## 530 Physik

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We numerically investigate nonlinear asymmetric square patterns in a horizontal convection layer with up-down reflection symmetry. As a novel feature we find the patterns to appear via the skewed varicose instability of rolls. The time-independent nonlinear state is generated by two unstable checkerboard (symmetric square) patterns and their nonlinear interaction. As the bouyancy forces increase, the interacting modes give rise to bifurcations leading to a periodic alternation between a nonequilateral hexagonal pattern and the square pattern or to different kinds of standing oscillations.

A numerical bifurcation analysis of the electrically driven plane sheet pinch is presented. The electrical conductivity varies across the sheet such as to allow instability of the quiescent basic state at some critical Hartmann number. The most unstable perturbation is the two-dimensional tearing mode. Restricting the whole problem to two spatial dimensions, this mode is followed up to a time-asymptotic steady state, which proves to be sensitive to three-dimensional perturbations even close to the point where the primary instability sets in. A comprehensive three-dimensional stability analysis of the two-dimensional steady tearing-mode state is performed by varying parameters of the sheet pinch. The instability with respect to three-dimensional perturbations is suppressed by a sufficiently strong magnetic field in the invariant direction of the equilibrium. For a special choice of the system parameters, the unstably perturbed state is followed up in its nonlinear evolution and is found to approach a three-dimensional steady state.

We investigate numerically the appearance of heteroclinic behavior in a three-dimensional, buoyancy-driven fluid layer with stress-free top and bottom boundaries, a square horizontal periodicity with a small aspect ratio, and rotation at low to moderate rates about a vertical axis. The Prandtl number is 6.8. If the rotation is not too slow, the skewed-varicose instability leads from stationary rolls to a stationary mixed-mode solution, which in turn loses stability to a heteroclinic cycle formed by unstable roll states and connections between them. The unstable eigenvectors of these roll states are also of the skewed-varicose or mixed-mode type and in some parameter regions skewed-varicose like shearing oscillations as well as square patterns are involved in the cycle. Always present weak noise leads to irregular horizontal translations of the convection pattern and makes the dynamics chaotic, which is verified by calculating Lyapunov exponents. In the nonrotating case, the primary rolls lose, depending on the aspect ratio, stability to traveling waves or a stationary square pattern. We also study the symmetries of the solutions at the intermittent fixed points in the heteroclinic cycle.

The stability of the quiescent ground state of an incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting fluid sheet, bounded by stress-free parallel planes and driven by an external electric field tangential to the boundaries, is studied numerically. The electrical conductivity varies as cosh–2(x1/a), where x1 is the cross-sheet coordinate and a is the half width of a current layer centered about the midplane of the sheet. For a <~ 0.4L, where L is the distance between the boundary planes, the ground state is unstable to disturbances whose wavelengths parallel to the sheet lie between lower and upper bounds depending on the value of a and on the Hartmann number. Asymmetry of the configuration with respect to the midplane of the sheet, modelled by the addition of an externally imposed constant magnetic field to a symmetric equilibrium field, acts as a stabilizing factor.

The bifurcations in a three-dimensional incompressible, electrically conducting fluid with an external forcing of the Roberts type have been studied numerically. The corresponding flow can serve as a model for the convection in the outer core of the Earth and is realized in an ongoing laboratory experiment aimed at demonstrating a dynamo effect. The symmetry group of the problem has been determined and special attention has been paid to symmetry breaking by the bifurcations. The nonmagnetic, steady Roberts flow loses stability to a steady magnetic state, which in turn is subject to secondary bifurcations. The secondary solution branches have been traced until they end up in chaotic states.

Two-dimensional bouyancy-driven convection in a horizontal fluid layer with stress-free boundary conditions at top and bottom and periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction is investigated by means of numerical simulation and bifurcation-analysis techniques. As the bouyancy forces increase, the primary stationary and symmetric convection rolls undergo successive Hopf bifurcations, bifurcations to traveling waves, and phase lockings. We pay attention to symmetry breaking and its connection with the generation of large-scale horizontal flows. Calculations of Lyapunov exponents indicate that at a Rayleigh number of 2.3×105 no temporal chaos is reached yet, but the system moves nonchaotically on a 4-torus in phase space.

The stability of the quiescent ground state of an incompressible viscous fluid sheet bounded by two parallel planes, with an electrical conductivity varying across the sheet, and driven by an external electric field tangential to the boundaries is considered. It is demonstrated that irrespective of the conductivity profile, as magnetic and kinetic Reynolds numbers (based on the Alfvén velocity) are raised from small values, two-dimensional perturbations become unstable first.

Three-dimensional bouyancy-driven convection in a horizontal fluid layer with stress-free boundary conditions at the top and bottom and periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions is investigated by means of numerical simulation and bifurcation-analysis techniques. The aspect ratio is fixed to a value of 2√2 and the Prandtl number to a value of 6.8. Two-dimensional convection rolls are found to be stable up to a Rayleigh number of 17 950, where a Hopf bifurcation leads to traveling waves. These are stable up to a Rayleigh number of 30 000, where a secondary Hopf bifurcation generates modulated traveling waves. We pay particular attention to the symmetries of the solutions and symmetry breaking by the bifurcations.

We have studied the bifurcation structure of the incompressible two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with a special external forcing driving an array of 8×8 counterrotating vortices. The study has been motivated by recent experiments with thin layers of electrolytes showing, among other things, the formation of large-scale spatial patterns. As the strength of the forcing or the Reynolds number is raised the original stationary vortex array becomes unstable and a complex sequence of bifurcations is observed. The bifurcations lead to several periodic branches, torus and chaotic solutions, and other stationary solutions. Most remarkable is the appearance of solutions characterized by structures on spatial scales large compared to the scale of the forcing. We also characterize the different dynamic regimes by means of tracers injected into the fluid. Stretching rates and Hausdorff dimensions of convected line elements are calculated to quantify the mixing process. It turns out that for time-periodic velocity fields the mixing can be very effective.

The usage of nonlinear Galerkin methods for the numerical solution of partial differential equations is demonstrated by treating an example. We desribe the implementation of a nonlinear Galerkin method based on an approximate inertial manifold for the 3D magnetohydrodynamic equations and compare its efficiency with the linear Galerkin approximation. Special bifurcation points, time-averaged values of energy and enstrophy as well as Kaplan-Yorke dimensions are calculated for both schemes in order to estimate the number of modes necessary to correctly describe the behavior of the exact solutions.