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We formalize and analyze the notions of monotonicity and complete monotonicity for Markov Chains in continuous-time, taking values in a finite partially ordered set. Similarly to what happens in discrete-time, the two notions are not equivalent. However, we show that there are partially ordered sets for which monotonicity and complete monotonicity coincide in continuoustime but not in discrete-time.

A multitype Dawson-Watanabe process is conditioned, in subcritical and critical cases, on non-extinction in the remote future. On every finite time interval, its distribution is absolutely continuous with respect to the law of the unconditioned process. A martingale problem characterization is also given. Several results on the long time behavior of the conditioned mass process - the conditioned multitype Feller branching diffusion - are then proved. The general case is first considered, where the mutation matrix which models the interaction between the types, is irreducible. Several two-type models with decomposable mutation matrices are analyzed too .

In this thesis we mainly generalize two theorems from Mackaay-Picken and Picken (2002, 2004). In the first paper, Mackaay and Picken show that there is a bijective correspondence between Deligne 2-classes $\xi \in \check{H}^2(M,\mathcal{D}^2)$ and holonomy maps from the second thin-homotopy group $\pi_2^2(M)$ to $U(1)$. In the second one, a generalization of this theorem to manifolds with boundaries is given: Picken shows that there is a bijection between Deligne 2-cocycles and a certain variant of 2-dimensional topological quantum field theories. In this thesis we show that these two theorems hold in every dimension. We consider first the holonomy case, and by using simplicial methods we can prove that the group of smooth Deligne $d$-classes is isomorphic to the group of smooth holonomy maps from the $d^{th}$ thin-homotopy group $\pi_d^d(M)$ to $U(1)$, if $M$ is $(d-1)$-connected. We contrast this with a result of Gajer (1999). Gajer showed that Deligne $d$-classes can be reconstructed by a different class of holonomy maps, which not only include holonomies along spheres, but also along general $d$-manifolds in $M$. This approach does not require the manifold $M$ to be $(d-1)$-connected. We show that in the case of flat Deligne $d$-classes, our result differs from Gajers, if $M$ is not $(d-1)$-connected, but only $(d-2)$-connected. Stiefel manifolds do have this property, and if one applies our theorem to these and compare the result with that of Gajers theorem, it is revealed that our theorem reconstructs too many Deligne classes. This means, that our reconstruction theorem cannot live without the extra assumption on the manifold $M$, that is our reconstruction needs less informations about the holonomy of $d$-manifolds in $M$ at the price of assuming $M$ to be $(d-1)$-connected. We continue to show, that also the second theorem can be generalized: By introducing the concept of Picken-type topological quantum field theory in arbitrary dimensions, we can show that every Deligne $d$-cocycle induces such a $d$-dimensional field theory with two special properties, namely thin-invariance and smoothness. We show that any $d$-dimensional topological quantum field theory with these two properties gives rise to a Deligne $d$-cocycle and verify that this construction is surjective and injective, that is both groups are isomorphic.

"Considerons une particule mobile se mouvant aleatoirement sur la droite (ou sur un segment de droite). Supposons qu'il existe une probabilite F(x,y;s,t) bien definie pour que la particule se trouvant a l'instant s dans la position x se trouve a l'instant t (> s) a gauche de y, probabilite independante du mouvement anterieur de la particule...." Mit diesen Worten beginnt eines der berühmtesten mathematischen Manuskripte des letzten Jahrhunderts. Es stammt vom Soldaten Wolfgang Döblin, Sohn des deutschen Schriftstellers Alfred Döblin, und trägt den Titel "Sur l'equation de Kolmogoroff". Seine Veröffentlichung verbindet sich mit einer unglaublichen Geschichte. Wolfgang Döblin, stationiert mit seiner Einheit in den Ardennen im Winter 1939/1940, arbeitete an diesem Manuskript. Er entschloss sich, es als versiegeltes Manuskript an die Academie des Sciences in Paris zu schicken. Aber er kehrte nie aus diesem Krieg zurück. Sein Manuskript blieb 60 Jahre unter Verschluss im Archiv, und wurde erst im Jahre 2000 geöffnet. Wie weit Döblin damit seiner Zeit voraus war, wurde erkannt, nachdem es von Bernard Bru und Marc Yor ausgewertet worden war. Im ersten Satz umschreibt W. Döblin gleichzeitig das Programm des Manuskripts: "Wir betrachten ein bewegliches Teilchen, das sich zufällig auf der Geraden (oder einem Teil davon) bewegt." Er widmet sich damit der Aufgabe, die Fundamente eines Gebiets zu legen, das wir heute als stochastische Analysis bezeichnen.

We consider a system of infinitely many hard balls in R<sup>d undergoing Brownian motions and submitted to a smooth pair potential. It is modelized by an infinite-dimensional stochastic differential equation with a local time term. We prove that the set of all equilibrium measures, solution of a detailed balance equation, coincides with the set of canonical Gibbs measures associated to the hard core potential added to the smooth interaction potential.

In this paper, we consider families of time Markov fields (or reciprocal classes) which have the same bridges as a Brownian diffusion. We characterize each class as the set of solutions of an integration by parts formula on the space of continuous paths C[0; 1]; R-d) Our techniques provide a characterization of gradient diffusions by a duality formula and, in case of reversibility, a generalization of a result of Kolmogorov.

The authors analyse different Gibbsian properties of interactive Brownian diffusions X indexed by the d-dimensional lattice. In the first part of the paper, these processes are characterized as Gibbs states on path spaces. In the second part of the paper, they study the Gibbsian character on R^{Z^d} of the law at time t of the infinite-dimensional diffusion X(t), when the initial law is Gibbsian. AMS Classifications: 60G15 , 60G60 , 60H10 , 60J60

We develop a cluster expansion in space-time for an infinite-dimensional system of interacting diffusions where the drift term of each diffusion depends on the whole past of the trajectory; these interacting diffusions arise when considering the Langevin dynamics of a ferromagnetic system submitted to a disordered external magnetic field.

We prove in this paper an existence result for infinite-dimensional stationary interactive Brownian diffusions. The interaction is supposed to be small in the norm ||.||∞ but otherwise is very general, being possibly non-regular and non-Markovian. Our method consists in using the characterization of such diffusions as space-time Gibbs fields so that we construct them by space-time cluster expansions in the small coupling parameter.

Many methods have been proposed for the stabilization of higher index differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). Such methods often involve constraint differentiation and problem stabilization, thus obtaining a stabilized index reduction. A popular method is Baumgarte stabilization, but the choice of parameters to make it robust is unclear in practice. Here we explain why the Baumgarte method may run into trouble. We then show how to improve it. We further develop a unifying theory for stabilization methods which includes many of the various techniques proposed in the literature. Our approach is to (i) consider stabilization of ODEs with invariants, (ii) discretize the stabilizing term in a simple way, generally different from the ODE discretization, and (iii) use orthogonal projections whenever possible. The best methods thus obtained are related to methods of coordinate projection. We discuss them and make concrete algorithmic suggestions.

A Hamiltonian system in potential form (formula in the original abstract) subject to smooth constraints on q can be viewed as a Hamiltonian system on a manifold, but numerical computations must be performed in Rn. In this paper methods which reduce "Hamiltonian differential algebraic equations" to ODEs in Euclidean space are examined. The authors study the construction of canonical parameterizations or local charts as well as methods based on the construction of ODE systems in the space in which the constraint manifold is embedded which preserve the constraint manifold as an invariant manifold. In each case, a Hamiltonian system of ordinary differential equations is produced. The stability of the constraint invariants and the behavior of the original Hamiltonian along solutions are investigated both numerically and analytically.

Many methods have been proposed for the simulation of constrained mechanical systems. The most obvious of these have mild instabilities and drift problems. Consequently, stabilization techniques have been proposed A popular stabilization method is Baumgarte's technique, but the choice of parameters to make it robust has been unclear in practice. Some of the simulation methods that have been proposed and used in computations are reviewed here, from a stability point of view. This involves concepts of differential-algebraic equation (DAE) and ordinary differential equation (ODE) invariants. An explanation of the difficulties that may be encountered using Baumgarte's method is given, and a discussion of why a further quest for better parameter values for this method will always remain frustrating is presented. It is then shown how Baumgarte's method can be improved. An efficient stabilization technique is proposed, which may employ explicit ODE solvers in case of nonstiff or highly oscillatory problems and which relates to coordinate projection methods. Examples of a two-link planar robotic arm and a squeezing mechanism illustrate the effectiveness of this new stabilization method.