## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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#### Keywords

- Aerosol (1)
- Arctic (1)
- Arktis (1)
- Cascading (1)
- Chaotische Oszillationen (1)
- Chemie-Transport-Modell (1)
- Compacton (1)
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Auf der Grundlage von Sonnenphotometermessungen an drei Messstationen (AWIPEV/ Koldewey in Ny-Ålesund (78.923 °N, 11.923 °O) 1995–2008, 35. Nordpol Driftstation – NP-35 (84.3–85.5 °N, 41.7–56.6 °O) März/April 2008, Sodankylä (67.37 °N, 26.65 °O) 2004–2007) wird die Aerosolvariabilität in der europäischen Arktis und deren Ursachen untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Frage des Zusammenhanges zwischen den an den Stationen gemessenen Aerosolparametern (Aerosol optische Dicke, Angström Koeffizient, usw.) und dem Transport des Aerosols sowohl auf kurzen Zeitskalen (Tagen) als auch auf langen Zeitskalen (Monate, Jahre). Um diesen Zusammenhang herzustellen, werden für die kurzen Zeitskalen mit dem Trajektorienmodell PEP-Tracer 5-Tage Rückwärtstrajektorien in drei Starthöhen (850 hPa, 700 hPa, 500 hPa) für die Uhrzeiten 00, 06, 12 und 18 Uhr berechnet. Mit Hilfe der nicht-hierarchischen Clustermethode k-means werden die berechneten Rückwärtstrajektorien dann zu Gruppen zusammengefasst und bestimmten Quellgebieten und den gemessenen Aerosol optischen Dicken zugeordnet. Die Zuordnung von Aerosol optischer Dicke und Quellregion ergibt keinen eindeutigen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Transport verschmutzter Luftmassen aus Europa oder Russland bzw. Asien und erhöhter Aerosol optischer Dicke. Dennoch ist für einen konkreten Einzelfall (März 2008) ein direkter Zusammenhang von Aerosoltransport und hohen Aerosol optischen Dicken nachweisbar. In diesem Fall gelangte Waldbrandaerosol aus Südwestrussland in die Arktis und konnte sowohl auf der NP-35 als auch in Ny-Ålesund beobachtet werden. In einem weiteren Schritt wird mit Hilfe der EOF-Analyse untersucht, inwieweit großskalige atmosphärische Zirkulationsmuster für die Aerosolvariabilität in der europäischen Arktis verantwortlich sind. Ähnlich wie bei der Trajektorienanalyse ist auch die Verbindung der atmosphärischen Zirkulation zu den Photometermessungen an den Stationen in der Regel nur schwach ausgeprägt. Eine Ausnahme findet sich bei der Betrachtung des Jahresganges des Bodendruckes und der Aerosol optischen Dicke. Hohe Aerosol optische Dicken treten im Frühjahr zum einen dann auf, wenn durch das Islandtief und das sibirische Hochdruckgebiet Luftmassen aus Europa oder Russland/Asien in die Arktis gelangen, und zum anderen, wenn sich ein kräftiges Hochdruckgebiet über Grönland und weiten Teilen der Arktis befindet. Ebenso zeigt sich, dass der Übergang zwischen Frühjahr und Sommer zumindest teilweise bedingt ist durch denWechsel vom stabilen Polarhoch im Winter und Frühjahr zu einer stärker von Tiefdruckgebieten bestimmten arktischen Atmosphäre im Sommer. Die geringere Aerosolkonzentration im Sommer kann zum Teil mit einer Zunahme der nassen Deposition als Aerosolsenke begründet werden. Für Ny-Ålesund wird neben den Transportmustern auch die chemische Zusammensetzung des Aerosols mit Hilfe von Impaktormessungen an der Zeppelinstation auf dem Zeppelinberg (474m ü.NN) nahe Ny-Ålesund abgeleitet. Dabei ist die positive Korrelation der Aerosoloptischen Dicke mit der Konzentration von Sulfationen und Ruß sehr deutlich. Beide Stoffe gelangen zu einem Großteil durch anthropogene Emissionen in die Atmosphäre. Die damit nachweisbar anthropogen geprägte Zusammensetzung des arktischen Aerosols steht im Widerspruch zum nicht eindeutig herstellbaren Zusammenhang mit dem Transport des Aerosols aus Industrieregionen. Dies kann nur durch einen oder mehrere gleichzeitig stattfindende Transformationsprozesse (z. B. Nukleation von Schwefelsäurepartikeln) während des Transportes aus den Quellregionen (Europa, Russland) erklärt werden.

The presented work describes new concepts of fast switching elements based on principles of photonics. The waveguides working in visible and infra-red ranges are put in a basis of these elements. And as materials for manufacturing of waveguides the transparent polymers, dopped by molecules of the dyes possessing second order nonlinear-optical properties are proposed. The work shows how nonlinear-optical processes in such structures can be implemented by electro-optical and opto-optical control circuit signals. In this paper we consider the complete cycle of fabrication of several types of integral photonic elements. The theoretical analysis of high-intensity beam propagation in media with second-order optical nonlinearity is performed. Quantitative estimations of necessary conditions of occurrence of the nonlinear-optical phenomena of the second order taking into account properties of used materials are made. The paper describes the various stages of manufacture of the basic structure of the integrated photonics: a planar waveguide. Using the finite element method the structure of the electromagnetic field inside the waveguide in different modes was analysed. A separate part of the work deals with the creation of composite organic materials with high optical nonlinearity. Using the methods of quantum chemistry, the dependence of nonlinear properties of dye molecules from its structure were investigated in details. In addition, the paper discusses various methods of inducing of an optical nonlinearity in dye-doping of polymer films. In the work, for the first time is proposed the use of spatial modulation of nonlinear properties of waveguide according Fibonacci law. This allows involving several different nonlinear optical processes simultaneously. The final part of the work describes various designs of integrated optical modulators and switches constructed of organic nonlinear optical waveguides. A practical design of the optical modulator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer made by a photolithography on polymer film is presented.

In the present work, we study wave phenomena in strongly nonlinear lattices. Such lattices are characterized by the absence of classical linear waves. We demonstrate that compactons – strongly localized solitary waves with tails decaying faster than exponential – exist and that they play a major role in the dynamics of the system under consideration. We investigate compactons in different physical setups. One part deals with lattices of dispersively coupled limit cycle oscillators which find various applications in natural sciences such as Josephson junction arrays or coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Another part deals with Hamiltonian lattices. Here, a prominent example in which compactons can be found is the granular chain. In the third part, we study systems which are related to the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing, for example, coupled optical wave-guides or the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. Our investigations are based on a numerical method to solve the traveling wave equation. This results in a quasi-exact solution (up to numerical errors) which is the compacton. Another ansatz which is employed throughout this work is the quasi-continuous approximation where the lattice is described by a continuous medium. Here, compactons are found analytically, but they are defined on a truly compact support. Remarkably, both ways give similar qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, we study the dynamical properties of compactons by means of numerical simulation of the lattice equations. Especially, we concentrate on their emergence from physically realizable initial conditions as well as on their stability due to collisions. We show that the collisions are not exactly elastic but that a small part of the energy remains at the location of the collision. In finite lattices, this remaining part will then trigger a multiple scattering process resulting in a chaotic state.

This thesis is focused on the electronic, spin-dependent and dynamical properties of thin magnetic systems. Photoemission-related techniques are combined with synchrotron radiation to study the spin-dependent properties of these systems in the energy and time domains. In the first part of this thesis, the strength of electron correlation effects in the spin-dependent electronic structure of ferromagnetic bcc Fe(110) and hcp Co(0001) is investigated by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations within the three-body scattering approximation and within the dynamical mean-field theory, together with one-step model calculations of the photoemission process. From this comparison it is demonstrated that the present state of the art many-body calculations, although improving the description of correlation effects in Fe and Co, give too small mass renormalizations and scattering rates thus demanding more refined many-body theories including nonlocal fluctuations. In the second part, it is shown in detail monitoring by photoelectron spectroscopy how graphene can be grown by chemical vapour deposition on the transition-metal surfaces Ni(111) and Co(0001) and intercalated by a monoatomic layer of Au. For both systems, a linear E(k) dispersion of massless Dirac fermions is observed in the graphene pi-band in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Spin-resolved photoemission from the graphene pi-band shows that the ferromagnetic polarization of graphene/Ni(111) and graphene/Co(0001) is negligible and that graphene on Ni(111) is after intercalation of Au spin-orbit split by the Rashba effect. In the last part, a time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of a permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls is presented. It is shown how a fast picosecond magnetic response in the precessional motion of the magnetization can be induced by means of a laser-excited photoswitch. From a comparision to micromagnetic calculations it is demonstrated that the relatively high precessional frequency observed in the experiments is directly linked to the nature of the vortex/antivortex dynamics and its response to the magnetic perturbation. This includes the time-dependent reversal of the vortex core polarization, a process which is beyond the limit of detection in the present experiments.

Preparation and investigation of polymer-foam films and polymer-layer systems for ferroelectrets
(2010)

Piezoelectric materials are very useful for applications in sensors and actuators. In addition to traditional ferroelectric ceramics and ferroelectric polymers, ferroelectrets have recently become a new group of piezoelectrics. Ferroelectrets are functional polymer systems for electromechanical transduction, with elastically heterogeneous cellular structures and internal quasi-permanent dipole moments. The piezoelectricity of ferroelectrets stems from linear changes of the dipole moments in response to external mechanical or electrical stress. Over the past two decades, polypropylene (PP) foams have been investigated with the aim of ferroelectret applications, and some products are already on the market. PP-foam ferroelectrets may exhibit piezoelectric d33 coefficients of 600 pC/N and more. Their operating temperature can, however, not be much higher than 60 °C. Recently developed polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) foam ferroelectrets show slightly better d33 thermal stabilities, but usually at the price of smaller d33 values. Therefore, the main aim of this work is the development of new thermally stable ferroelectrets with appreciable piezoelectricity. Physical foaming is a promising technique for generating polymer foams from solid films without any pollution or impurity. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrogen (N2) are usually employed as foaming agents due to their good solubility in several polymers. Polyethylene propylene (PEN) is a polyester with slightly better properties than PET. A “voiding + inflation + stretching” process has been specifically developed to prepare PEN foams. Solid PEN films are saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressure and then thermally voided at high temperatures. Controlled inflation (Gas-Diffusion Expansion or GDE) is applied in order to adjust the void dimensions. Additional biaxial stretching decreases the void heights, since it is known lens-shaped voids lead to lower elastic moduli and therefore also to stronger piezoelectricity. Both, contact and corona charging are suitable for the electric charging of PEN foams. The light emission from the dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) can be clearly observed. Corona charging in a gas of high dielectric strength such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) results in higher gas-breakdown strength in the voids and therefore increases the piezoelectricity. PEN foams can exhibit piezoelectric d33 coefficients as high as 500 pC/N. Dielectric-resonance spectra show elastic moduli c33 of 1 − 12 MPa, anti-resonance frequencies of 0.2 − 0.8 MHz, and electromechanical coupling factors of 0.016 − 0.069. As expected, it is found that PEN foams show better thermal stability than PP and PET. Samples charged at room temperature can be utilized up to 80 − 100 °C. Annealing after charging or charging at elevated temperatures may improve thermal stabilities. Samples charged at suitable elevated temperatures show working temperatures as high as 110 − 120 °C. Acoustic measurements at frequencies of 2 Hz − 20 kHz show that PEN foams can be well applied in this frequency range. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) copolymers are fluoropolymers with very good physical, chemical and electrical properties. The charge-storage ability of solid FEP films can be significantly improved by adding boron nitride (BN) filler particles. FEP foams are prepared by means of a one-step procedure consisting of CO2 saturation and subsequent in-situ high-temperature voiding. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 40 pC/N are measured on such FEP foams. Mechanical fatigue tests show that the as-prepared PEN and FEP foams are mechanically stable for long periods of time. Although polymer-foam ferroelectrets have a high application potential, their piezoelectric properties strongly depend on the cellular morphology, i.e. on size, shape, and distribution of the voids. On the other hand, controlled preparation of optimized cellular structures is still a technical challenge. Consequently, new ferroelectrets based on polymer-layer system (sandwiches) have been prepared from FEP. By sandwiching an FEP mesh between two solid FEP films and fusing the polymer system with a laser beam, a well-designed uniform macroscopic cellular structure can be formed. Dielectric resonance spectroscopy reveals piezoelectric d33 coefficients as high as 350 pC/N, elastic moduli of about 0.3 MPa, anti-resonance frequencies of about 30 kHz, and electromechanical coupling factors of about 0.05. Samples charged at elevated temperatures show better thermal stabilities than those charged at room temperature, and the higher the charging temperature, the better is the stability. After proper charging at 140 °C, the working temperatures can be as high as 110 − 120 °C. Acoustic measurements at frequencies of 200 Hz − 20 kHz indicate that the FEP layer systems are suitable for applications at least in this range.

The availability of large data sets has allowed researchers to uncover complex properties in complex systems, such as complex networks and human dynamics. A vast number of systems, from the Internet to the brain, power grids, ecosystems, can be represented as large complex networks. Dynamics on and of complex networks has attracted more and more researchers’ interest. In this thesis, first, I introduced a simple but effective dynamical optimization coupling scheme which can realize complete synchronization in networks with undelayed and delayed couplings and enhance the small-world and scale-free networks’ synchronizability. Second, I showed that the robustness of scale-free networks with community structure was enhanced due to the existence of communities in the networks and some of the response patterns were found to coincide with topological communities. My results provide insights into the relationship between network topology and the functional organization in complex networks from another viewpoint. Third, as an important kind of nodes of complex networks, human detailed correspondence dynamics was studied by both data and the model. A new and general type of human correspondence pattern was found and an interacting priority-queues model was introduced to explain it. The model can also embrace a range of realistic social interacting systems such as email and letter communication. My findings provide insight into various human activities both at the individual and network level. Fourth, I present clearly new evidence that human comment behavior in on-line social systems, a different type of interacting human dynamics, is non-Poissonian and a model based on the personal attraction was introduced to explain it. These results are helpful for discovering regular patterns of human behavior in on-line society and the evolution of the public opinion on the virtual as well as real society. Finally, there are conclusion and outlook of human dynamics and complex networks.

Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Überwindung einer Differenz, die zwischen der Theorie der Phase bzw. der Phasendynamik und ihrer Anwendung in der Zeitreihenanalyse besteht: Während die theoretische Phase eindeutig bestimmt und invariant unter Koordinatentransformationen bzw. gegenüber der jeweils gewählten Observable ist, führen die Standardmethoden zur Abschätzung der Phase aus gegebenen Zeitreihen zu Resultaten, die einerseits von den gewählten Observablen abhängen und so andererseits das jeweilige System keineswegs in eindeutiger und invarianter Weise beschreiben. Um diese Differenz deutlich zu machen, wird die terminologische Unterscheidung von Phase und Protophase eingeführt: Der Terminus Phase wird nur für Variablen verwendet, die dem theoretischen Konzept der Phase entsprechen und daher das jeweilige System in invarianter Weise charakterisieren, während die observablen-abhängigen Abschätzungen der Phase aus Zeitreihen als Protophasen bezeichnet werden. Der zentrale Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer deterministischen Transformation, die von jeder Protophase eines selbsterhaltenden Oszillators zur eindeutig bestimmten Phase führt. Dies ermöglicht dann die invariante Beschreibung gekoppelter Oszillatoren und ihrer Wechselwirkung. Die Anwendung der Transformation bzw. ihr Effekt wird sowohl an numerischen Beispielen demonstriert - insbesondere wird die Phasentransformation in einem Beispiel auf den Fall von drei gekoppelten Oszillatoren erweitert - als auch an multivariaten Messungen des EKGs, des Pulses und der Atmung, aus denen Phasenmodelle der kardiorespiratorischen Wechselwirkung rekonstruiert werden. Abschließend wird die Phasentransformation für autonome Oszillatoren auf den Fall einer nicht vernachlässigbaren Amplitudenabhängigkeit der Protophase erweitert, was beispielsweise die numerischen Bestimmung der Isochronen des chaotischen Rössler Systems ermöglicht.

This thesis is concerned with the development of numerical methods using finite difference techniques for the discretization of initial value problems (IVPs) and initial boundary value problems (IBVPs) of certain hyperbolic systems which are first order in time and second order in space. This type of system appears in some formulations of Einstein equations, such as ADM, BSSN, NOR, and the generalized harmonic formulation. For IVP, the stability method proposed in [14] is extended from second and fourth order centered schemes, to 2n-order accuracy, including also the case when some first order derivatives are approximated with off-centered finite difference operators (FDO) and dissipation is added to the right-hand sides of the equations. For the model problem of the wave equation, special attention is paid to the analysis of Courant limits and numerical speeds. Although off-centered FDOs have larger truncation errors than centered FDOs, it is shown that in certain situations, off-centering by just one point can be beneficial for the overall accuracy of the numerical scheme. The wave equation is also analyzed in respect to its initial boundary value problem. All three types of boundaries - outflow, inflow and completely inflow that can appear in this case, are investigated. Using the ghost-point method, 2n-accurate (n = 1, 4) numerical prescriptions are prescribed for each type of boundary. The inflow boundary is also approached using the SAT-SBP method. In the end of the thesis, a 1-D variant of BSSN formulation is derived and some of its IBVPs are considered. The boundary procedures, based on the ghost-point method, are intended to preserve the interior 2n-accuracy. Numerical tests show that this is the case if sufficient dissipation is added to the rhs of the equations.

Coupling of the electrical, mechanical and optical response in polymer/liquid-crystal composites
(2010)

Micrometer-sized liquid-crystal (LC) droplets embedded in a polymer matrix may enable optical switching in the composite film through the alignment of the LC director along an external electric field. When a ferroelectric material is used as host polymer, the electric field generated by the piezoelectric effect can orient the director of the LC under an applied mechanical stress, making these materials interesting candidates for piezo-optical devices. In this work, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and a nematic liquid crystal (LC). The anchoring effect is studied by means of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Two dispersion regions are observed in the dielectric spectra of the pure P(VDF-TrFE) film. They are related to the glass transition and to a charge-carrier relaxation, respectively. In PDLC films containing 10 and 60 wt% LC, an additional, bias-field-dependent relaxation peak is found that can be attributed to the motion of LC molecules. Due to the anchoring effect of the LC molecules, this relaxation process is slowed down considerably, when compared with the related process in the pure LC. The electro-optical and piezo-optical behavior of PDLC films containing 10 and 60 wt% LCs is investigated. In addition to the refractive-index mismatch between the polymer matrix and the LC molecules, the interaction between the polymer dipoles and the LC molecules at the droplet interface influences the light-scattering behavior of the PDLC films. For the first time, it was shown that the electric field generated by the application of a mechanical stress may lead to changes in the transmittance of a PDLC film. Such a piezo-optical PDLC material may be useful e.g. in sensing and visualization applications. Compared to a non-polar matrix polymer, the polar matrix polymer exhibits a strong interaction with the LC molecules at the polymer/LC interface which affects the electro-optical effect of the PDLC films and prevents a larger increase in optical transmission.

CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) is a German small satellite mission to study the earth's gravity field, magnetic field and upper atmosphere. Thanks to the good condition of the satellite so far, the planned 5 years mission is extended to year 2009. The satellite provides continuously a large quantity of measurement data for the purpose of Earth study. The measurements of the magnetic field are undertaken by two Fluxgate Magnetometers (vector magnetometer) and one Overhauser Magnetometer (scalar magnetometer) flown on CHAMP. In order to ensure the quality of the data during the whole mission, the calibration of the magnetometers has to be performed routinely in orbit. The scalar magnetometer serves as the magnetic reference and its readings are compared with the readings of the vector magnetometer. The readings of the vector magnetometer are corrected by the parameters that are derived from this comparison, which is called the scalar calibration. In the routine processing, these calibration parameters are updated every 15 days by means of scalar calibration. There are also magnetic effects coming from the satellite which disturb the measurements. Most of them have been characterized during tests before launch. Among them are the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft and fields generated by currents. They are all considered to be constant over the mission life. The 8 years of operation experience allow us to investigate the long-term behaviors of the magnetometers and the satellite systems. According to the investigation, it was found that for example the scale factors of the FGM show obvious long-term changes which can be described by logarithmic functions. The other parameters (offsets and angles between the three components) can be considered constant. If these continuous parameters are applied for the FGM data processing, the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings is limited to \pm1nT over the whole mission. This demonstrates, the magnetometers on CHAMP exhibit a very good stability. However, the daily correction of the parameter Z component offset of the FGM improves the agreement between the magnetometers markedly. The Z component offset plays a very important role for the data quality. It exhibits a linear relationship with the standard deviation of the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings. After Z offset correction, the errors are limited to \pm0.5nT (equivalent to a standard deviation of 0.2nT). We improved the corrections of the spacecraft field which are not taken into account in the routine processing. Such disturbance field, e.g. from the power supply system of the satellite, show some systematic errors in the FGM data and are misinterpreted in 9-parameter calibration, which brings false local time related variation of the calibration parameters. These corrections are made by applying a mathematical model to the measured currents. This non-linear model is derived from an inversion technique. If the disturbance field of the satellite body are fully corrected, the standard deviation of scalar error \triangle B remains about 0.1nT. Additionally, in order to keep the OVM readings a reliable standard, the imperfect coefficients of the torquer current correction for the OVM are redetermined by solving a minimization problem. The temporal variation of the spacecraft remanent field is investigated. It was found that the average magnetic moment of the magneto-torquers reflects well the moment of the satellite. This allows for a continuous correction of the spacecraft field. The reasons for the possible unknown systemic error are discussed in this thesis. Particularly, both temperature uncertainties and time errors have influence on the FGM data. Based on the results of this thesis the data processing of future magnetic missions can be designed in an improved way. In particular, the upcoming ESA mission Swarm can take advantage of our findings and provide all the auxiliary measurements needed for a proper recovery of the ambient magnetic field.