## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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We consider the suppression of spatiotemporal chaos in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation by a combined global and local time-delay feedback. Feedback terms are implemented as a control scheme, i.e., they are proportional to the difference between the time-delayed state of the system and its current state. We perform a linear stability analysis of uniform oscillations with respect to space-dependent perturbations and compare with numerical simulations. Similarly, for the fixed-point solution that corresponds to amplitude death in the spatially extended system, a linear stability analysis with respect to space-dependent perturbations is performed and complemented by numerical simulations.

We investigate the characteristics of time-delay systems in the presence of Gaussian noise. We show that the delay time embedded in the time series of time-delay system with constant delay cannot be estimated in the presence noise for appropriate values of noise intensity thereby forbidding any possibility of phase space reconstruction. We also demonstrate the existence of complete synchronization between two independent identical time-delay systems driven by a common noise without explicitly establishing any external coupling between them.

We experimentally demonstrate efficient switching of the hard x-ray Bragg reflectivity of a SrRuO3 /SrTiO3 superlattice by optical excitation of large-amplitude coherent acoustic superlattice phonons. The rocking curve changes drastically on a 1 ps timescale. The (0 0 116) reflection is almost extinguished (Delta R/R-0=-0.91), while the (0 0 118) reflection increases by more than an order of magnitude (Delta R/R-0=24.1). The change of the x-ray structure factor depends nonlinearly on the phonon amplitude, allowing manipulation of the x-ray response on a timescale considerably shorter than the phonon period. Numerical simulations for a superlattice with slightly changed geometry and realistic parameters predict a switching-contrast ratio Delta R/R-0 of 700 with high reflectivity.

Inelastic x-ray scattering spectra excited at the 1s(-1) pi* resonance of gas phase O-2 have been recorded with an overall energy resolution that allows for well-resolved vibrational progressions. The nuclear wave packet dynamics in the intermediate state is reflected in vibrational excitations of the electronic ground state, and by fine-tuning the excitation energy the dissociation dynamics in the predissociative B' (3) Pi(g) final state is controlled.

Stellar winds appear as a persistent feature of hot stars, irrespective of their wide range of different luminosities, masses, and chemical composition. Among the massive stars, the Wolf-Rayet types show considerably stronger mass loss than the O stars. Among hot low-mass stars, stellar winds are seen at central stars of planetary nebulae, where again the hydrogen-deficient stars show much stronger winds than those central stars with "normal" composition. We also studied mass-loss from a few extreme helium stars and sdOs. Their mass-loss rate roughly follows the same proportionality with luminosity to the power 1.5 as the massive O stars. This relation roughly marks a lower limit for the mass loss from hot stars of all kinds, and provides evidence that radiation pressure on spectral lines is the basic mechanism at work. For certain classes of stars the mass-loss rates lie significantly above this relation, for reasons that are not yet fully understood. Mass loss from low-mass stars may affect their evolution, by reducing the envelope mass, and can easily prevent diffusion from establishing atmospheric abundance patterns. In close binary systems, their winds can feed the accretion onto a companion.

We investigate the role of surface plasmons in the electromagnetic Casimir effect at finite temperature, including situations out of global thermal equilibrium. The free energy is calculated analytically and expanded for different regimes of distances and temperatures. Similar to the zero-temperature case, the interaction changes from attraction to repulsion with distance. Thermal effects are shown to be negligible for small plate separations and at room temperature but become dominant and repulsive at large values of these parameters. In configurations out of global thermal equilibrium, we show that the selective excitation of surface plasmons can create a repulsive Casimir force between metal plates.

We report the discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star in Aquila via detection of its circumstellar nebula (reminiscent of ring nebulae associated with late WN stars) using the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data. Our spectroscopic follow-up of the central point source associated with the nebula showed that it is a WN7h star (we named it WR121b). We analysed the spectrum of WR 121b by using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmospheres, obtaining a stellar temperature of similar or equal to 50 kK. The stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with similar to 20 per cent of hydrogen. The stellar spectrum is highly reddened [E(B - V) = 2.85 mag]. Adopting an absolute magnitude of M-v = 5.7, the star has a luminosity of log L/L-circle dot = 5.75 and a mass-loss rate of 10(-4.7)M(circle dot)yr(-1), and resides at a distance of 6.3 kpc. We searched for a possible parent cluster of WR 121b and found that this star is located at similar or equal to 1 degrees from the young star cluster embedded in the giant HII region W43 (containing a WN7+a/OB? star - WR121a). We also discovered a bow shock around the O9.5III star ALS 9956, located at similar or equal to 0 degrees.5 from the cluster. We discuss the possibility that WR121b and ALS 9956 are runaway stars ejected from the cluster in W43.

A remarkable feature of quantum theory is nonlocality ( Bell inequality violations). However, quantum correlations are not maximally nonlocal, and it is natural to ask whether there are compelling reasons for rejecting theories in which stronger violations are possible. To shed light on this question, we consider post-quantum theories in which maximally nonlocal states ( nonlocal boxes) occur. We show that reversible transformations in such theories are trivial: they consist solely of local operations and permutations of systems. In particular, no correlations can be created; nonlocal boxes cannot be prepared from product states and classical computers can efficiently simulate all such processes.

We establish methods for quantum state tomography based on compressed sensing. These methods are specialized for quantum states that are fairly pure, and they offer a significant performance improvement on large quantum systems. In particular, they are able to reconstruct an unknown density matrix of dimension d and rank r using O(rdlog(2)d) measurement settings, compared to standard methods that require d(2) settings. Our methods have several features that make them amenable to experimental implementation: they require only simple Pauli measurements, use fast convex optimization, are stable against noise, and can be applied to states that are only approximately low rank. The acquired data can be used to certify that the state is indeed close to pure, so no a priori assumptions are needed.

Quantum computational webs
(2010)

We discuss the notion of quantum computational webs: These are quantum states universal for measurement-based computation, which can be built up from a collection of simple primitives. The primitive elements-reminiscent of building blocks in a construction kit-are (i) one-dimensional states (computational quantum wires) with the power to process one logical qubit and (ii) suitable couplings, which connect the wires to a computationally universal web. All elements are preparable by nearest-neighbor interactions in a single pass, of the kind accessible in a number of physical architectures. We provide a complete classification of qubit wires, a physically well-motivated class of universal resources that can be fully understood. Finally, we sketch possible realizations in superlattices and explore the power of coupling mechanisms based on Ising or exchange interactions.

Scope of this work was the synthesis of homogeneously dispersed silver nanoparticles in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and the study of the resulting properties affecting both the electro-active matrix and the optically-active nanofiller. In the nanocomposites surface plasmon resonances can be tuned across the UV- vis to the NIR spectral range. From IR spectra and DSC measurements it is concluded that the - to -phase transformation is observed and no degradation of the polymer matrix occurs. Finally, electrical poling was performed in order to investigate the influence of the embedded silver particles on the polarization behavior of the ferroelectric polymer.

Exploring the origin and fate of the Magellanic stream with ultraviolet and optical absorption
(2010)

We present an analysis of ionization and metal enrichment in the Magellanic Stream (MS), the nearest gaseous tidal stream, using Hubble Space Telescope/STIS and FUSE ultraviolet spectroscopy of two background active galactic nuclei. The targets are NGC 7469, lying directly behind the MS with log N(H I)(MS) = 18.63 +/- 0.03(stat) +/- 0.08(syst), and Mrk 335, lying 24 degrees.7 away with log N(H I)(MS) = 16.67 +/- 0.05. For NGC 7469, we include optical spectroscopy from VLT/UVES. In both sight lines, the MS is detected in low-ion (O I, C II, C III, Si II, Si III, Al II, Ca II) and high-ion (O VI, C IV, Si IV) absorption. Toward NGC 7469, we measure an MS oxygen abundance [O/H](MS) = [O I/ H I]= -1.00 +/- 0.05(stat) +/- 0.08(syst), supporting the view that the Stream originates in the Small Magellanic Cloud rather than the Large Magellanic Cloud. We use CLOUDY to model the low-ion phase of the Stream as a photoionized plasma using the observed Si III/Si II and C III/C II ratios. Toward Mrk 335, this yields an ionization parameter between log U= -3.45 and -3.15, a gas density log (n(H)/cm(-3)) between-2.51 and -2.21, and a hydrogen ionization fraction of 98.9%- 99.5%. Toward NGC 7469, we derive sub-solar abundance ratios for [Si/O], [Fe/O], and [Al/O], indicating the presence of dust in the MS. The high-ion column densities are too large to be explained by photoionization, but also cannot be explained by a single-temperature collisional ionization model (equilibrium or non-equilibrium). This suggests that the high-ion plasma is multi-phase, with an Si IV region, a hotter O VI region, and C IV potentially contributing to each. Summing over the low-ion and high-ion phases, we derive conservative lower limits on the ratio N(total H II)/N(H I) of greater than or similar to 19 toward NGC 7469 and greater than or similar to 330 toward Mrk 335, showing that along these two directions the vast majority of the Stream has been ionized. The presence of warm-hot plasma together with the small-scale structure observed at 21 cm provides evidence for an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona. This scenario, predicted by hydrodynamical simulations, suggests that the fate of the MS will be to replenish the Galactic corona with new plasma, rather than to bring neutral fuel to the disk.

We show that Scattering Infrared Near-field Microscopy (SNIM) allows chemical mapping of polymer monolayers that can serve as designed nanostructured surfaces with specific surface chemistry properties on a nm scale. Using s- SNIM a minimum volume of 100 nm x 100 nm x 15 nm is sufficient for a recording of a "chemical'' IR signature which corresponds to an enhancement of at least four orders of magnitudes compared to conventional FT-IR microscopy. We could prove that even in cases where it is essentially difficult to distinguish between distinct polymer compositions based solely on topography, nanophase separated polymers can be clearly distinguished according to their characteristic near-field IR response.

Cellular polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN) ferroelectrets are useful as soft and flexible electromechanical transducer materials. Improved cellular PEN foams are prepared by means of a "voiding + inflation + stretching" process and investigated with respect to their structure and their applications-relevant properties. It is found that most of the cellular voids have heights below 8 mu m. The polymer walls do not allow sufficient gas exchange between the voids and the ambient atmosphere, when the cellular films are exposed to atmospheric pressures between a millibar and a few bars. As expected for ferroelectrets, a threshold voltage for charging is observed: A reasonable piezoelectric coefficient d(33) is only found when the charging voltage is higher than 4 kV. Furthermore, d(33) increases with charging voltage and reaches saturation at approximately 8 kV. Annealing after charging or charging at elevated temperatures may enhance the thermal stability of the PEN ferroelectrets. The d(33) of properly annealed samples is stable up to the respective annealing temperatures, but the annealing process reduces the piezoelectric activity of charged ferroelectret films to some extent. Samples charged at suitable elevated temperatures show much better thermal stability than those charged at room temperature, but the charging temperature should be limited to values below the material's glass-transition temperature T-g. Furthermore, the relevant elastic modulus c(33) of PEN ferroelectrets may decrease upon thermal treatment.

We have developed and characterized a hard x-ray accumulating streak camera that achieves subpicosecond time resolution by using single-photon counting. A high repetition rate of 2 kHz was achieved by use of a readout camera with built-in image processing capabilities. The effects of sweep jitter were removed by using a UV timing reference. The use of single-photon counting allows the camera to reach a high quantum efficiency by not limiting the divergence of the photoelectrons.

Quantum many-body models describing natural systems or materials and physical systems assembled piece by piece in the laboratory for the purpose of realizing quantum information processing share an important feature: intricate correlations that originate from the coherent interaction between a large number of constituents. In recent years it has become manifest that the cross-fertilization between research devoted to quantum information science and to quantum many- body physics leads to new ideas, methods, tools, and insights in both fields. Issues of criticality, quantum phase transitions, quantum order and magnetism that play a role in one field find relations to the classical simulation of quantum systems, to error correction and fault tolerance thresholds, to channel capacities and to topological quantum computation, to name but a few. The structural similarities of typical problems in both fields and the potential for pooling of ideas then become manifest. Notably, methods and ideas from quantum information have provided fresh approaches to long-standing problems in strongly correlated systems in the condensed matter context, including both numerical methods and conceptual insights.

Physical interactions in quantum many-body systems are typically local: Individual constituents interact mainly with their few nearest neighbors. This locality of interactions is inherited by a decay of correlation functions, but also reflected by scaling laws of a quite profound quantity: the entanglement entropy of ground states. This entropy of the reduced state of a subregion often merely grows like the boundary area of the subregion, and not like its volume, in sharp contrast with an expected extensive behavior. Such "area laws" for the entanglement entropy and related quantities have received considerable attention in recent years. They emerge in several seemingly unrelated fields, in the context of black hole physics, quantum information science, and quantum many-body physics where they have important implications on the numerical simulation of lattice models. In this Colloquium the current status of area laws in these fields is reviewed. Center stage is taken by rigorous results on lattice models in one and higher spatial dimensions. The differences and similarities between bosonic and fermionic models are stressed, area laws are related to the velocity of information propagation in quantum lattice models, and disordered systems, nonequilibrium situations, and topological entanglement entropies are discussed. These questions are considered in classical and quantum systems, in their ground and thermal states, for a variety of correlation measures. A significant proportion is devoted to the clear and quantitative connection between the entanglement content of states and the possibility of their efficient numerical simulation. Matrix-product states, higher-dimensional analogs, and variational sets from entanglement renormalization are also discussed and the paper is concluded by highlighting the implications of area laws on quantifying the effective degrees of freedom that need to be considered in simulations of quantum states.

The statistical distribution of energies among particles responsible for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is analyzed in light of recent results of the Fermi Observatory. The all-sky flux, F., recorded by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is shown, despite its larger energy range, to be not significantly larger than that reported by the Burst and Transient Explorer, suggesting a relatively small flux in the 3-30MeV energy range. The present-day energy input rate in gamma-rays recorded by the GBM from long GRBs is found, assuming star formation rates in the literature, to be W(0) = 0.5F gamma H/c = 5x10(42) erg Mpc(-3) yr(-1). The Large Area Telescope fluence, when observed, is about 5%-10% per decade of the total, in good agreement with the predictions of saturated, nonlinear shock acceleration. The high- energy component of long GRBs, as measured by Fermi, is found to contain only similar to 10-2.5 of the energy needed to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 4 EeV, assuming the latter to be extragalactic, when various numerical factors are carefully included, if the cosmic-ray source spectrum has a spectral index of -2. The observed. - ray fraction of the required UHECR energy is even smaller if the source spectrum is softer than E-2. The AMANDA II limits rule out such a GRB origin for UHECRs if much more than 10(-2) of the cosmic-ray energy goes into neutrinos that are within, and simultaneous with, the gamma-ray beam. It is suggested that "orphan" neutrinos out of the gamma-ray beam might be identifiable via orphan afterglow or other wide angle signatures of GRBs in lieu of coincidence with prompt gamma-rays, and it is recommended that feasible single neutrino trigger criteria be established to search for such coincidences.

We show that ground states of unfrustrated quantum spin-1/2 systems on general lattices satisfy an entanglement area law, provided that the Hamiltonian can be decomposed into nearest-neighbor interaction terms that have entangled excited states. The ground state manifold can be efficiently described as the image of a low-dimensional subspace of low Schmidt measure, under an efficiently contractible tree-tensor network. This structure gives rise to the possibility of efficiently simulating the complete ground space (which is in general degenerate). We briefly discuss 'non- generic' cases, including highly degenerate interactions with product eigenbases, using a relationship to percolation theory. We finally assess the possibility of using such tree tensor networks to simulate almost frustration- free spin models.

We identify a large class of quantum many-body systems that can be solved exactly: natural frustration-free spin-1/2 nearest-neighbor Hamiltonians on arbitrary lattices. We show that the entire ground-state manifold of such models can be found exactly by a tensor network of isometries acting on a space locally isomorphic to the symmetric subspace. Thus, for this wide class of models, real-space renormalization can be made exact. Our findings also imply that every such frustration-free spin model satisfies an area law for the entanglement entropy of the ground state, establishing a novel large class of models for which an area law is known. Finally, we show that our approach gives rise to an ansatz class useful for the simulation of almost frustration-free models in a simple fashion, outperforming mean- field theory.

One-way measurement based quantum computations (1WQC) may describe unitary transformations, via a composition of CPTP maps which are not all unitary themselves. This motivates the following decision problems. Is it possible to determine whether a "quantum-to-quantum" 1WQC procedure (having non-trivial input and output subsystems) performs a unitary transformation? Is it possible to describe precisely how such computations transform quantum states, by translation to a quantum circuit of comparable complexity? In this article, we present an efficient algorithm for transforming certain families of measurement-based computations into a reasonable unitary circuit model, in particular without employing the principle of deferred measurement.

We present some observations on a restricted variant of unitary Cayley graphs modulo n, and implications for a decomposition of elements of symplectic operators over the integers modulo n. We define quadratic unitary Cayley graphs G(n), whose vertex set is the ring Z(n), and where residues a, b modulo n are adjacent if and only if their difference is a quadratic residue. By bounding the diameter of such graphs, we show an upper bound on the number of elementary operations (symplectic scalar multiplications, symplectic row swaps, and row additions or subtractions) required to decompose a symplectic matrix over Z(n). We also characterize the conditions on n for G(n) to be a perfect graph.

We review our understanding of Saturn's rings after nearly 6 years of observations by the Cassini spacecraft. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of water ice but also contain an undetermined reddish contaminant. The rings exhibit a range of structure across many spatial scales; some of this involves the interplay of the fluid nature and the self-gravity of innumerable orbiting centimeter- to meter-sized particles, and the effects of several peripheral and embedded moonlets, but much remains unexplained. A few aspects of ring structure change on time scales as short as days. It remains unclear whether the vigorous evolutionary processes to which the rings are subject imply a much younger age than that of the solar system. Processes on view at Saturn have parallels in circumstellar disks.

We prove that quantum many-body systems on a one-dimensional lattice locally relax to Gaussian states under non- equilibrium dynamics generated by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. This is true for a large class of initial states-pure or mixed-which have to satisfy merely weak conditions concerning the decay of correlations. The considered setting is a proven instance of a situation where dynamically evolving closed quantum systems locally appear as if they had truly relaxed, to maximum entropy states for fixed second moments. This furthers the understanding of relaxation in suddenly quenched quantum many-body systems. The proof features a non-commutative central limit theorem for non-i.i.d. random variables, showing convergence to Gaussian characteristic functions, giving rise to trace-norm closeness. We briefly link our findings to the ideas of typicality and concentration of measure.

The influence of the solvent-evaporation rate on the formation of of. and P crystalline phases in solution-cast poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films was systematically investigated. Films were crystallized from PVDF/N,N- dimethylformamide solutions with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 wt % at different temperatures. During crystallization, the solvent evaporation rate was monitored in situ by means of a semianalytic balance. With this system, it was possible to determine the evaporation rate for different concentrations and temperatures of the solution under specific ambient conditions (pressure, temperature, and humidity). Fourier-Transform InfraRed spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance revealed the P-phase content in the PVDF films and its dependence on previous evaporation rates. Based on the relation between the evaporation rate and the PVDF phase composition, a consistent explanation for the different amounts of P phase observed at the upper and lower sample surfaces is achieved. Furthermore, the role of the sample thickness has also been studied. The experimental results show that not only the temperature but also the evaporation rate have to be controlled to obtain the desired crystalline phases in solution-cast PVDF films.

Despite many previous Studies on the association between hyperthyroidism and the hyperadrenergic state, controversies still exist. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a well recognized method in the nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and it has physiological significance related to the autonomic nervous system. In particular, an increased short-term scaling exponent alpha 1 calculated from DFA is associated with both increased sympathetic activity and decreased vagal activity. No study has investigated the DFA of HRV in hyperthyroidism. This study was designed to assess the sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. We performed the DFA along with the linear analysis of HRV in 36 hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients (32 females and 4 males; age 30 +/- 1 years, means +/- SE) and 36 normal controls matched by sex, age and body mass index. Compared with the normal controls, the hyperthyroid patients revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in alpha 1 (hyperthyroid 1.28 +/- 0.04 versus control 0.91 +/- 0.02), long-term scaling exponent alpha 2 (1.05 +/- 0.02 versus 0.90 +/- 0.01), overall scaling exponent alpha (1.11 +/- 0.02 versus 0.89 +/- 0.01), low frequency power in normalized units (LF%) and the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF); and a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (SDNN) and high frequency power (HF). In conclusion, hyperthyroidism is characterized by concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. This sympathovagal imbalance state in hyperthyroidism helps to explain the higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and exercise intolerance among hyperthyroid patients.

The 8.2 ka event : abrupt transition of the subpolar gyre toward a modern North Atlantic circulation
(2010)

Climate model simulations of the 8.2 ka event show an abrupt strengthening of the Atlantic subpolar gyre that allows us to connect two major but apparently contradictory climate events of the early Holocene: the freshwater outburst from proglacial lakes and the onset of Labrador Sea water formation. The 8.2 ka event is the largest climatic signal of our present interglacial with a widespread cooling in the North Atlantic region about 8200 years before present. It coincides with a meltwater outburst from North American proglacial lakes that is believed to have weakened the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and northward heat transport, followed by a recovery of the deep ocean circulation and rising temperatures after a few centuries. Marine proxy data, however, date the onset of deep water formation in Labrador Sea to the same time. The subsequent strengthening of the slope current system created a regional signal recorded as an abrupt and persistent surface temperature decrease. Although similarities in timing are compelling, a mechanism to reconcile these apparently contradictory events was missing. Our simulations show that an abrupt and persistent strengthening of the Atlantic subpolar gyre provides a plausible explanation. The intense freshwater pulse triggered a transition of the gyre circulation into a different mode of operation, stabilized by internal feedbacks and persistent after the cessation of the perturbation. As a direct consequence, deep water formation around its center intensifies. This corresponds to the modern flow regime and stabilizes the meridional overturning circulation, possibly contributing to the Holocene's climatic stability.

We report on a self-emerging chimera state in a homogeneous chain of nonlocally and nonlinearly coupled oscillators. This chimera, i.e., a state with coexisting regions of complete and partial synchrony, emerges via a supercritical bifurcation from a homogeneous state. We develop a theory of chimera based on the Ott-Antonsen equations for the local complex order parameter. Applying a numerical linear stability analysis, we also describe the instability of the chimera and transition to phase turbulence with persistent patches of synchrony.

We report results on dispersion relations and instabilities of traveling waves in excitable systems. Experiments employ solutions of the 1,4-cyclohexanedione Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction confined to thin capillary tubes which create a pseudo-one-dimensional system. Theoretical analyses focus on a three-variable reaction-diffusion model that is known to reproduce qualitatively many of the experimentally observed dynamics. Using continuation methods, we show that the transition from normal, monotonic to anomalous, single-overshoot dispersion curves is due to an orbit flip bifurcation of the solitary pulse homoclinics. In the case of "wave stacking", this anomaly induces attractive pulse interaction, slow solitary pulses, and faster wave trains. For "wave merging", wave trains break up in the wake of the slow solitary pulse due to an instability of wave trains at small wavelength. A third case, "wave tracking" is characterized by the non-existence of solitary waves but existence of periodic wave trains. The corresponding dispersion curve is a closed curve covering a finite band of wavelengths.

We quantify random migration of the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum. We demonstrate that the statistics of cell motion can be described by an underlying Langevin-type stochastic differential equation. An analytic expression for the velocity distribution function is derived. The separation into deterministic and stochastic parts of the movement shows that the cells undergo a damped motion with multiplicative noise. Both contributions to the dynamics display a distinct response to external physiological stimuli. The deterministic component depends on the developmental state and ambient levels of signaling substances, while the stochastic part does not.

We have used space-charge limited current measurements to study the mobility of holes and electrons in two fluorene-based copolymers for temperatures from 100 to 300 K. Interpreting the results using the standard analytical model produced an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence for a limited temperature range only and mobility was found to be apparently dependent on the thickness of the polymer film. To improve on this, we have interpreted our data using a numerical model that takes into account the effects of the carrier concentration and energetic disorder on transport. This accounted for the thickness dependence and gave a more consistent temperature dependence across the full range of temperatures, giving support to the extended Gaussian disorder model for transport in disordered polymers. Furthermore, we find that the same model adequately describes both electron and hole transport without the need to explicitly include a distribution of electron traps. Room-temperature mobilities were found to be in the region of 4 x 10(-8) and 2 x 10(- 8) cm(2) V-1 s(-1) in the limit of zero field and zero carrier density with disorders of 110+/-10 and 100+/-10 meV for polymers poly{9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis[N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)]bis(N, N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene)diamine} and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole), respectively.

We present an efficient expression for the analytic continuation to arbitrary complex frequencies of the complex optical and ac conductivity of a homogeneous superconductor with an arbitrary mean free path. Knowledge of this quantity is fundamental in the calculation of thermodynamic potentials and dispersion energies involving type-I superconducting bodies. When considered for imaginary frequencies, our formula evaluates faster than previous schemes involving Kramers-Kronig transforms. A number of applications illustrate its efficiency: a simplified low-frequency expansion of the conductivity, the electromagnetic bulk self-energy due to longitudinal plasma oscillations, and the Casimir free energy of a superconducting cavity.

Real-space renormalization approaches for quantum lattice systems generate certain hierarchical classes of states that are subsumed by the multiscale entanglement renormalization Ansatz (MERA). It is shown that, with the exception of one spatial dimension, MERA states are actually states with finite correlations, i.e., projected entangled pair states (PEPS) with a bond dimension independent of the system size. Hence, real-space renormalization generates states which can be encoded with local effective degrees of freedom, and MERA states form an efficiently contractible class of PEPS that obey the area law for the entanglement entropy. It is further pointed out that there exist other efficiently contractible schemes violating the area law.

The method of current extraction under linear increasing voltages (CELIV) allows for the simultaneous determination of charge mobilities and charge densities directly in thin-film geometries as used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It has been specifically applied to investigate the interrelation of microstructure and charge-transport properties in such systems. Numerical and analytical calculations presented in this work show that the evaluation of CELIV transients with the commonly used analysis scheme is error prone once charge recombination and, possibly, field- dependent charge mobilities are taken into account. The most important effects are an apparent time dependence of charge mobilities and errors in the determined field dependencies. Our results implicate that reports on time-dependent mobility relaxation in OPV materials obtained by the CELIV technique should be carefully revisited and confirmed by other measurement methods.

A recently developed efficient recursive approach for analytically calculating the short-time evolution of the one-particle propagator to extremely high orders is applied here for numerically studying the thermodynamical and dynamical properties of a rotating ideal Bose gas of Rb-87 atoms in an anharmonic trap. At first, the one-particle energy spectrum of the system is obtained by diagonalizing the discretized short-time propagator. Using this, many-boson properties such as the condensation temperature, the ground-state occupancy, density profiles, and time-of-flight absorption pictures are calculated for varying rotation frequencies. The obtained results improve previous semiclassical calculations, in particular for smaller particle numbers. Furthermore, we find that typical time scales for a free expansion are increased by an order of magnitude for the delicate regime of both critical and overcritical rotation.

We consider large populations of phase oscillators with global nonlinear coupling. For identical oscillators such populations are known to demonstrate a transition from completely synchronized state to the state of self-organized quasiperiodicity. In this state phases of all units differ, yet the population is not completely incoherent but produces a nonzero mean field; the frequency of the latter differs from the frequency of individual units. Here we analyze the dynamics of such populations in case of uniformly distributed natural frequencies. We demonstrate numerically and describe theoretically (i) states of complete synchrony, (ii) regimes with coexistence of a synchronous cluster and a drifting subpopulation, and (iii) self-organized quasiperiodic states with nonzero mean field and all oscillators drifting with respect to it. We analyze transitions between different states with the increase of the coupling strength; in particular we show that the mean field arises via a discontinuous transition. For a further illustration we compare the results for the nonlinear model with those for the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model.

beta-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer films were prepared by uniaxially stretching solution-cast or melt-quenched samples. Different preparation routes lead to different amounts of the crystalline alpha and beta phases in the films, as detected by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The beta phase is significantly enhanced in melt-quenched and stretched films in comparison to solution-cast and stretched films. This is particularly true for copolymer samples with higher HFP content. The beta- phase enhancement is also observed in ferroelectric-hysteresis experiments where a rather high polarization of 58 mC/ m(2) was found on melt-quenched and stretched samples after poling at electric fields of 140 MV/m. After poling at 160 MV/m, one of these samples exhibited a piezoelectric d(33) coefficient as high as 21 pC/N. An electric-field-induced partial transition from the alpha to the beta phase was also observed on the melt-quenched and stretched samples. This effect leads to a further increase in the applications-relevant dipole polarization. Uniaxially stretched ferroelectric- polymer films are highly anisotropic. Dielectric resonance spectroscopy reveals a strong increase of the transverse piezoelectric d(32) coefficient and a strong decrease of the transverse elastic modulus c(32) upon heating from 20 to 50 degrees C.

Stellar wind from hot subdwarf stars is mainly accelerated by the interaction of ultraviolet photospheric radiation with metals, mainly oxygen. Absorbing ions share momentum through Coulombic collisions with the remaining passive part of the plasma (namely protons). We found that in the case of the winds from hot subdwarfs, interactions could be so small that they stop the momentum transfer between the passive bulk of plasma and absorbing ions. As a result wind decouples at a certain point.

The present study shows that small admixtures of one chlorophyll a (Chla) molecule per several hundred lipid molecules have strong destabilizing effect on lipid bilayers. This effect is clearly displayed in the properties of the L-alpha-H-II transformations and results from a Chla preference for the H-II relative to the L-alpha phase. Chla disfavors the lamellar liquid crystalline phase L-alpha and induces its replacement with inverted hexagonal phase H-II, as is consistently demonstrated by DSC and X-ray diffraction measurements on phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) dispersions. Chla lowers the L-alpha-H-II transition temperature (42 degrees C) of the fully hydrated dipalmitoleoyl PE (DPoPE) by similar to 8 degrees C and similar to 17 degrees C at Chla/DPoPE molar ratios of 1:500 and 1:100, respectively. Similar Chla effect was recorded also for dielaidoyl PE dispersions. The lowering of the transition temperature and the accompanying significant loss of transition cooperativity reflect the Chla repartitioning and preference for the H-II phase. The reduction of the H-II phase lattice constant in the presence of Chla is an indication that Chla favors v phase formation by decreasing the radius of spontaneous monolayer curvature, and not by filling up the interstitial spaces between the H-II phase cylinders. The observed Chla preference for H-II phase and the substantial bilayer destabilization in the vicinity of a bilayer-to-nonbilayer phase transformation caused by low Chla concentrations can be of interest as a potential regulatory or membrane-damaging factor.

Entanglement entropy obeys area law scaling for typical physical quantum systems. This may naively be argued to follow from the locality of interactions. We show that this is not the case by constructing an explicit simple spin chain Hamiltonian with nearest-neighbor interactions that presents an entanglement volume scaling law. This non- translational model is contrived to have couplings that force the accumulation of singlet bonds across the half-chain. This configuration of the couplings is suggested by real-space renormalization group arguments. Computation of the entanglement entropy is performed by mapping the system to free fermions and diagonalizing numerically its correlation matrix. An analytical relationship between the entanglement entropy and the Frobenius norm of the correlation matrix is also established. Our result is complementary to the known relationship between non-translational invariant, nearest- neighbor interacting Hamiltonians and quantum Merlin-Arthur (QMA)complete problems.

Testing magnetofrictional extrapolation with the Titov-Demoulin model of solar active regions
(2010)

We examine the nonlinear magnetofrictional extrapolation scheme using the solar active region model by Titov and Demoulin as test field. This model consists of an arched, line-tied current channel held in force-free equilibrium by the potential field of a bipolar flux distribution in the bottom boundary. A modified version with a parabolic current density profile is employed here. We find that the equilibrium is reconstructed with very high accuracy in a representative range of parameter space, using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input. Structural features formed in the interface between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade - "hyperbolic flux tube" and "bald patch separatrix surface" - are reliably reproduced, as are the flux rope twist and the energy and helicity of the configuration. This demonstrates that force-free fields containing these basic structural elements of solar active regions can be obtained by extrapolation. The influence of the chosen initial condition on the accuracy of reconstruction is also addressed, confirming that the initial field that best matches the external potential field of the model quite naturally leads to the best reconstruction. Extrapolating the magnetogram of a Titov-Demoulin equilibrium in the unstable range of parameter space yields a sequence of two opposing evolutionary phases, which clearly indicate the unstable nature of the configuration: a partial buildup of the flux rope with rising free energy is followed by destruction of the rope, losing most of the free energy.

Context. Helicity is a fundamental property of magnetic fields, conserved in ideal MHD. In flux rope geometry, it consists of twist and writhe helicity. Despite the common occurrence of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, little is known about how their shape relates to the writhe, which fraction of helicity is contained in writhe, and how much helicity is exchanged between twist and writhe when they erupt. Aims. Here we perform a quantitative investigation of these questions relevant for coronal flux ropes. Methods. The decomposition of the writhe of a curve into local and nonlocal components greatly facilitates its computation. We use it to study the relation between writhe and projected S shape of helical curves and to measure writhe and twist in numerical simulations of flux rope instabilities. The results are discussed with regard to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results. (1) We demonstrate that the relation between writhe and projected S shape is not unique in principle, but that the ambiguity does not affect low- lying structures, thus supporting the established empirical rule which associates stable forward (reverse) S shaped structures low in the corona with positive (negative) helicity. (2) Kink-unstable erupting flux ropes are found to transform a far smaller fraction of their twist helicity into writhe helicity than often assumed. (3) Confined flux rope eruptions tend to show stronger writhe at low heights than ejective eruptions (CMEs). This argues against suggestions that the writhing facilitates the rise of the rope through the overlying field. (4) Erupting filaments which are S shaped already before the eruption and keep the sign of their axis writhe (which is expected if field of one chirality dominates the source volume of the eruption), must reverse their S shape in the course of the rise. Implications for the occurrence of the helical kink instability in such events are discussed. (5) The writhe of rising loops can easily be estimated from the angle of rotation about the direction of ascent, once the apex height exceeds the footpoint separation significantly. Conclusions. Writhe can straightforwardly be computed for numerical data and can often be estimated from observations. It is useful in interpreting S shaped coronal structures and in constraining models of eruptions.

A considerable fraction of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient. As a rule, these CSPNe exhibit a chemical composition of helium, carbon, and oxygen with the majority showing Wolf-Rayet-like emission line spectra. These stars are classified as CSPNe of a spectral type [WC]. We perform a spectral analysis of CSPN PB 8 with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) models for expanding atmospheres. The source PB8 displays wind-broadened emission lines from strong mass loss. Most strikingly, we find that its surface composition is hydrogen-deficient, but not carbon-rich. With mass fractions of 55% helium, 40% hydrogen, 1.3% carbon, 2% nitrogen, and 1.3% oxygen, it differs greatly from the 30-50% of carbon which are typically seen in [WC]-type central stars. The atmospheric mixture in PB8 has an analogy in the WN/WC transition type among the massive Wolf-Rayet stars. Therefore we suggest to introduce a new spectral type [WN/WC] for CSPNe, with PB8 as its first member. The central star of PB8 has a relatively low temperature of T-* = 52 kK, as expected for central stars in their early evolutionary stages. Its surrounding nebula is less than 3000 years old, i.e. relatively young. Existing calculations for the post-AGB evolution can produce hydrogen-deficient stars of the [WC] type, but do not predict the composition found in PB8. We discuss various scenarios that might explain the origin of this unique object.

The surface morphology of icy moons is affected by several processes implicating exchanges between their subsurfaces and atmospheres (if any). The possible exchange of material between the subsurface and the surface is mainly determined by the mechanical properties of the lithosphere, which isolates the deep, warm and ductile ice material from the cold surface conditions. Exchanges through this layer occur only if it is sufficiently thin and/or if it is fractured owing to tectonic stresses, melt intrusion or impact cratering. If such conditions are met, cryomagma can be released, erupting fresh volatile-rich materials onto the surface. For a very few icy moons (Titan, Triton, Enceladus), the emission of gas associated with cryovolcanic activity is sufficiently large to generate an atmosphere, either long- lived or transient. For those moons, atmosphere-driven processes such as cryovolcanic plume deposition, phase transitions of condensable materials and wind interactions continuously re-shape their surfaces, and are able to transport cryovolcanically generated materials on a global scale. In this chapter, we discuss the physics of these different exchange processes and how they affect the evolution of the satellites' surfaces.

We report the identification of global phase synchronization (GPS) in a linear array of unidirectionally coupled Mackey-Glass time-delay systems exhibiting highly non-phase-coherent chaotic attractors with complex topological structure. In particular, we show that the dynamical organization of all the coupled time-delay systems in the array to form GPS is achieved by sequential synchronization as a function of the coupling strength. Further, the asynchronous ones in the array with respect to the main sequentially synchronized cluster organize themselves to form clusters before they achieve synchronization with the main cluster. We have confirmed these results by estimating instantaneous phases including phase difference, average phase, average frequency, frequency ratio, and their differences from suitably transformed phase coherent attractors after using a nonlinear transformation of the original non-phase-coherent attractors. The results are further corroborated using two other independent approaches based on recurrence analysis and the concept of localized sets from the original non-phase-coherent attractors directly without explicitly introducing the measure of phase.

Time delays are ubiquitous in real world and are often sources of complex behaviors of dynamical systems. This paper addresses the problem of parameters identification and synchronization of uncertain chaotic delayed systems subject to time-varying delay. Firstly, a novel and systematic adaptive scheme of synchronization is proposed for delayed dynamical systems containing uncertainties based on Razumikhin condition and extended invariance principle for functional differential equations. Then, the proposed adaptive scheme is used to estimate the unknown parameters of nonlinear delayed systems from time series, and a sufficient condition is given by virtue of this scheme. The delayed system under consideration is a very generic one that includes almost all well-known delayed systems (neural network, complex networks, etc.). Two classical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive scheme.

A new arrangement of the optical elements in a Thermal-Pulse-Tomography (TPT) setup allows to scan micrometer structures in composite and heterogeneous samples such as polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs). The non-destructive TPT technique allows the determination of three-dimensional profiles of polarization and space charge in dielectrics. The samples under study were 12 mu m thick films of a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene P(VDF- TrFE) (65/35) with embedded liquid-crystal droplets. The poling process was performed in direct contact well above the coercive field of the copolymer. The 3D map obtained from scanning with a 10 mu m wide spot shows elliptically shaped areas with liquid-crystal droplets. Considering the droplets as oblate spheroids, their major axis lies in the x-y plane, while their minor axis in the z direction measures 0.5 mu m or more. This result is in good agreement with scanning electron micrographs. It is believed that the major axis is overestimated due to imaging of liquid-crystal clusters.

Actuators based on soft dielectric elastomers deform due to electric field induced Maxwell's stress, interacting with the mechanical properties of the material. The relatively high operating voltages of such actuators can be reduced by increasing the permittivity of the active material, while maintaining the mechanical properties and high electrical breakdown strength. Approaches relying on the use of highly polarizable molecules or conjugated polymers have so far provided the best results, however it has been difficult to maintain high breakdown strengths. In this work, a new approach for increasing the electrostatic energy density of a soft polymer based on molecular composites is presented, relying on chemically grafting soft gel-state pi-conjugated conducting macromolecules (polyaniline (PANI)) to a flexible elastomer backbone SEBS-g-MA (poly-styrene-co-ethylene-co-butylene-co-styrene-g-maleic anhydride). The approach was found to result in composites of increased permittivity (470% over the elastomer matrix) with hardly any reduction in breakdown strength (from 140 to 120 V mu m(-1)), resulting in a large increase in stored electrostatic energy. This led to an improvement in the measured electromechanical response as well as in the maximum actuation strain. A transition was observed when amounts of PANI exceeded 2 vol%, which was ascribed to the exhaustion of the MA- functionality of the SEBS-g-MA. The transition led to drastic increases in permittivity and conductivity, and a sharp drop in electrical breakdown strength. Although the transition caused further improvement of the electromechanical response, the reduction in electrical breakdown strength caused a limitation of the maximum achievable actuation strain.

Bulk electron transport and charge injection in a high mobility n-type semiconducting polymer
(2010)

Bulk electron transport in a high mobility n-type polymer is studied by time-of-flight photocurrent measurements and electron-only devices. Bulk electron mobilities of similar to 5 x 10(-3) cm(2)/Vs are obtained. The analysis of the electron currents suggests the presence of an injection barrier for all conventionally used low workfunction cathodes.

Quasi-monolithic ring resonator for efficient frequency doubling of an external cavity diode laser
(2010)

A quasi-monolithic second-harmonic-generation ring resonator assembled with miniaturized components is presented. The ring contains a 10-mm-long bulk periodically poled lithium niobate crystal for second-harmonic generation, four plane mirrors and two gradient-index lenses. All parts are mounted on a glass substrate with an overall size of 19.5 mmx8.5 mmx4 mm. As pump source a broad-area laser diode operated in an external resonator with Littrow arrangement is utilized. This external cavity diode laser provides near diffraction limited, narrow-bandwidth emission with an optical output power of 450 mW at a wavelength of 976 nm. Locking of the diode laser emission to the resonance frequency of the ring cavity was achieved by an optical self-injection locking technique. With this setup more than 126 mW of diffraction-limited blue light at 488 nm could be generated. The opto-optical conversion efficiency was 28% and a wall plug efficiency better than 5.5% could be achieved.

We consider the dynamics of dilute monodisperse bubbly liquid confined by two plane solid walls and subject to small-amplitude high-frequency oscillations normal to the walls. The initial state corresponds to the uniform distribution of bubbles and motionless liquid. The period of external driving is assumed much smaller than typical relaxation times for a single bubble but larger than the period of volume eigenoscillations. The time-averaged description accounting for the two-way coupling between the liquid and the bubbles is applied. We show that the model predicts accumulation of bubbles in thin sheets parallel to the walls. These singular structures, which are formally characterized by infinitely thin width and infinitely high concentration, are referred to as bubbly screens. The formation of a bubbly screen is described analytically in terms of a self-similar solution, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. We study the evolution of bubbly screens and detect a one-dimensional stationary state, which is shown to be unconditionally unstable.

Chaos synchronization in a ring of diffusively coupled nonlinear oscillators driven by an external identical oscillator is studied. Based on numerical simulations we show that by introducing additional couplings at (mN(c) + 1)-th oscillators in the ring, where m is an integer and N-c is the maximum number of synchronized oscillators in the ring with a single coupling, the maximum number of oscillators that can be synchronized can be increased considerably beyond the limit restricted by size instability. We also demonstrate that there exists an exponential relation between the number of oscillators that can support stable synchronization in the ring with the external drive and the critical coupling strength epsilon(c) with a scaling exponent gamma. The critical coupling strength is calculated by numerically estimating the synchronization error and is also confirmed from the conditional Lyapunov exponents of the coupled systems. We find that the same scaling relation exists for m couplings between the drive and the ring. Further, we have examined the robustness of the synchronous states against Gaussian white noise and found that the synchronization error exhibits a power-law decay as a function of the noise intensity indicating the existence of both noise-enhanced and noise-induced synchronizations depending on the value of the coupling strength epsilon. In addition, we have found that epsilon(c) shows an exponential decay as a function of the number of additional couplings. These results are demonstrated using the paradigmatic models of Rossler and Lorenz oscillators.

Hysteresis in the pinning-depinning transitions of spiral waves rotating around a hole in a circular shaped two- dimensional excitable medium is studied both by use of the continuation software AUTO and by direct numerical integration of the reaction-diffusion equations for the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. In order to clarify the role of different factors in this phenomenon, a kinematical description is applied. It is found that the hysteresis phenomenon computed for the reaction-diffusion model can be reproduced qualitatively only when a nonlinear eikonal equation (i.e. velocity- curvature relationship) is assumed. However, to obtain quantitative agreement, the dispersion relation has to be taken into account.

Explicit solution of the Lindblad equation for nearly isotropic boundary driven XY spin 1/2 chain
(2010)

Explicit solution for the two-point correlation function in a non-equilibrium steady state of a nearly isotropic boundary driven open XY spin 1/2 chain in the Lindblad formulation is provided. A non-equilibrium quantum phase transition from exponentially decaying correlations to long range order is discussed analytically. In the regime of long range order a new phenomenon of correlation resonances is reported, where the correlation response of the system is unusually high for certain discrete values of the external bulk parameter, e.g. the magnetic field.

This paper theoretically analyzes a dielectric elastomer tube actuator (DETA). Subject to a voltage difference between the inner and outer surfaces, the actuator reduces in thickness and expands in length, so that the same voltage will induce an even higher electric field. This positive feedback may cause the actuator to thin down drastically, resulting in electrical breakdown. We obtain an analytical solution of the actuator undergoing finite deformation when the elastomer obeys the neo-Hookean model. The critical strain of actuation is calculated in terms of various parameters of design. We also discuss the effect of the strain-stiffening on electromechanical behavior of DETAs by using the model of freely joined links. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3490186]

Stochastic bifurcations and coherencelike resonance in a self-sustained bistable noisy oscillator
(2010)

We investigate the influence of additive Gaussian white noise on two different bistable self-sustained oscillators: Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator with hard excitation and a model of a synthetic genetic oscillator. In the deterministic case, both oscillators are characterized with a coexistence of a stable limit cycle and a stable equilibrium state. We find that under the influence of noise, their dynamics can be well characterized through the concept of stochastic bifurcation, consisting in a qualitative change of the stationary amplitude distribution. For the Duffing-Van der Pol oscillator analytical results, obtained for a quasiharmonic approach, are compared with the result of direct computer simulations. In particular, we show that the dynamics is different for isochronous and anisochronous systems. Moreover, we find that the increase of noise intensity in the isochronous regime leads to a narrowing of the spectral line. This effect is similar to coherence resonance. However, in the case of anisochronous systems, this effect breaks down and a new phenomenon, anisochronous-based stochastic bifurcation occurs.

Interacting human activities underlie the patterns of many social, technological, and economic phenomena. Here we present clear empirical evidence from Short Message correspondence that observed human actions are the result of the interplay of three basic ingredients: Poisson initiation of tasks and decision making for task execution in individual humans as well as interaction among individuals. This interplay leads to new types of interevent time distribution, neither completely Poisson nor power-law, but a bimodal combination of them. We show that the events can be separated into independent bursts which are generated by frequent mutual interactions in short times following random initiations of communications in longer times by the individuals. We introduce a minimal model of two interacting priority queues incorporating the three basic ingredients which fits well the distributions using the parameters extracted from the empirical data. The model can also embrace a range of realistic social interacting systems such as e-mail and letter communications when taking the time scale of processing into account. Our findings provide insight into various human activities both at the individual and network level. Our analysis and modeling of bimodal activity in human communication from the viewpoint of the interplay between processes of different time scales is likely to shed light on bimodal phenomena in other complex systems, such as interevent times in earthquakes, rainfall, forest fire, and economic systems, etc.

This work generates, through a sample of numerical simulations of the restricted three-body problem, diagrams of semimajor axis and eccentricity which defines stable and unstable zones for particles in S-type orbits around Pluto and Charon. Since we consider initial conditions with 0 <= e <= 0.99, we found several new stable regions. We also identified the nature of each one of these newly found stable regions. They are all associated to families of periodic orbits derived from the planar circular restricted three-body problem. We have shown that a possible eccentricity of the Pluto-Charon system slightly reduces, but does not destroy, any of the stable regions.

Föhlisch wird in seinem Vortrag die großen Zukunftsthemen der Mensch streifen: Energie, Umwelt und Struktur der Materie. Die Komplexität ihrer elementaren Prozesse erfordert die komplementäre Betrachtung der damit verbundene Dimensionen von Energie, Zeit und Raum. Dies lässt sich inzwischen mit Synchrotronstrahlungsquellen in größter Präision darstellen.

Saturn's rings host two known moons, Pan and Daphnis, which are massive enough to clear circumferential gaps in the ring around their orbits. Both moons create wake patterns at the gap edges by gravitational deflection of the ring material (Cuzzi, J.N., Scargle, J.D. [1985]. Astrophys. J. 292, 276-290; Showalter, MR., Cuzzi, J.N., Marouf, E.A., Esposito, LW. [1986]. Icarus 66, 297-323). New Cassini observations revealed that these wavy edges deviate from the sinusoidal waveform, which one would expect from a theory that assumes a circular orbit of the perturbing moon and neglects particle interactions. Resonant perturbations of the edges by moons outside the ring system, as well as an eccentric orbit of the embedded moon, may partly explain this behavior (Porco, CC., and 34 colleagues [2005]. Science 307, 1226-1236; Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Hedman, MM., Spitale, J.N., Porco, CC., Murray, C.D., and the Cassini Imaging team [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 767; Weiss, J.W., Porco, CC., Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Dones, L [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 767; Weiss, J.W., Porco, CC., Tiscareno, M.S. [2009]. Astron. J. 138, 272-286). Here we present an extended non-collisional streamline model which accounts for both effects. We describe the resulting variations of the density structure and the modification of the nonlinearity parameter q. Furthermore, an estimate is given for the applicability of the model. We use the streamwire model introduced by Stewart (Stewart, G.R. [1991]. Icarus 94, 436-450) to plot the perturbed ring density at the gap edges. We apply our model to the Keeler gap edges undulated by Daphnis and to a faint ringlet in the Encke gap close to the orbit of Pan. The modulations of the latter ringlet, induced by the perturbations of Pan (Burns, J.A., Hedman, M.M., Tiscareno, M.S., Nicholson, P.D., Streetman, B.J., Colwell, J.E., Showalter, M.R., Murray, C.D., Cuzzi, J.N., Porco, CC., and the Cassini ISS team [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 766), can be well described by our analytical model. Our analysis yields a Hill radius of Pan of 17.5 km, which is 9% smaller than the value presented by Porco (Porco, CC., and 34 colleagues [2005]. Science 307, 1226- 1236), but fits well to the radial semi-axis of Pan of 17.4 km. This supports the idea that Pan has filled its Hill sphere with accreted material (Porco, C.C., Thomas, P.C., Weiss, J.W., Richardson, D.C. [2007]. Science 318, 1602-1607). A numerical solution of a streamline is used to estimate the parameters of the Daphnis-Keeler gap system, since the close proximity of the gap edge to the moon induces strong perturbations, not allowing an application of the analytic streamline model. We obtain a Hill radius of 5.1 km for Daphnis, an inner edge variation of 8 km, and an eccentricity for Daphnis of 1.5 x 10(-5). The latter two quantities deviate by a factor of two from values gained by direct observations (Jacobson, R.A., Spitale, J., Porco, C.C., Beurle, K., Cooper, N.J., Evans, M.W., Murray, C.D. [2008]. Astron. J. 135, 261-263; Tiscareno, M.S., Burns, J.A., Hedman, M.M., Spitale, J.N., Porco, C.C., Murray, C.D., and the Cassini Imaging team [2005]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 767), which might be attributed to the neglect of particle interactions and vertical motion in our model.

Understanding the functional dynamics of the mammalian brain is one of the central aims of modern neuroscience. Mathematical modeling and computational simulations of neural networks can help in this quest. In recent publications, a multilevel model has been presented to simulate the resting-state dynamics of the cortico-cortical connectivity of the mammalian brain. In the present work we investigate how much of the dynamical behavior of the multilevel model can be reproduced by a strongly simplified model. We find that replacing each cortical area by a single Rulkov map recreates the patterns of dynamical correlation of the multilevel model, while the outcome of other models and setups mainly depends on the local network properties, e. g. the input degree of each vertex. In general, we find that a simple simulation whose dynamics depends on the global topology of the whole network is far from trivial. A systematic analysis of different dynamical models and coupling setups is required.

A new approach for efficient second-harmonic generation using diode lasers is presented. The experimental setup is based on a tapered amplifier operated in a ring resonator that is coupled to a miniaturized enhancement ring resonator containing a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Frequency locking of the diode laser emission to the resonance frequency of the enhancement cavity is realized purely optically, resulting in stable, single-frequency operation. Blue light at 488 nm with an output power of 310 mW is generated with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 18%.

The formation of different micro- and nanostructures during the chemical synthesis of polypyrrole is reviewed shortly based on the conceptions of hard- and soft-templating models. Contrary to other models that emphasize the role of micelles it is found here that during the oxidative polymerization of pyrole using sulfonic acid dopants a crystalline hard template is found in the first steps of the reaction before the addition of the oxidant. This template is formed by a complex consisting of 2,5-bis(pyrrole-2-yl)pyrrolidine and the sulfonic acid anion. The acid catalyzed formation of this specific tripyrrole is discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

An effective dynamical description of a general class of stochastic phase oscillators is presented. For this, the effective phase velocity is defined either by the stochastic phase oscillators invariant probability density or its first passage times. Using the first approach the effective phase exhibits the correct frequency and invariant distribution density, whereas the second approach models the proper phase resetting curve. The discrepancy of the effective models is most pronounced for noise-induced oscillations and is related to non-monotonicity of the stochastic phase variable due to fluctuations.

Human comment is studied using data from 'tianya' which is one of the most popular on-line social systems in China. We found that the time interval between two consecutive comments on the same topic, called inter-event time, follows a power-law distribution. This result shows that there is no characteristic decay time on a topic. It allows for very long periods without comments that separate bursts of intensive comments. Furthermore, the frequency of a different ID commenting on a topic also follows a power-law distribution. It indicates that there are some "hubs" in the topic who lead the direction of the public opinion. Based on the personal comments habit, a model is introduced to explain these phenomena. The numerical simulations of the model fit well with the empirical results. Our findings are helpful for discovering regular patterns of human behavior in on-line society and the evolution of the public opinion on the virtual as well as real society.

We develop an effective description of noise-induced oscillations based on deterministic phase dynamics. The phase equation is constructed to exhibit correct frequency and distribution density of noise-induced oscillations. In the simplest one-dimensional case the effective phase equation is obtained analytically, whereas for more complex situations a simple method of data processing is suggested. As an application an effective coupling function is constructed that quantitatively describes periodically forced noise-induced oscillations.

Superexponential droplet fractalization as a hierarchical formation of dissipative compactons
(2010)

We study the dynamics of a thin film over a substrate heated from below in a framework of a strongly nonlinear one-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard equation. The evolution leads to a fractalization into smaller and smaller scales. We demonstrate that a primitive element in the appearing hierarchical structure is a dissipative compacton. Both direct simulations and the analysis of a self-similar solution show that the compactons appear at superexponentially decreasing scales, which means vanishing dimension of the fractal.

Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der aktiven Komponenten und ihrer Wechselwirkungen in teilorganischen Hybrid-Solarzellen. Diese bestehen aus einer dünnen Titandioxidschicht, kombiniert mit einer dünnen Polymerschicht. Die Effizienz der Hybrid-Solarzellen wird durch die Lichtabsorption im Polymer, die Dissoziation der gebildeten Exzitonen an der aktiven Grenzfläche zwischen TiO2 und Polymer, sowie durch Generation und Extraktion freier Ladungsträger bestimmt. Zur Optimierung der Solarzellen wurden grundlegende physikalische Wechselwirkungen zwischen den verwendeten Materialen sowie der Einfluss verschiedener Herstellungsparameter untersucht. Unter anderem wurden Fragen zum optimalen Materialeinsatz und Präparationsbedingungen beantwortet sowie grundlegende Einflüsse wie Schichtmorphologie und Polymerinfiltration näher betrachtet. Zunächst wurde aus unterschiedlich hergestelltem Titandioxid (Akzeptor-Schicht) eine Auswahl für den Einsatz in Hybrid-Solarzellen getroffen. Kriterium war hierbei die unterschiedliche Morphologie aufgrund der Oberflächenbeschaffenheit, der Film-Struktur, der Kristallinität und die daraus resultierenden Solarzelleneigenschaften. Für die anschließenden Untersuchungen wurden mesoporöse TiO2–Filme aus einer neuen Nanopartikel-Synthese, welche es erlaubt, kristalline Partikel schon während der Synthese herzustellen, als Elektronenakzeptor und konjugierte Polymere auf Poly(p-Phenylen-Vinylen) (PPV)- bzw. Thiophenbasis als Donatormaterial verwendet. Bei der thermischen Behandlung der TiO2-Schichten erfolgt eine temperaturabhängige Änderung der Morphologie, jedoch nicht der Kristallstruktur. Die Auswirkungen auf die Solarzelleneigenschaften wurden dokumentiert und diskutiert. Um die Vorteile der Nanopartikel-Synthese, die Bildung kristalliner TiO2-Partikel bei tiefen Temperaturen, nutzen zu können, wurden erste Versuche zur UV-Vernetzung durchgeführt. Neben der Beschaffenheit der Oxidschicht wurde auch der Einfluss der Polymermorphologie, bedingt durch Lösungsmittelvariation und Tempertemperatur, untersucht. Hierbei konnte gezeigt werden, dass u.a. die Viskosität der Polymerlösung die Infiltration in die TiO2-Schicht und dadurch die Effizienz der Solarzelle beeinflusst. Ein weiterer Ansatz zur Erhöhung der Effizienz ist die Entwicklung neuer lochleitender Polymere, welche möglichst über einen weiten spektralen Bereich Licht absorbieren und an die Bandlücke des TiO2 angepasst sind. Hierzu wurden einige neuartige Konzepte, z.B. die Kombination von Thiophen- und Phenyl-Einheiten näher untersucht. Auch wurde die Sensibilisierung der Titandioxidschicht in Anlehnung an die höheren Effizienzen der Farbstoffzellen in Betracht gezogen. Zusammenfassend konnten im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wichtige Einflussparameter auf die Funktion hybrider Solarzellen identifiziert und z.T. näher diskutiert werden. Für einige limitierende Faktoren wurden Konzepte zur Verbesserung bzw. Vermeidung vorgestellt.

Der Einfluss der Dynamik auf die stratosphärische Ozonvariabilität über der Arktis im Frühwinter
(2010)

Der frühwinterliche Ozongehalt ist ein Indikator für den Ozongehalt im Spätwinter/Frühjahr. Jedoch weist dieser aufgrund von Absinkprozessen, chemisch bedingten Ozonabbau und Wellenaktivität von Jahr zu Jahr starke Schwankungen auf. Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt, dass diese Variabilität weitestgehend auf dynamische Prozesse während der Wirbelbildungsphase des arktischen Polarwirbels zurückgeht. Ferner wird der bisher noch ausstehende Zusammenhang zwischen dem früh- und spätwinterlichen Ozongehalt bezüglich Dynamik und Chemie aufgezeigt. Für die Untersuchung des Zusammenhangs zwischen der im Polarwirbel eingeschlossenen Luftmassenzusammensetzung und Ozonmenge wurden Beobachtungsdaten von Satellitenmessinstrumenten und Ozonsonden sowie Modellsimulationen des Lagrangschen Chemie/Transportmodells ATLAS verwandt. Die über die Fläche (45–75°N) und Zeit (August-November) gemittelte Vertikalkomponente des Eliassen-Palm-Flussvektors durch die 100hPa-Fläche zeigt eine Verbindung zwischen der frühwinterlichen wirbelinneren Luftmassenzusammensetzung und der Wirbelbildungsphase auf. Diese ist jedoch nur für die untere Stratosphäre gültig, da die Vertikalkomponente die sich innerhalb der Stratosphäre ändernden Wellenausbreitungsbedingungen nicht erfasst. Für eine verbesserte Höhendarstellung des Signals wurde eine neue integrale auf der Wellenamplitude und dem Charney-Drazin-Kriterium basierende Größe deﬁniert. Diese neue Größe verbindet die Wellenaktivität während der Wirbelbildungsphase sowohl mit der Luftmassenzusammensetzung im Polarwirbel als auch mit der Ozonverteilung über die Breite. Eine verstärkte Wellenaktivität führt zu mehr Luft aus niedrigeren ozonreichen Breiten im Polarwirbel. Aber im Herbst und Frühwinter zerstören chemische Prozesse, die das Ozon ins Gleichgewicht bringen, die interannuale wirbelinnere Ozonvariablität, die durch dynamische Prozesse während der arktischen Polarwirbelbildungsphase hervorgerufen wird. Eine Analyse in Hinblick auf den Fortbestand einer dynamisch induzierten Ozonanomalie bis in den Mittwinter ermöglicht eine Abschätzung des Einﬂusses dieser dynamischen Prozesse auf den arktischen Ozongehalt. Zu diesem Zweck wurden für den Winter 1999–2000 Modellläufe mit dem Lagrangesche Chemie/Transportmodell ATLAS gerechnet, die detaillierte Informationen über den Erhalt der künstlichen Ozonvariabilität hinsichtlich Zeit, Höhe und Breite liefern. Zusammengefasst, besteht die dynamisch induzierte Ozonvariabilität während der Wirbelbildungsphase länger im Inneren als im Äußeren des Polarwirbels und verliert oberhalb von 750K potentieller Temperatur ihre signifikante Wirkung auf die mittwinterliche Ozonvariabilität. In darunterliegenden Höhenbereichen ist der Anteil an der ursprünglichen Störung groß, bis zu 90% auf der 450K. Innerhalb dieses Höhenbereiches üben die dynamischen Prozesse während der Wirbelbildungsphase einen entscheidenden Einﬂuss auf den Ozongehalt im Mittwinter aus.

In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird eine Beschreibung der Phasendynamik irregulärer Oszillationen und deren Wechselwirkungen vorgestellt. Hierbei werden chaotische und stochastische Oszillationen autonomer dissipativer Systeme betrachtet. Für eine Phasenbeschreibung stochastischer Oszillationen müssen zum einen unterschiedliche Werte der Phase zueinander in Beziehung gesetzt werden, um ihre Dynamik unabhängig von der gewählten Parametrisierung der Oszillation beschreiben zu können. Zum anderen müssen für stochastische und chaotische Oszillationen diejenigen Systemzustände identifiziert werden, die sich in der gleichen Phase befinden. Im Rahmen dieser Dissertation werden die Werte der Phase über eine gemittelte Phasengeschwindigkeitsfunktion miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt. Für stochastische Oszillationen sind jedoch verschiedene Definitionen der mittleren Geschwindigkeit möglich. Um die Unterschiede der Geschwindigkeitsdefinitionen besser zu verstehen, werden auf ihrer Basis effektive deterministische Modelle der Oszillationen konstruiert. Hierbei zeigt sich, dass die Modelle unterschiedliche Oszillationseigenschaften, wie z. B. die mittlere Frequenz oder die invariante Wahrscheinlichkeitsverteilung, nachahmen. Je nach Anwendung stellt die effektive Phasengeschwindigkeitsfunktion eines speziellen Modells eine zweckmäßige Phasenbeziehung her. Wie anhand einfacher Beispiele erklärt wird, kann so die Theorie der effektiven Phasendynamik auch kontinuierlich und pulsartig wechselwirkende stochastische Oszillationen beschreiben. Weiterhin wird ein Kriterium für die invariante Identifikation von Zuständen gleicher Phase irregulärer Oszillationen zu sogenannten generalisierten Isophasen beschrieben: Die Zustände einer solchen Isophase sollen in ihrer dynamischen Entwicklung ununterscheidbar werden. Für stochastische Oszillationen wird dieses Kriterium in einem mittleren Sinne interpretiert. Wie anhand von Beispielen demonstriert wird, lassen sich so verschiedene Typen stochastischer Oszillationen in einheitlicher Weise auf eine stochastische Phasendynamik reduzieren. Mit Hilfe eines numerischen Algorithmus zur Schätzung der Isophasen aus Daten wird die Anwendbarkeit der Theorie anhand eines Signals regelmäßiger Atmung gezeigt. Weiterhin zeigt sich, dass das Kriterium der Phasenidentifikation für chaotische Oszillationen nur approximativ erfüllt werden kann. Anhand des Rössleroszillators wird der tiefgreifende Zusammenhang zwischen approximativen Isophasen, chaotischer Phasendiffusion und instabilen periodischen Orbits dargelegt. Gemeinsam ermöglichen die Theorien der effektiven Phasendynamik und der generalisierten Isophasen eine umfassende und einheitliche Phasenbeschreibung irregulärer Oszillationen.

Auf der Grundlage von Sonnenphotometermessungen an drei Messstationen (AWIPEV/ Koldewey in Ny-Ålesund (78.923 °N, 11.923 °O) 1995–2008, 35. Nordpol Driftstation – NP-35 (84.3–85.5 °N, 41.7–56.6 °O) März/April 2008, Sodankylä (67.37 °N, 26.65 °O) 2004–2007) wird die Aerosolvariabilität in der europäischen Arktis und deren Ursachen untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Frage des Zusammenhanges zwischen den an den Stationen gemessenen Aerosolparametern (Aerosol optische Dicke, Angström Koeffizient, usw.) und dem Transport des Aerosols sowohl auf kurzen Zeitskalen (Tagen) als auch auf langen Zeitskalen (Monate, Jahre). Um diesen Zusammenhang herzustellen, werden für die kurzen Zeitskalen mit dem Trajektorienmodell PEP-Tracer 5-Tage Rückwärtstrajektorien in drei Starthöhen (850 hPa, 700 hPa, 500 hPa) für die Uhrzeiten 00, 06, 12 und 18 Uhr berechnet. Mit Hilfe der nicht-hierarchischen Clustermethode k-means werden die berechneten Rückwärtstrajektorien dann zu Gruppen zusammengefasst und bestimmten Quellgebieten und den gemessenen Aerosol optischen Dicken zugeordnet. Die Zuordnung von Aerosol optischer Dicke und Quellregion ergibt keinen eindeutigen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Transport verschmutzter Luftmassen aus Europa oder Russland bzw. Asien und erhöhter Aerosol optischer Dicke. Dennoch ist für einen konkreten Einzelfall (März 2008) ein direkter Zusammenhang von Aerosoltransport und hohen Aerosol optischen Dicken nachweisbar. In diesem Fall gelangte Waldbrandaerosol aus Südwestrussland in die Arktis und konnte sowohl auf der NP-35 als auch in Ny-Ålesund beobachtet werden. In einem weiteren Schritt wird mit Hilfe der EOF-Analyse untersucht, inwieweit großskalige atmosphärische Zirkulationsmuster für die Aerosolvariabilität in der europäischen Arktis verantwortlich sind. Ähnlich wie bei der Trajektorienanalyse ist auch die Verbindung der atmosphärischen Zirkulation zu den Photometermessungen an den Stationen in der Regel nur schwach ausgeprägt. Eine Ausnahme findet sich bei der Betrachtung des Jahresganges des Bodendruckes und der Aerosol optischen Dicke. Hohe Aerosol optische Dicken treten im Frühjahr zum einen dann auf, wenn durch das Islandtief und das sibirische Hochdruckgebiet Luftmassen aus Europa oder Russland/Asien in die Arktis gelangen, und zum anderen, wenn sich ein kräftiges Hochdruckgebiet über Grönland und weiten Teilen der Arktis befindet. Ebenso zeigt sich, dass der Übergang zwischen Frühjahr und Sommer zumindest teilweise bedingt ist durch denWechsel vom stabilen Polarhoch im Winter und Frühjahr zu einer stärker von Tiefdruckgebieten bestimmten arktischen Atmosphäre im Sommer. Die geringere Aerosolkonzentration im Sommer kann zum Teil mit einer Zunahme der nassen Deposition als Aerosolsenke begründet werden. Für Ny-Ålesund wird neben den Transportmustern auch die chemische Zusammensetzung des Aerosols mit Hilfe von Impaktormessungen an der Zeppelinstation auf dem Zeppelinberg (474m ü.NN) nahe Ny-Ålesund abgeleitet. Dabei ist die positive Korrelation der Aerosoloptischen Dicke mit der Konzentration von Sulfationen und Ruß sehr deutlich. Beide Stoffe gelangen zu einem Großteil durch anthropogene Emissionen in die Atmosphäre. Die damit nachweisbar anthropogen geprägte Zusammensetzung des arktischen Aerosols steht im Widerspruch zum nicht eindeutig herstellbaren Zusammenhang mit dem Transport des Aerosols aus Industrieregionen. Dies kann nur durch einen oder mehrere gleichzeitig stattfindende Transformationsprozesse (z. B. Nukleation von Schwefelsäurepartikeln) während des Transportes aus den Quellregionen (Europa, Russland) erklärt werden.

The presented work describes new concepts of fast switching elements based on principles of photonics. The waveguides working in visible and infra-red ranges are put in a basis of these elements. And as materials for manufacturing of waveguides the transparent polymers, dopped by molecules of the dyes possessing second order nonlinear-optical properties are proposed. The work shows how nonlinear-optical processes in such structures can be implemented by electro-optical and opto-optical control circuit signals. In this paper we consider the complete cycle of fabrication of several types of integral photonic elements. The theoretical analysis of high-intensity beam propagation in media with second-order optical nonlinearity is performed. Quantitative estimations of necessary conditions of occurrence of the nonlinear-optical phenomena of the second order taking into account properties of used materials are made. The paper describes the various stages of manufacture of the basic structure of the integrated photonics: a planar waveguide. Using the finite element method the structure of the electromagnetic field inside the waveguide in different modes was analysed. A separate part of the work deals with the creation of composite organic materials with high optical nonlinearity. Using the methods of quantum chemistry, the dependence of nonlinear properties of dye molecules from its structure were investigated in details. In addition, the paper discusses various methods of inducing of an optical nonlinearity in dye-doping of polymer films. In the work, for the first time is proposed the use of spatial modulation of nonlinear properties of waveguide according Fibonacci law. This allows involving several different nonlinear optical processes simultaneously. The final part of the work describes various designs of integrated optical modulators and switches constructed of organic nonlinear optical waveguides. A practical design of the optical modulator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer made by a photolithography on polymer film is presented.

In the present work, we study wave phenomena in strongly nonlinear lattices. Such lattices are characterized by the absence of classical linear waves. We demonstrate that compactons – strongly localized solitary waves with tails decaying faster than exponential – exist and that they play a major role in the dynamics of the system under consideration. We investigate compactons in different physical setups. One part deals with lattices of dispersively coupled limit cycle oscillators which find various applications in natural sciences such as Josephson junction arrays or coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Another part deals with Hamiltonian lattices. Here, a prominent example in which compactons can be found is the granular chain. In the third part, we study systems which are related to the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing, for example, coupled optical wave-guides or the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. Our investigations are based on a numerical method to solve the traveling wave equation. This results in a quasi-exact solution (up to numerical errors) which is the compacton. Another ansatz which is employed throughout this work is the quasi-continuous approximation where the lattice is described by a continuous medium. Here, compactons are found analytically, but they are defined on a truly compact support. Remarkably, both ways give similar qualitative and quantitative results. Additionally, we study the dynamical properties of compactons by means of numerical simulation of the lattice equations. Especially, we concentrate on their emergence from physically realizable initial conditions as well as on their stability due to collisions. We show that the collisions are not exactly elastic but that a small part of the energy remains at the location of the collision. In finite lattices, this remaining part will then trigger a multiple scattering process resulting in a chaotic state.

This thesis is focused on the electronic, spin-dependent and dynamical properties of thin magnetic systems. Photoemission-related techniques are combined with synchrotron radiation to study the spin-dependent properties of these systems in the energy and time domains. In the first part of this thesis, the strength of electron correlation effects in the spin-dependent electronic structure of ferromagnetic bcc Fe(110) and hcp Co(0001) is investigated by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations within the three-body scattering approximation and within the dynamical mean-field theory, together with one-step model calculations of the photoemission process. From this comparison it is demonstrated that the present state of the art many-body calculations, although improving the description of correlation effects in Fe and Co, give too small mass renormalizations and scattering rates thus demanding more refined many-body theories including nonlocal fluctuations. In the second part, it is shown in detail monitoring by photoelectron spectroscopy how graphene can be grown by chemical vapour deposition on the transition-metal surfaces Ni(111) and Co(0001) and intercalated by a monoatomic layer of Au. For both systems, a linear E(k) dispersion of massless Dirac fermions is observed in the graphene pi-band in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Spin-resolved photoemission from the graphene pi-band shows that the ferromagnetic polarization of graphene/Ni(111) and graphene/Co(0001) is negligible and that graphene on Ni(111) is after intercalation of Au spin-orbit split by the Rashba effect. In the last part, a time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of a permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls is presented. It is shown how a fast picosecond magnetic response in the precessional motion of the magnetization can be induced by means of a laser-excited photoswitch. From a comparision to micromagnetic calculations it is demonstrated that the relatively high precessional frequency observed in the experiments is directly linked to the nature of the vortex/antivortex dynamics and its response to the magnetic perturbation. This includes the time-dependent reversal of the vortex core polarization, a process which is beyond the limit of detection in the present experiments.

Preparation and investigation of polymer-foam films and polymer-layer systems for ferroelectrets
(2010)

Piezoelectric materials are very useful for applications in sensors and actuators. In addition to traditional ferroelectric ceramics and ferroelectric polymers, ferroelectrets have recently become a new group of piezoelectrics. Ferroelectrets are functional polymer systems for electromechanical transduction, with elastically heterogeneous cellular structures and internal quasi-permanent dipole moments. The piezoelectricity of ferroelectrets stems from linear changes of the dipole moments in response to external mechanical or electrical stress. Over the past two decades, polypropylene (PP) foams have been investigated with the aim of ferroelectret applications, and some products are already on the market. PP-foam ferroelectrets may exhibit piezoelectric d33 coefficients of 600 pC/N and more. Their operating temperature can, however, not be much higher than 60 °C. Recently developed polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC) foam ferroelectrets show slightly better d33 thermal stabilities, but usually at the price of smaller d33 values. Therefore, the main aim of this work is the development of new thermally stable ferroelectrets with appreciable piezoelectricity. Physical foaming is a promising technique for generating polymer foams from solid films without any pollution or impurity. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or nitrogen (N2) are usually employed as foaming agents due to their good solubility in several polymers. Polyethylene propylene (PEN) is a polyester with slightly better properties than PET. A “voiding + inflation + stretching” process has been specifically developed to prepare PEN foams. Solid PEN films are saturated with supercritical CO2 at high pressure and then thermally voided at high temperatures. Controlled inflation (Gas-Diffusion Expansion or GDE) is applied in order to adjust the void dimensions. Additional biaxial stretching decreases the void heights, since it is known lens-shaped voids lead to lower elastic moduli and therefore also to stronger piezoelectricity. Both, contact and corona charging are suitable for the electric charging of PEN foams. The light emission from the dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) can be clearly observed. Corona charging in a gas of high dielectric strength such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) results in higher gas-breakdown strength in the voids and therefore increases the piezoelectricity. PEN foams can exhibit piezoelectric d33 coefficients as high as 500 pC/N. Dielectric-resonance spectra show elastic moduli c33 of 1 − 12 MPa, anti-resonance frequencies of 0.2 − 0.8 MHz, and electromechanical coupling factors of 0.016 − 0.069. As expected, it is found that PEN foams show better thermal stability than PP and PET. Samples charged at room temperature can be utilized up to 80 − 100 °C. Annealing after charging or charging at elevated temperatures may improve thermal stabilities. Samples charged at suitable elevated temperatures show working temperatures as high as 110 − 120 °C. Acoustic measurements at frequencies of 2 Hz − 20 kHz show that PEN foams can be well applied in this frequency range. Fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP) copolymers are fluoropolymers with very good physical, chemical and electrical properties. The charge-storage ability of solid FEP films can be significantly improved by adding boron nitride (BN) filler particles. FEP foams are prepared by means of a one-step procedure consisting of CO2 saturation and subsequent in-situ high-temperature voiding. Piezoelectric d33 coefficients up to 40 pC/N are measured on such FEP foams. Mechanical fatigue tests show that the as-prepared PEN and FEP foams are mechanically stable for long periods of time. Although polymer-foam ferroelectrets have a high application potential, their piezoelectric properties strongly depend on the cellular morphology, i.e. on size, shape, and distribution of the voids. On the other hand, controlled preparation of optimized cellular structures is still a technical challenge. Consequently, new ferroelectrets based on polymer-layer system (sandwiches) have been prepared from FEP. By sandwiching an FEP mesh between two solid FEP films and fusing the polymer system with a laser beam, a well-designed uniform macroscopic cellular structure can be formed. Dielectric resonance spectroscopy reveals piezoelectric d33 coefficients as high as 350 pC/N, elastic moduli of about 0.3 MPa, anti-resonance frequencies of about 30 kHz, and electromechanical coupling factors of about 0.05. Samples charged at elevated temperatures show better thermal stabilities than those charged at room temperature, and the higher the charging temperature, the better is the stability. After proper charging at 140 °C, the working temperatures can be as high as 110 − 120 °C. Acoustic measurements at frequencies of 200 Hz − 20 kHz indicate that the FEP layer systems are suitable for applications at least in this range.

The availability of large data sets has allowed researchers to uncover complex properties in complex systems, such as complex networks and human dynamics. A vast number of systems, from the Internet to the brain, power grids, ecosystems, can be represented as large complex networks. Dynamics on and of complex networks has attracted more and more researchers’ interest. In this thesis, first, I introduced a simple but effective dynamical optimization coupling scheme which can realize complete synchronization in networks with undelayed and delayed couplings and enhance the small-world and scale-free networks’ synchronizability. Second, I showed that the robustness of scale-free networks with community structure was enhanced due to the existence of communities in the networks and some of the response patterns were found to coincide with topological communities. My results provide insights into the relationship between network topology and the functional organization in complex networks from another viewpoint. Third, as an important kind of nodes of complex networks, human detailed correspondence dynamics was studied by both data and the model. A new and general type of human correspondence pattern was found and an interacting priority-queues model was introduced to explain it. The model can also embrace a range of realistic social interacting systems such as email and letter communication. My findings provide insight into various human activities both at the individual and network level. Fourth, I present clearly new evidence that human comment behavior in on-line social systems, a different type of interacting human dynamics, is non-Poissonian and a model based on the personal attraction was introduced to explain it. These results are helpful for discovering regular patterns of human behavior in on-line society and the evolution of the public opinion on the virtual as well as real society. Finally, there are conclusion and outlook of human dynamics and complex networks.

Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Überwindung einer Differenz, die zwischen der Theorie der Phase bzw. der Phasendynamik und ihrer Anwendung in der Zeitreihenanalyse besteht: Während die theoretische Phase eindeutig bestimmt und invariant unter Koordinatentransformationen bzw. gegenüber der jeweils gewählten Observable ist, führen die Standardmethoden zur Abschätzung der Phase aus gegebenen Zeitreihen zu Resultaten, die einerseits von den gewählten Observablen abhängen und so andererseits das jeweilige System keineswegs in eindeutiger und invarianter Weise beschreiben. Um diese Differenz deutlich zu machen, wird die terminologische Unterscheidung von Phase und Protophase eingeführt: Der Terminus Phase wird nur für Variablen verwendet, die dem theoretischen Konzept der Phase entsprechen und daher das jeweilige System in invarianter Weise charakterisieren, während die observablen-abhängigen Abschätzungen der Phase aus Zeitreihen als Protophasen bezeichnet werden. Der zentrale Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer deterministischen Transformation, die von jeder Protophase eines selbsterhaltenden Oszillators zur eindeutig bestimmten Phase führt. Dies ermöglicht dann die invariante Beschreibung gekoppelter Oszillatoren und ihrer Wechselwirkung. Die Anwendung der Transformation bzw. ihr Effekt wird sowohl an numerischen Beispielen demonstriert - insbesondere wird die Phasentransformation in einem Beispiel auf den Fall von drei gekoppelten Oszillatoren erweitert - als auch an multivariaten Messungen des EKGs, des Pulses und der Atmung, aus denen Phasenmodelle der kardiorespiratorischen Wechselwirkung rekonstruiert werden. Abschließend wird die Phasentransformation für autonome Oszillatoren auf den Fall einer nicht vernachlässigbaren Amplitudenabhängigkeit der Protophase erweitert, was beispielsweise die numerischen Bestimmung der Isochronen des chaotischen Rössler Systems ermöglicht.

This thesis is concerned with the development of numerical methods using finite difference techniques for the discretization of initial value problems (IVPs) and initial boundary value problems (IBVPs) of certain hyperbolic systems which are first order in time and second order in space. This type of system appears in some formulations of Einstein equations, such as ADM, BSSN, NOR, and the generalized harmonic formulation. For IVP, the stability method proposed in [14] is extended from second and fourth order centered schemes, to 2n-order accuracy, including also the case when some first order derivatives are approximated with off-centered finite difference operators (FDO) and dissipation is added to the right-hand sides of the equations. For the model problem of the wave equation, special attention is paid to the analysis of Courant limits and numerical speeds. Although off-centered FDOs have larger truncation errors than centered FDOs, it is shown that in certain situations, off-centering by just one point can be beneficial for the overall accuracy of the numerical scheme. The wave equation is also analyzed in respect to its initial boundary value problem. All three types of boundaries - outflow, inflow and completely inflow that can appear in this case, are investigated. Using the ghost-point method, 2n-accurate (n = 1, 4) numerical prescriptions are prescribed for each type of boundary. The inflow boundary is also approached using the SAT-SBP method. In the end of the thesis, a 1-D variant of BSSN formulation is derived and some of its IBVPs are considered. The boundary procedures, based on the ghost-point method, are intended to preserve the interior 2n-accuracy. Numerical tests show that this is the case if sufficient dissipation is added to the rhs of the equations.

Coupling of the electrical, mechanical and optical response in polymer/liquid-crystal composites
(2010)

Micrometer-sized liquid-crystal (LC) droplets embedded in a polymer matrix may enable optical switching in the composite film through the alignment of the LC director along an external electric field. When a ferroelectric material is used as host polymer, the electric field generated by the piezoelectric effect can orient the director of the LC under an applied mechanical stress, making these materials interesting candidates for piezo-optical devices. In this work, polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and a nematic liquid crystal (LC). The anchoring effect is studied by means of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Two dispersion regions are observed in the dielectric spectra of the pure P(VDF-TrFE) film. They are related to the glass transition and to a charge-carrier relaxation, respectively. In PDLC films containing 10 and 60 wt% LC, an additional, bias-field-dependent relaxation peak is found that can be attributed to the motion of LC molecules. Due to the anchoring effect of the LC molecules, this relaxation process is slowed down considerably, when compared with the related process in the pure LC. The electro-optical and piezo-optical behavior of PDLC films containing 10 and 60 wt% LCs is investigated. In addition to the refractive-index mismatch between the polymer matrix and the LC molecules, the interaction between the polymer dipoles and the LC molecules at the droplet interface influences the light-scattering behavior of the PDLC films. For the first time, it was shown that the electric field generated by the application of a mechanical stress may lead to changes in the transmittance of a PDLC film. Such a piezo-optical PDLC material may be useful e.g. in sensing and visualization applications. Compared to a non-polar matrix polymer, the polar matrix polymer exhibits a strong interaction with the LC molecules at the polymer/LC interface which affects the electro-optical effect of the PDLC films and prevents a larger increase in optical transmission.

CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) is a German small satellite mission to study the earth's gravity field, magnetic field and upper atmosphere. Thanks to the good condition of the satellite so far, the planned 5 years mission is extended to year 2009. The satellite provides continuously a large quantity of measurement data for the purpose of Earth study. The measurements of the magnetic field are undertaken by two Fluxgate Magnetometers (vector magnetometer) and one Overhauser Magnetometer (scalar magnetometer) flown on CHAMP. In order to ensure the quality of the data during the whole mission, the calibration of the magnetometers has to be performed routinely in orbit. The scalar magnetometer serves as the magnetic reference and its readings are compared with the readings of the vector magnetometer. The readings of the vector magnetometer are corrected by the parameters that are derived from this comparison, which is called the scalar calibration. In the routine processing, these calibration parameters are updated every 15 days by means of scalar calibration. There are also magnetic effects coming from the satellite which disturb the measurements. Most of them have been characterized during tests before launch. Among them are the remanent magnetization of the spacecraft and fields generated by currents. They are all considered to be constant over the mission life. The 8 years of operation experience allow us to investigate the long-term behaviors of the magnetometers and the satellite systems. According to the investigation, it was found that for example the scale factors of the FGM show obvious long-term changes which can be described by logarithmic functions. The other parameters (offsets and angles between the three components) can be considered constant. If these continuous parameters are applied for the FGM data processing, the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings is limited to \pm1nT over the whole mission. This demonstrates, the magnetometers on CHAMP exhibit a very good stability. However, the daily correction of the parameter Z component offset of the FGM improves the agreement between the magnetometers markedly. The Z component offset plays a very important role for the data quality. It exhibits a linear relationship with the standard deviation of the disagreement between the OVM and the FGM readings. After Z offset correction, the errors are limited to \pm0.5nT (equivalent to a standard deviation of 0.2nT). We improved the corrections of the spacecraft field which are not taken into account in the routine processing. Such disturbance field, e.g. from the power supply system of the satellite, show some systematic errors in the FGM data and are misinterpreted in 9-parameter calibration, which brings false local time related variation of the calibration parameters. These corrections are made by applying a mathematical model to the measured currents. This non-linear model is derived from an inversion technique. If the disturbance field of the satellite body are fully corrected, the standard deviation of scalar error \triangle B remains about 0.1nT. Additionally, in order to keep the OVM readings a reliable standard, the imperfect coefficients of the torquer current correction for the OVM are redetermined by solving a minimization problem. The temporal variation of the spacecraft remanent field is investigated. It was found that the average magnetic moment of the magneto-torquers reflects well the moment of the satellite. This allows for a continuous correction of the spacecraft field. The reasons for the possible unknown systemic error are discussed in this thesis. Particularly, both temperature uncertainties and time errors have influence on the FGM data. Based on the results of this thesis the data processing of future magnetic missions can be designed in an improved way. In particular, the upcoming ESA mission Swarm can take advantage of our findings and provide all the auxiliary measurements needed for a proper recovery of the ambient magnetic field.