## 530 Physik

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- Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Dynamik komplexer Systeme (52) (remove)

Tätigkeitsbericht 1994-2000
(2004)

Das Interdisziplinäre Zentrum für Nichtlineare Dynamik an der Universität Potsdam verbindet theoretisch-methodische Untersuchungen in Mathematik und theoretischer Physik mit einer Vielzahl anderer Wissenschaften und zielt auf eine fruchtbare Wechselwirkung zwischen Theorie und Experiment. Unter Einbezug von Instituten und Großforschungseinrichtungen, die insbesondere im Potsdamer Raum angesiedelt sind, soll sich ein überregional bedeutender Schwerpunkt entwickeln, wie er an keiner anderen deutschen Universität in gleicher Weise interdisziplinär angelegt ist.

CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) is a German small satellite mission to study the earth's gravity field, magnetic field and upper atmosphere. Thanks to the good condition of the satellite so far, the planned 5 years mission is extended to year 2009. The satellite provides continuously a large quantity of measurement data for the purpose of Earth study. The measurements of the magnetic field are undertaken by two Fluxgate Magnetometers (vector magnetometer) and one Overhauser Magnetometer (scalar magnetometer) flown on CHAMP. In order to ensure the quality of the data during the whole mission, the calibration of the magnetometers has to be performed routinely in orbit. The scalar magnetometer serves as the magnetic reference and its readings are compared with the readings of the vector magnetometer. The readings of the vector magnetometer are corrected by the parameters that are derived from this comparison, which is called the scalar calibration. In the routine processing, these calibration parameters are updated every 15 days by means of scalar calibration. There are also magnetic effects coming from the satellite which disturb the measurements. Most of them have been characterized during tests before launch. Among them are the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft and fields generated by currents. They are all considered to be constant over the mission life. The 8 years of operation experience allow us to investigate the long-term behaviors of the magnetometers and the satellite systems. According to the investigation, it was found that for example the scale factors of the FGM show obvious long-term changes which can be described by logarithmic functions. The other parameters (offsets and angles between the three components) can be considered constant. If these continuous parameters are applied for the FGM data processing, the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings is limited to \pm1nT over the whole mission. This demonstrates, the magnetometers on CHAMP exhibit a very good stability. However, the daily correction of the parameter Z component offset of the FGM improves the agreement between the magnetometers markedly. The Z component offset plays a very important role for the data quality. It exhibits a linear relationship with the standard deviation of the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings. After Z offset correction, the errors are limited to \pm0.5nT (equivalent to a standard deviation of 0.2nT). We improved the corrections of the spacecraft field which are not taken into account in the routine processing. Such disturbance field, e.g. from the power supply system of the satellite, show some systematic errors in the FGM data and are misinterpreted in 9-parameter calibration, which brings false local time related variation of the calibration parameters. These corrections are made by applying a mathematical model to the measured currents. This non-linear model is derived from an inversion technique. If the disturbance field of the satellite body are fully corrected, the standard deviation of scalar error \triangle B remains about 0.1nT. Additionally, in order to keep the OVM readings a reliable standard, the imperfect coefficients of the torquer current correction for the OVM are redetermined by solving a minimization problem. The temporal variation of the spacecraft remanent field is investigated. It was found that the average magnetic moment of the magneto-torquers reflects well the moment of the satellite. This allows for a continuous correction of the spacecraft field. The reasons for the possible unknown systemic error are discussed in this thesis. Particularly, both temperature uncertainties and time errors have influence on the FGM data. Based on the results of this thesis the data processing of future magnetic missions can be designed in an improved way. In particular, the upcoming ESA mission Swarm can take advantage of our findings and provide all the auxiliary measurements needed for a proper recovery of the ambient magnetic field.

Aus dem Inhalt: 1. Einführung 2. Motivation für die nichtlineare Dynamik 3. Logistische Abbildung (Parabel-Abbildung) 4. Lorenz-Gleichungen 5. Fraktale Selbstähnlichkeit 6. Die Brownsche Bewegung 7. Stöße & Billards 8. Körper mit gravitativer Wechselwirkung 9. Glossar 10. Turbo-Pascal-Texte 11. IDL-Texte 12. Reduce-Texte

The statistical analysis of the variations of the dayly-mean frequency of the maximum ionospheric electron density foF2 is performed in connection with the occurrence of (more than 60) earthquakes with magnitudes M > 6.0, depths h < 80 km and distances from the vertical sounding station R < 1000 km. For the study, data of the Tokyo sounding station are used, which were registered every hour in the years 1957-1990. It is shown that, on the average, foF2 decreases before the earthquakes. One day before the shock the decrease amounts to about 5 %. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is obtained to be better than 0.95. Further, the variations of the occurrence probability of the turbulization of the F-layer (F spread) are investigated for (more than 260) earthquakes with M > 5.5, h < 80 km, R < 1000 km. For the analysis, data of the Japanese station Akita from 1969-1990 are used, which were obtained every hour. It is found that before the earthquakes the occurrence probability of F spread decreases. In the week before the event, the decrease has values of more than 10 %. The statistical reliability of this phenomenon is also larger than 0.95. Examining the seismo-ionospheric effects, here periods of time with weak heliogeomagnetic disturbances are considered, the Wolf number is less than 100 and the index ∑ Kp is smaller than 30.

In the present work, phenomena in the ionosphere are studied, which are connected with earthquakes (16 events) having a depth of less than 50 km and a magnitude M larger than 4. Analysed are night-time Es-spread effects using data of the vertical sounding station Petropavlovsk- Kanchatsky (φ=53.0°, λ=158.7°) from May 2004 until August 2004 registered every 15 minutes. It is found that the maximum distance of the earthquake from the sounding station, where pre-seismic phenomena are yet observable, depends on the magnitude of the earthquake. Further it is shown that 1-2 days before the earthquakes, in the premidnight hours, the appearance of Es-spread increases. The reliability of this increase amounts to 0.95.

A model of the generation of pulses of local electric fields with characteristic time scales of 1–10 minutes is considered for atmospheric conditions above fracture regions of earthquakes. In the model, it is proposed that aerosols, increased ionization velocity and upstreaming air flows occur at night-time conditions. The pulses of local electric fields cause respective pulses of infrared emissions. But infrared emissions with time scales of 1–10 minutes were not observed up to now experimentally. The authors think, that the considered non-stationary field and radiation effects might be a new-type of applicable earthquake indicators and ask to perform special earth-based and satellite observations of the night-time atmosphere in seismoactive fracture regions.

We numerically investigate nonlinear asymmetric square patterns in a horizontal convection layer with up-down reflection symmetry. As a novel feature we find the patterns to appear via the skewed varicose instability of rolls. The time-independent nonlinear state is generated by two unstable checkerboard (symmetric square) patterns and their nonlinear interaction. As the bouyancy forces increase, the interacting modes give rise to bifurcations leading to a periodic alternation between a nonequilateral hexagonal pattern and the square pattern or to different kinds of standing oscillations.

In this paper an analysis of the excitation conditions of mirror waves is done, which propagate parallel to an external magnetic field. There are found analytical expressions for the dispersion relations of the waves in case of different plasma conditions. These relations may be used in future to develop the nonlinear theory of mirror waves. In comparison with former analytical works, in the study the inuence of the magnetic field and nite temperatures of the ions parallel to the magnetic field are taken into account. Application is done for the earth's magnetosheath.

Basing on recent solar models, the excitation of ion-acoustic turbulence in the weaklycollisional, fully and partially-ionized regions of the solar atmosphere is investigated. Within the frame of hydrodynamics, conditions are found under which the heating of the plasma by ion-acoustic type waves is more effective than the Joule heating. Taking into account wave and Joule heating effects, a nonlinear differential equation is derived, which describes the evolution of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in the collisional plasma.

A numerical MHD model is developed to investigate acceleration and heating of both thermal and auroral plasma. This is done for magnetospheric flux tubes in which intensive field aligned currents flow. To give each of these tubes, the empirical Tsyganenko model of the magnetospheric field is used. The parameters of the background plasma outside the flux tube as well as the strength of the electric field of magnetospheric convection are given. Performing the numerical calculations, the distributions of the plasma densities, velocities, temperatures, parallel electric field and current, and of the coefficients of thermal conductivity are obtained in a self-consistent way. It is found that EIC turbulence develops effectively in the thermal plasma. The parallel electric field develops under the action of the anomalous resistivity. This electric field accelerates both the thermal and the auroral plasma. The thermal turbulent plasma is also subjected to an intensive heating. The increase of the plasma of the Earth's ionosphere. Besides, studying the growth and dispersion properties of oblique ion cyclotron waves excited in a drifting magnetized plasma, it is shown that under non-stationary conditions such waves may reveal the properties of bursts of polarized transverse electromagnetic waves at frequencies near the patron gyrofrequency.