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Subdwarf B stars are core-helium-burning stars located on the extreme horizontal branch (EHB). Extensive mass loss on the red giant branch is necessary to form them. It has been proposed that substellar companions could lead to the required mass loss when they are engulfed in the envelope of the red giant star. J08205+0008 was the first example of a hot subdwarf star with a close, substellar companion candidate to be found. Here, we perform an in-depth re-analysis of this important system with much higher quality data allowing additional analysis methods. From the higher resolution spectra obtained with ESO-VLT/XSHOOTER, we derive the chemical abundances of the hot subdwarf as well as its rotational velocity. Using the Gaia parallax and a fit to the spectral energy distribution in the secondary eclipse, tight constraints to the radius of the hot subdwarf are derived. From a long-term photometric campaign, we detected a significant period decrease of -3.2(8) x 10(-12) dd(-1). This can be explained by the non-synchronized hot subdwarf star being spun up by tidal interactions forcing it to become synchronized. From the rate of period decrease we could derive the synchronization time-scale to be 4 Myr, much smaller than the lifetime on EHB. By combining all different methods, we could constrain the hot subdwarf to a mass of 0.39-0.50 M-circle dot and a radius of R-sdB = 0.194 +/- 0.008 R-circle dot, and the companion to 0.061-0.071 M-circle dot with a radius of R-comp = 0.092 +/- 0.005 R-circle dot, below the hydrogen-burning limit. We therefore confirm that the companion is most likely a massive brown dwarf.

Fires are a fundamental part of the Earth System. In the last decades, they have been altering ecosystem structure, biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric composition with unprecedented rapidity. In this study, we implement a complex networks-based methodology to track individual fires over space and time. We focus on extreme fires-the 5% most intense fires-in the tropical forests of the Brazilian Legal Amazon over the period 2002-2019. We analyse the interannual variability in the number and spatial patterns of extreme forest fires in years with diverse climatic conditions and anthropogenic pressure to examine potential synergies between climate and anthropogenic drivers. We observe that major droughts, that increase forest flammability, co-occur with high extreme fire years but also that it is fundamental to consider anthropogenic activities to understand the distribution of extreme fires. Deforestation fires, fires escaping from managed lands, and other types of forest degradation and fragmentation provide the ignition sources for fires to ignite in the forests. We find that all extreme forest fires identified are located within a 0.5-km distance from forest edges, and up to 56% of them are within a 1-km distance from roads (which increases to 73% within 5 km), showing a strong correlation that defines spatial patterns of extreme fires.

Topic and aim. Synchronization in populations of coupled oscillators can be characterized with order parameters that describe collective order in ensembles. A dependence of the order parameter on the coupling constants is well-known for coupled periodic oscillators. The goal of the study is to extend this analysis to ensembles of oscillators with chaotic phases, moreover with phases possessing hyperbolic chaos. Models and methods. Two models are studied in the paper. One is an abstract discrete-time map, composed with a hyperbolic Bernoulli transformation and with Kuramoto dynamics. Another model is a system of coupled continuous-time chaotic oscillators, where each individual oscillator has a hyperbolic attractor of Smale-Williams type. Results. The discrete-time model is studied with the Ott-Antonsen ansatz, which is shown to be invariant under the application of the Bernoulli map. The analysis of the resulting map for the order parameter shows, that the asynchronouis state is always stable, but the synchronous one becomes stable above a certain coupling strength. Numerical analysis of the continuous-time model reveals a complex sequence of transitions from an asynchronous state to a completely synchronous hyperbolic chaos, with intermediate stages that include regimes with periodic in time mean field, as well as with weakly and strongly irregular mean field variations. Discussion. Results demonstrate that synchronization of systems with hyperbolic chaos of phases is possible, although a rather strong coupling is required. The approach can be applied to other systems of interacting units with hyperbolic chaotic dynamics.

We introduce and study a family of lattice equations which may be viewed either as a strongly nonlinear discrete extension of the Gardner equation, or a non-convex variant of the Lotka-Volterra chain. Their deceptively simple form supports a very rich family of complex solitary patterns. Some of these patterns are also found in the quasi-continuum rendition, but the more intriguing ones, like interlaced pairs of solitary waves, or waves which may reverse their direction either spontaneously or due a collision, are an intrinsic feature of the discrete realm.

Chinese CSP for the world?
(2022)

For three consecutive five-year plans since 2006, China has worked on building up an internationally competitive CSP industry and value chain. One big milestone in commercializing proprietary Chinese CSP technology was the 2016 demonstration program of 20 commercial-scale projects. China sought to increase and demonstrate capacities for domestic CSP technology development and deployment. At the end of the 13th five-year period, we take stock of the demonstrated progress of the Chinese CSP industry towards delivering internationally competitive CSP projects. We find that in January 2021, eight commercial-scale projects, in total 500 MW, have been completed and three others were under construction in China. In addition, Chinese EPC’s have participated in three international CSP projects, although proprietary Chinese CSP designs have not been applied outside China. The largest progress has been made in molten-salt tower technology, with several projects by different companies completed and operating successfully: here, the aims were met, and Chinese companies are now at the global forefront of this segment. Further efforts for large-scale demonstration are needed, however, for other CSP technologies, including parabolic trough - with additional demonstration hindered by a lack of further deployment policies. In the near future, Chinese companies seek to employ the demonstrated capabilities in the tower segment abroad and are developing projects using Chinese technology, financing, and components in several overseas markets. If successful, this will likely lead to increasing competition and further cost reductions for the global CSP sector.

We report on the multiple response of microgels triggered by a single optical stimulus. Under irradiation, the volume of the microgels is reversibly switched by more than 20 times. The irradiation initiates two different processes: photo-isomerization of the photo-sensitive surfactant, which forms a complex with the anionic microgel, rendering it photo-responsive; and local heating due to a thermo-plasmonic effect within the structured gold layer on which the microgel is deposited. The photo-responsivity is related to the reversible accommodation/release of the photo-sensitive surfactant depending on its photo-isomerization state, while the thermo-sensitivity is intrinsically built in. We show that under exposure to green light, the thermo-plasmonic effect generates a local hot spot in the gold layer, resulting in the shrinkage of the microgel. This process competes with the simultaneous photo-induced swelling. Depending on the position of the laser spot, the spatiotemporal control of reversible particle shrinking/swelling with a predefined extent on a per-second base can be implemented.

To undergo diffusive shock acceleration, electrons need to be preaccelerated to increase their energies by several orders of magnitude, else their gyroradii will be smaller than the finite width of the shock. In oblique shocks, where the upstream magnetic field orientation is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the shock normal, electrons can escape to the shock upstream, modifying the shock foot to a region called the electron foreshock. To determine the preacceleration in this region, we undertake particle-in-cell simulations of oblique shocks while varying the obliquity and in-plane angles. We show that while the proportion of reflected electrons is negligible for theta (Bn) = 74.degrees 3, it increases to R similar to 5% for theta (Bn) = 30 degrees, and that, via the electron acoustic instability, these electrons power electrostatic waves upstream with energy density proportional to R (0.6) and a wavelength approximate to 2 lambda (se), where lambda (se) is the electron skin length. While the initial reflection mechanism is typically a combination of shock-surfing acceleration and magnetic mirroring, we show that once the electrostatic waves have been generated upstream, they themselves can increase the momenta of upstream electrons parallel to the magnetic field. In less than or similar to 1% of cases, upstream electrons are prematurely turned away from the shock and never injected downstream. In contrast, a similar fraction is rescattered back toward the shock after reflection, reinteracts with the shock with energies much greater than thermal, and crosses into the downstream.

The strong chromospheric absorption lines Ca ii H & K are tightly connected to stellar surface magnetic fields. Only for the Sun, spectral activity indices can be related to evolving magnetic features on the solar disk. The Solar Disk-Integrated (SDI) telescope feeds the Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument (PEPSI) of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham International Observatory, Arizona, U.S.A. We present high-resolution, high-fidelity spectra that were recorded on 184 & 82 days in 2018 & 2019 and derive the Ca ii H & K emission ratio, that is, the S-index. In addition, we compile excess brightness and area indices based on full-disk Ca ii K-line-core filtergrams of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain and full-disk ultraviolet (UV) 1600 angstrom images of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Thus, Sun-as-a-star spectral indices are related to their counterparts derived from resolved images of the solar chromosphere. All indices display signatures of rotational modulation, even during the very low magnetic activity in the minimum of Solar Cycle 24. Bringing together different types of activity indices has the potential to join disparate chromospheric datasets yielding a comprehensive description of chromospheric activity across many solar cycles.

A theory for diffusivity estimation for spatially extended activator-inhibitor dynamics modeling the evolution of intracellular signaling networks is developed in the mathematical framework of stochastic reaction-diffusion systems. In order to account for model uncertainties, we extend the results for parameter estimation for semilinear stochastic partial differential equations, as developed in Pasemann and Stannat (Electron J Stat 14(1):547-579, 2020), to the problem of joint estimation of diffusivity and parametrized reaction terms. Our theoretical findings are applied to the estimation of effective diffusivity of signaling components contributing to intracellular dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum.

Understanding the damping is an important fundamental problem with widespread implications in magnetic technology. Ferrimagnetic materials offer a rich platform to explore not only the damping of the ferromagnetic mode, but also the damping of the high-frequency exchange mode very promising for ultrafast devices. Here we use time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect to investigate the ferromagnetic and exchange resonance modes and their damping in the bismuth-doped gadolinium iron garnet over a broad range of magnetic fields (0-10 T) and temperatures (50-300 K) including the magnetization and angular compensation points. These two resonance modes are excited via the inverse Faraday effect and unambiguously identified by their distinct frequency dependence on temperature and magnetic field. The temperature-dependent measurements in the external magnetic field H-ext = 2 T revealed that the intrinsic damping of the ferromagnetic mode is always smaller than the one of the exchange modes and both have a maximum near the angular compensation point. These results are fully consistent with recent predictions of atomistic simulations and a theory based on two-sublattice Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. We also demonstrate that the damping of these modes varies differently as a function of H-ext. We explain the observed behaviors by considering the different features of the effective fields defining the precession frequencies of the ferromagnetic and exchange modes.