## 530 Physik

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The connection between the macroscopic description of collective chaos and the underlying microscopic dynamics is thoroughly analysed in mean-field models of one-dimensional oscillators. We investigate to what extent infinitesimal perturbations of the microscopic configurations can provide information also on the stability of the corresponding macroscopic phase. In ensembles of identical one-dimensional dynamical units, it is possible to represent the microscopic configurations so as to make transparent their connection with the macroscopic world. As a result, we find evidence of an intermediate, mesoscopic, range of distances, over which the instability is neither controlled by the microscopic equations nor by the macroscopic ones. We examine a whole series of indicators, ranging from the usual microscopic Lyapunov exponents, to the collective ones, including finite-amplitude exponents. A system of pulse-coupled oscillators is also briefly reviewed as an example of non-identical phase oscillators where collective chaos spontaneously emerges.

We measure valence-to-core x-ray emission spectra of compressed crystalline GeO₂ up to 56 GPa and of amorphous GeO₂ up to 100 GPa. In a novel approach, we extract the Ge coordination number and mean Ge-O distances from the emission energy and the intensity of the Kβ'' emission line. The spectra of high-pressure polymorphs are calculated using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Trends observed in the experimental and calculated spectra are found to match only when utilizing an octahedral model. The results reveal persistent octahedral Ge coordination with increasing distortion, similar to the compaction mechanism in the sequence of octahedrally coordinated crystalline GeO₂ high-pressure polymorphs.

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) and table-top sources of x-rays based upon high harmonic generation (HHG) have revolutionized the field of ultrafast x-ray atomic and molecular physics, largely due to an explosive growth in capabilities in the past decade. XFELs now provide unprecedented intensity (1020 W cm−2) of x-rays at wavelengths down to ~1 Ångstrom, and HHG provides unprecedented time resolution (~50 attoseconds) and a correspondingly large coherent bandwidth at longer wavelengths. For context, timescales can be referenced to the Bohr orbital period in hydrogen atom of 150 attoseconds and the hydrogen-molecule vibrational period of 8 femtoseconds; wavelength scales can be referenced to the chemically significant carbon K-edge at a photon energy of ~280 eV (44 Ångstroms) and the bond length in methane of ~1 Ångstrom. With these modern x-ray sources one now has the ability to focus on individual atoms, even when embedded in a complex molecule, and view electronic and nuclear motion on their intrinsic scales (attoseconds and Ångstroms). These sources have enabled coherent diffractive imaging, where one can image non-crystalline objects in three dimensions on ultrafast timescales, potentially with atomic resolution. The unprecedented intensity available with XFELs has opened new fields of multiphoton and nonlinear x-ray physics where behavior of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. The unprecedented time resolution and pulse synchronization provided by HHG sources has kindled fundamental investigations of time delays in photoionization, charge migration in molecules, and dynamics near conical intersections that are foundational to AMO physics and chemistry. This roadmap coincides with the year when three new XFEL facilities, operating at Ångstrom wavelengths, opened for users (European XFEL, Swiss-FEL and PAL-FEL in Korea) almost doubling the present worldwide number of XFELs, and documents the remarkable progress in HHG capabilities since its discovery roughly 30 years ago, showcasing experiments in AMO physics and other applications. Here we capture the perspectives of 17 leading groups and organize the contributions into four categories: ultrafast molecular dynamics, multidimensional x-ray spectroscopies; high-intensity x-ray phenomena; attosecond x-ray science.

The power spectral density (PSD) of any time-dependent stochastic processX (t) is ameaningful feature of its spectral content. In its text-book definition, the PSD is the Fourier transform of the covariance function of X-t over an infinitely large observation timeT, that is, it is defined as an ensemble-averaged property taken in the limitT -> infinity. Alegitimate question is what information on the PSD can be reliably obtained from single-trajectory experiments, if one goes beyond the standard definition and analyzes the PSD of a single trajectory recorded for a finite observation timeT. In quest for this answer, for a d-dimensional Brownian motion (BM) we calculate the probability density function of a single-trajectory PSD for arbitrary frequency f, finite observation time T and arbitrary number k of projections of the trajectory on different axes. We show analytically that the scaling exponent for the frequency-dependence of the PSD specific to an ensemble of BM trajectories can be already obtained from a single trajectory, while the numerical amplitude in the relation between the ensemble-averaged and single-trajectory PSDs is afluctuating property which varies from realization to realization. The distribution of this amplitude is calculated exactly and is discussed in detail. Our results are confirmed by numerical simulations and single-particle tracking experiments, with remarkably good agreement. In addition we consider a truncated Wiener representation of BM, and the case of a discrete-time lattice random walk. We highlight some differences in the behavior of a single-trajectory PSD for BM and for the two latter situations. The framework developed herein will allow for meaningful physical analysis of experimental stochastic trajectories.

We propose a novel cluster-based reduced-order modelling (CROM) strategy for unsteady flows. CROM combines the cluster analysis pioneered in Gunzburger's group (Burkardt, Gunzburger & Lee, Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Engng, vol. 196, 2006a, pp. 337-355) and transition matrix models introduced in fluid dynamics in Eckhardt's group (Schneider, Eckhardt & Vollmer, Phys. Rev. E, vol. 75, 2007, art. 066313). CROM constitutes a potential alternative to POD models and generalises the Ulam-Galerkin method classically used in dynamical systems to determine a finite-rank approximation of the Perron-Frobenius operator. The proposed strategy processes a time-resolved sequence of flow snapshots in two steps. First, the snapshot data are clustered into a small number of representative states, called centroids, in the state space. These centroids partition the state space in complementary non-overlapping regions (centroidal Voronoi cells). Departing from the standard algorithm, the probabilities of the clusters are determined, and the states are sorted by analysis of the transition matrix. Second, the transitions between the states are dynamically modelled using a Markov process. Physical mechanisms are then distilled by a refined analysis of the Markov process, e. g. using finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) and entropic methods. This CROM framework is applied to the Lorenz attractor (as illustrative example), to velocity fields of the spatially evolving incompressible mixing layer and the three-dimensional turbulent wake of a bluff body. For these examples, CROM is shown to identify non-trivial quasi-attractors and transition processes in an unsupervised manner. CROM has numerous potential applications for the systematic identification of physical mechanisms of complex dynamics, for comparison of flow evolution models, for the identification of precursors to desirable and undesirable events, and for flow control applications exploiting nonlinear actuation dynamics.

Many previous studies have shown that the turbulent mixing layer under periodic forcing tends to adopt a lock-on state, where the major portion of the fluctuations in the flow are synchronized at the forcing frequency. The goal of this experimental study is to apply closed-loop control in order to provoke the lock-on state, using information from the flow itself. We aim to determine the range of frequencies for which the closed-loop control can establish the lock-on, and what mechanisms are contributing to the selection of a feedback frequency. In order to expand the solution space for optimal closed-loop control laws, we use the genetic programming control (CPC) framework. The best closed-loop control laws obtained by CPC are analysed along with the associated physical mechanisms in the mixing layer flow. The resulting closed-loop control significantly outperforms open-loop forcing in terms of robustness to changes in the free-stream velocities. In addition, the selection of feedback frequencies is not locked to the most amplified local mode, but rather a range of frequencies around it.

Abstract
The emerging diffusive dynamics in many complex systems show a characteristic crossover behaviour from anomalous to normal diffusion which is otherwise fitted by two independent power-laws. A prominent example for a subdiffusive–diffusive crossover are viscoelastic systems such as lipid bilayer membranes, while superdiffusive–diffusive crossovers occur in systems of actively moving biological cells. We here consider the general dynamics of a stochastic particle driven by so-called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, that is noise with Gaussian amplitude and power-law correlations, which are cut off at some mesoscopic time scale. Concretely we consider such noise with built-in exponential or power-law tempering, driving an overdamped Langevin equation (fractional Brownian motion) and fractional Langevin equation motion. We derive explicit expressions for the mean squared displacement and correlation functions, including different shapes of the crossover behaviour depending on the concrete tempering, and discuss the physical meaning of the tempering. In the case of power-law tempering we also find a crossover behaviour from faster to slower superdiffusion and slower to faster subdiffusion. As a direct application of our model we demonstrate that the obtained dynamics quantitatively describes the subdiffusion–diffusion and subdiffusion–subdiffusion crossover in lipid bilayer systems. We also show that a model of tempered fractional Brownian motion recently proposed by Sabzikar and Meerschaert leads to physically very different behaviour with a seemingly paradoxical ballistic long time scaling.

Hot localised charge carriers on the Si(111)-7×7 surface are modelled by small charged clusters. Such resonances induce non-local desorption, i.e. more than 10 nm away from the injection site, of chlorobenzene in scanning tunnelling microscope experiments. We used such a cluster model to characterise resonance localisation and vibrational activation for positive and negative resonances recently. In this work, we investigate to which extent the model depends on details of the used cluster or quantum chemistry methods and try to identify the smallest possible cluster suitable for a description of the neutral surface and the ion resonances. Furthermore, a detailed analysis for different chemisorption orientations is performed. While some properties, as estimates of the resonance energy or absolute values for atomic changes, show such a dependency, the main findings are very robust with respect to changes in the model and/or the chemisorption geometry.

We report on light sensitive microgel particles that can change their volume reversibly in response to illumination with light of different wavelengths. To make the anionic microgels photosensitive we add surfactants with a positively charged polyamine head group and an azobenzene containing tail. Upon illumination, azobenzene undergoes a reversible photo-isomerization reaction from a trans- to a cis-state accompanied by a change in the hydrophobicity of the surfactant. Depending on the isomerization state, the surfactant molecules are either accommodated within the microgel (trans-state) resulting in its shrinkage or desorbed back into water (cis-isomer) letting the microgel swell. We have studied three surfactants differing in the number of amino groups, so that the number of charges of the surfactant head varies between 1 and 3. We have found experimentally and theoretically that the surfactant concentration needed for microgel compaction increases with decreasing number of charges of the head group. Utilization of polyamine azobenzene containing surfactants for the light triggered remote control of the microgel size opens up a possibility for applications of light responsive microgels as drug carriers in biology and medicine.

In this paper two groups supporting different views on the mechanism of light induced polymer deformation argue about the respective underlying theoretical conceptions, in order to bring this interesting debate to the attention of the scientific community. The group of Prof. Nicolae Hurduc supports the model claiming that the cyclic isomerization of azobenzenes may cause an athermal transition of the glassy azobenzene containing polymer into a fluid state, the so-called photo-fluidization concept. This concept is quite convenient for an intuitive understanding of the deformation process as an anisotropic flow of the polymer material. The group of Prof. Svetlana Santer supports the re-orientational model where the mass-transport of the polymer material accomplished during polymer deformation is stated to be generated by the light-induced re-orientation of the azobenzene side chains and as a consequence of the polymer backbone that in turn results in local mechanical stress, which is enough to irreversibly deform an azobenzene containing material even in the glassy state. For the debate we chose three polymers differing in the glass transition temperature, 32 °C, 87 °C and 95 °C, representing extreme cases of flexible and rigid materials. Polymer film deformation occurring during irradiation with different interference patterns is recorded using a homemade set-up combining an optical part for the generation of interference patterns and an atomic force microscope for acquiring the kinetics of film deformation. We also demonstrated the unique behaviour of azobenzene containing polymeric films to switch the topography in situ and reversibly by changing the irradiation conditions. We discuss the results of reversible deformation of three polymers induced by irradiation with intensity (IIP) and polarization (PIP) interference patterns, and the light of homogeneous intensity in terms of two approaches: the re-orientational and the photo-fluidization concepts. Both agree in that the formation of opto-mechanically induced stresses is a necessary prerequisite for the process of deformation. Using this argument, the deformation process can be characterized either as a flow or mass transport.