while the physical mismatch elicits an increase of global synchronization in the alpha band around 204ms. Both of these effects clearly precede those in the ERP average. Moreover, the delay between synchronization effect and ERP component correlates with the complexity of the cognitive processes.

We present different tests for phase synchronization which improve the procedures currently used in the literature. This is accomplished by using a two-samples test setup and by utilizing insights and methods from directional statistics and bootstrap theory. The tests differ in the generality of the situation in which they can be applied as well as in their complexity, including computational cost. A modification of the resampling technique of the bootstrap is introduced, making it possible to fully utilize data from time series.