Is part of the Bibliography
Place of creation and place of production: Spatial dimensions of the Berlin fashion-design production network
- Fashion design plays a significant role in Berlin's creative industries and for its start-up scene. Berlin has the highest concentration of designers in Germany, most of them working in small start-ups, while the spatial organisation of their production is stretched from the local level to the global network of fashion events, showing different entrepreneurial strategies within the production process. Different spatial structures of the production organisation are identifiable through which it is possible to discuss the role of Berlin in the production network of fashion designers and the kinds of relations holding between the city, designers, and their production network.
Linking slab break-off, Hellenic trench retreat, and uplift of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateaus
Taylor F. Schildgen
Manfred R. Strecker
Conditional and future tense impairment in non-fluent aphasia
- Background: Morphological errors of tense and agreement are salient in agrammatic aphasia. The PADILIH predicts impairments in discourse linking that translate to greater difficulties in referring to a past event time than to a future or a present event time. In Catalan, the Periphrastic conditional tense (e.g., if the man had had time, he would have...) refers to the past and the Simple conditional tense refers to the future (e.g., if the man had time, he would...). These two tenses refer to an event that may happen (irrealis).Aims: We fill in the gap of the conditional tense and provide further data to study contrasts in verb inflection for time reference. We predict that verb forms that refer to an irrealis past event (Periphrastic conditional) are more impaired than forms that refer to an irrealis future event (Simple conditional and Future). We also predict that there are no differences between verb forms that refer to an irrealis future event (Simple conditional and Future). We also assessed whether problems in time reference extend to individuals with non-fluent aphasia that are not typical agrammatic Broca aphasia.Methods & Procedures: A sentence completion task that included 60 sentences (20 per type) of equal length in a Conditional structure (if-sentences) was designed. We tested three sentence types: Periphrastic conditional, Simple conditional and Future. The task was administered to nine participants with non-fluent aphasia and nine age-matched non-brain-damaged participants.Outcomes & Results: The Control group scored at ceiling on the three sentence types. Participants with non-fluent aphasia were most impaired in the production of the Periphrastic conditional as compared with the Simple conditional and the Future.Conclusions: When irrealis event times are compared, past events are more impaired than future events. These results can be explained by a deficit in time reference as predicted by the PADILIH. Our data reveal that the predictions of the PADILIH also hold for non-fluent speakers who have been diagnosed with Transcortical motor aphasia.
The largest expected earthquake magnitudes in Japan: The statistical perspective
- Earthquake catalogs are probably the most informative data source about spatiotemporal seismicity evolution. The catalog quality in one of the most active seismogenic zones in the world, Japan, is excellent, although changes in quality arising, for example, from an evolving network are clearly present. Here, we seek the best estimate for the largest expected earthquake in a given future time interval from a combination of historic and instrumental earthquake catalogs. We extend the technique introduced by Zoller et al. (2013) to estimate the maximum magnitude in a time window of length T-f for earthquake catalogs with varying level of completeness. In particular, we consider the case in which two types of catalogs are available: a historic catalog and an instrumental catalog. This leads to competing interests with respect to the estimation of the two parameters from the Gutenberg-Richter law, the b-value and the event rate lambda above a given lower-magnitude threshold (the a-value). The b-value is estimated most precisely from the frequently occurring small earthquakes; however, the tendency of small events to cluster in aftershocks, swarms, etc. violates the assumption of a Poisson process that is used for the estimation of lambda. We suggest addressing conflict by estimating b solely from instrumental seismicity and using large magnitude events from historic catalogs for the earthquake rate estimation. Applying the method to Japan, there is a probability of about 20% that the maximum expected magnitude during any future time interval of length T-f = 30 years is m >= 9.0. Studies of different subregions in Japan indicates high probabilities for M 8 earthquakes along the Tohoku arc and relatively low probabilities in the Tokai, Tonankai, and Nankai region. Finally, for scenarios related to long-time horizons and high-confidence levels, the maximum expected magnitude will be around 10.
Floor-Fractured Craters on Mars - Observations and Origin
G. G. Michael
- Floor-Fractured Craters (FFCs) represent an impact crater type, where the infilling is separated by cracks into knobs of different sizes and shapes. This work focuses on the possible processes which form FFCs to understand the relationship between location and geological environment. We generated a global distribution map using new High Resolution Stereo Camera and Context Camera images. Four hundred and twenty-one potential FFCs have been identified on Mars. A strong link exists among floor fracturing, chaotic terrain, outflow channels and the dichotomy boundary. However, FFCs are also found in the Martian highlands. Additionally, two very diverse craters are used as a case study and we compared them regarding appearance of the surface units, chronology and geological processes. Five potential models of floor fracturing are presented and discussed here. The analyses suggest an origin due to volcanic activity, groundwater migration or tensile stresses. Also subsurface ice reservoirs and tectonic activity are taken into account. Furthermore, the origin of fracturing differs according to the location on Mars. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engaging local knowledge in biodiversity research: experiences from large inter- and transdisciplinary projects
Joachim H. Spangenberg
Da Thanh Truong
Kong Luen Heong
Leonardo V. Marquez
Jesus Victor Bustamante
Ho Van Chien
Nguyen Hung Man
Nguyen Van Sinh
Sylvia (Bong) Villareal
- The management of biodiversity represents a research topic that needs to involve not only several (sub-) disciplines from the natural sciences but, in particular, also the social sciences and humanities. Furthermore, over the last couple of years, the need for the integration of other kinds of knowledge (experience based or indigenous knowledge) is increasingly acknowledged. For instance, the incorporation of such knowledge is indispensable for place-based approaches to sustainable land management, which require that the specific ecological and social context is addressed. However, desirable as it may be, such an engagement of the holders of tacit knowledge is not easy to achieve. It demands reconciling well-established scientific procedural standards with the implicit or explicit criteria of relevance that apply in civil society a process that typically causes severe tensions and comes up against both habitual as well as institutional constraints. The difficulty of managing such tensions is amplified particularly in large integrated projects and represents a major challenge to project management. At the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, several integrated research projects have been conducted over the past years in which experience has been gained with these specific challenges. This paper presents some of the lessons learned from large integrated projects, with an emphasis on project design and management structure. At the centre of the present contribution are experiences gained in the coordination and management of LEGATO (LEGATO stands for Land-use intensity and Ecological EnGineering - Assessment Tools for risks and Opportunities in irrigated rice based production systems, see www.legato-project.net), an ongoing, large-scale, inter- and transdisciplinary research project dealing with the management of irrigated rice landscapes in Southeast Asia. In this project, local expertise on traditional production systems is absolutely crucial but needs to be integrated with natural and social science research to identify future-proof land management systems.
Capturing and modelling metre-scale spatial facies heterogeneity in a Jurassic ramp setting (Central High Atlas, Morocco)
Susan M. Agar
Gregory S. Benson
- Each simulation algorithm, including Truncated Gaussian Simulation, Sequential Indicator Simulation and Indicator Kriging is characterized by different operating modes, which variably influence the facies proportion, distribution and association of digital outcrop models, as shown in clastic sediments. A detailed study of carbonate heterogeneity is then crucial to understanding these differences and providing rules for carbonate modelling. Through a continuous exposure of Bajocian carbonate strata, a study window (320 m long, 190 m wide and 30 m thick) was investigated and metre-scale lithofacies heterogeneity was captured and modelled using closely-spaced sections. Ten lithofacies, deposited in a shallow-water carbonate-dominated ramp, were recognized and their dimensions and associations were documented. Field data, including height sections, were georeferenced and input into the model. Four models were built in the present study. Model A used all sections and Truncated Gaussian Simulation during the stochastic simulation. For the three other models, Model B was generated using Truncated Gaussian Simulation as for Model A, Model C was generated using Sequential Indicator Simulation and Model D was generated using Indicator Kriging. These three additional models were built by removing two out of eight sections from data input. The removal of sections allows direct insights on geological uncertainties at inter-well spacings by comparing modelled and described sections. Other quantitative and qualitative comparisons were carried out between models to understand the advantages/disadvantages of each algorithm. Model A is used as the base case. Indicator Kriging (Model D) simplifies the facies distribution by assigning continuous geological bodies of the most abundant lithofacies to each zone. Sequential Indicator Simulation (Model C) is confident to conserve facies proportion when geological heterogeneity is complex. The use of trend with Truncated Gaussian Simulation is a powerful tool for modelling well-defined spatial facies relationships. However, in shallow-water carbonate, facies can coexist and their association can change through time and space. The present study shows that the scale of modelling (depositional environment or lithofacies) involves specific simulation constraints on shallow-water carbonate modelling methods.
Sensitivity of 3D thermal models to the choice of boundary conditions and thermal properties: a case study for the area of Brandenburg (NE German Basin)
- Based on newly available data of both, the structural setting and thermal properties, we compare 3D thermal models for the area of Brandenburg, located in the Northeast German Basin, to assess the sensitivity of our model results. The structural complexity of the basin fill is given by the configuration of the Zechstein salt with salt diapirs and salt pillows. This special configuration is very relevant for the thermal calculations because salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than other sediments. We calculate the temperature using a FEMethod to solve the steady state heat conduction equation in 3D. Based on this approach, we evaluate the sensitivity of the steady-state conductive thermal field with respect to different lithospheric configurations and to the assigned thermal properties. We compare three different thermal models: (a) a crustal-scale model including a homogeneous crust, (b) a new lithosphere-scale model including a differentiated crust and (c) a crustal-scale model with a stepwise variation of measured thermal properties. The comparison with measured temperatures from different structural locations of the basin shows a good fit to the temperature predictions for the first two models, whereas the third model is distinctly colder. This indicates that effective thermal conductivities may be different from values determined by measurements on rock samples. The results suggest that conduction is the main heat transport mechanism in the Brandenburg area.
Value creation in scene-based music production - the case of electronic club music in Germany
- The focus of this article is on the variability of value creation in the popular music industry. Recent trends in electronic music have been based on both the valorization of global tastes and of local specialities in performance and production. Depending on musical styles and market niches, local scenes have become important forces behind heterogeneous globalocal markets. At the same time, technological change and the virtualization of music production and distribution contribute to increasingly differentiated configurations of value creation. It is therefore necessary to reconstruct theoretically and empirically the new interplay among the local music production, digital media markets, and virtual communities that are involved. On the basis of empirical explorations in a German hot spot of electronic club-music production (the city of Berlin), the article indentifies local interaction practice and constellations of stakeholders. The findings show that value creation in these rapidly changing production scenes has moved away from the large-scale distribution of producer-induced media to audience-induced live performance and interactive soundtrack production. This change involves the rising importance of cultural embeddings such as taste building, reputation building among artists and producers, and local community building. Starting from an open theoretical problematization of value creation with regard to fluid scenes and shifting modes of production, the results of first empirical reconstructions are taken as inputs to an evolving discussion on the configurations of value creation in consumer-based strands of music production.
Towards a method for studying affect in (micro)politics - the Campfire Chats Project and the Occupy movement