## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

### Refine

#### Year of publication

- 2010 (90) (remove)

#### Document Type

- Article (69)
- Doctoral Thesis (19)
- Monograph/Edited Volume (2)

#### Keywords

- Aerosol (1)
- Arctic (1)
- Arktis (1)
- Cascading (1)
- Chaotische Oszillationen (1)
- Chemie-Transport-Modell (1)
- Compacton (1)
- Dynamik (1)
- EOF (1)
- Eisen (1)

We report the discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star in Aquila via detection of its circumstellar nebula (reminiscent of ring nebulae associated with late WN stars) using the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data. Our spectroscopic follow-up of the central point source associated with the nebula showed that it is a WN7h star (we named it WR121b). We analysed the spectrum of WR 121b by using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmospheres, obtaining a stellar temperature of similar or equal to 50 kK. The stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with similar to 20 per cent of hydrogen. The stellar spectrum is highly reddened [E(B - V) = 2.85 mag]. Adopting an absolute magnitude of M-v = 5.7, the star has a luminosity of log L/L-circle dot = 5.75 and a mass-loss rate of 10(-4.7)M(circle dot)yr(-1), and resides at a distance of 6.3 kpc. We searched for a possible parent cluster of WR 121b and found that this star is located at similar or equal to 1 degrees from the young star cluster embedded in the giant HII region W43 (containing a WN7+a/OB? star - WR121a). We also discovered a bow shock around the O9.5III star ALS 9956, located at similar or equal to 0 degrees.5 from the cluster. We discuss the possibility that WR121b and ALS 9956 are runaway stars ejected from the cluster in W43.

This thesis is focused on the electronic, spin-dependent and dynamical properties of thin magnetic systems. Photoemission-related techniques are combined with synchrotron radiation to study the spin-dependent properties of these systems in the energy and time domains. In the first part of this thesis, the strength of electron correlation effects in the spin-dependent electronic structure of ferromagnetic bcc Fe(110) and hcp Co(0001) is investigated by means of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations within the three-body scattering approximation and within the dynamical mean-field theory, together with one-step model calculations of the photoemission process. From this comparison it is demonstrated that the present state of the art many-body calculations, although improving the description of correlation effects in Fe and Co, give too small mass renormalizations and scattering rates thus demanding more refined many-body theories including nonlocal fluctuations. In the second part, it is shown in detail monitoring by photoelectron spectroscopy how graphene can be grown by chemical vapour deposition on the transition-metal surfaces Ni(111) and Co(0001) and intercalated by a monoatomic layer of Au. For both systems, a linear E(k) dispersion of massless Dirac fermions is observed in the graphene pi-band in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. Spin-resolved photoemission from the graphene pi-band shows that the ferromagnetic polarization of graphene/Ni(111) and graphene/Co(0001) is negligible and that graphene on Ni(111) is after intercalation of Au spin-orbit split by the Rashba effect. In the last part, a time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroic-photoelectron emission microscopy study of a permalloy platelet comprising three cross-tie domain walls is presented. It is shown how a fast picosecond magnetic response in the precessional motion of the magnetization can be induced by means of a laser-excited photoswitch. From a comparision to micromagnetic calculations it is demonstrated that the relatively high precessional frequency observed in the experiments is directly linked to the nature of the vortex/antivortex dynamics and its response to the magnetic perturbation. This includes the time-dependent reversal of the vortex core polarization, a process which is beyond the limit of detection in the present experiments.

We prove that quantum many-body systems on a one-dimensional lattice locally relax to Gaussian states under non- equilibrium dynamics generated by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. This is true for a large class of initial states-pure or mixed-which have to satisfy merely weak conditions concerning the decay of correlations. The considered setting is a proven instance of a situation where dynamically evolving closed quantum systems locally appear as if they had truly relaxed, to maximum entropy states for fixed second moments. This furthers the understanding of relaxation in suddenly quenched quantum many-body systems. The proof features a non-commutative central limit theorem for non-i.i.d. random variables, showing convergence to Gaussian characteristic functions, giving rise to trace-norm closeness. We briefly link our findings to the ideas of typicality and concentration of measure.

A remarkable feature of quantum theory is nonlocality ( Bell inequality violations). However, quantum correlations are not maximally nonlocal, and it is natural to ask whether there are compelling reasons for rejecting theories in which stronger violations are possible. To shed light on this question, we consider post-quantum theories in which maximally nonlocal states ( nonlocal boxes) occur. We show that reversible transformations in such theories are trivial: they consist solely of local operations and permutations of systems. In particular, no correlations can be created; nonlocal boxes cannot be prepared from product states and classical computers can efficiently simulate all such processes.

We review our understanding of Saturn's rings after nearly 6 years of observations by the Cassini spacecraft. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of water ice but also contain an undetermined reddish contaminant. The rings exhibit a range of structure across many spatial scales; some of this involves the interplay of the fluid nature and the self-gravity of innumerable orbiting centimeter- to meter-sized particles, and the effects of several peripheral and embedded moonlets, but much remains unexplained. A few aspects of ring structure change on time scales as short as days. It remains unclear whether the vigorous evolutionary processes to which the rings are subject imply a much younger age than that of the solar system. Processes on view at Saturn have parallels in circumstellar disks.

We report results on dispersion relations and instabilities of traveling waves in excitable systems. Experiments employ solutions of the 1,4-cyclohexanedione Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction confined to thin capillary tubes which create a pseudo-one-dimensional system. Theoretical analyses focus on a three-variable reaction-diffusion model that is known to reproduce qualitatively many of the experimentally observed dynamics. Using continuation methods, we show that the transition from normal, monotonic to anomalous, single-overshoot dispersion curves is due to an orbit flip bifurcation of the solitary pulse homoclinics. In the case of "wave stacking", this anomaly induces attractive pulse interaction, slow solitary pulses, and faster wave trains. For "wave merging", wave trains break up in the wake of the slow solitary pulse due to an instability of wave trains at small wavelength. A third case, "wave tracking" is characterized by the non-existence of solitary waves but existence of periodic wave trains. The corresponding dispersion curve is a closed curve covering a finite band of wavelengths.

The present study shows that small admixtures of one chlorophyll a (Chla) molecule per several hundred lipid molecules have strong destabilizing effect on lipid bilayers. This effect is clearly displayed in the properties of the L-alpha-H-II transformations and results from a Chla preference for the H-II relative to the L-alpha phase. Chla disfavors the lamellar liquid crystalline phase L-alpha and induces its replacement with inverted hexagonal phase H-II, as is consistently demonstrated by DSC and X-ray diffraction measurements on phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) dispersions. Chla lowers the L-alpha-H-II transition temperature (42 degrees C) of the fully hydrated dipalmitoleoyl PE (DPoPE) by similar to 8 degrees C and similar to 17 degrees C at Chla/DPoPE molar ratios of 1:500 and 1:100, respectively. Similar Chla effect was recorded also for dielaidoyl PE dispersions. The lowering of the transition temperature and the accompanying significant loss of transition cooperativity reflect the Chla repartitioning and preference for the H-II phase. The reduction of the H-II phase lattice constant in the presence of Chla is an indication that Chla favors v phase formation by decreasing the radius of spontaneous monolayer curvature, and not by filling up the interstitial spaces between the H-II phase cylinders. The observed Chla preference for H-II phase and the substantial bilayer destabilization in the vicinity of a bilayer-to-nonbilayer phase transformation caused by low Chla concentrations can be of interest as a potential regulatory or membrane-damaging factor.

Bulk electron transport and charge injection in a high mobility n-type semiconducting polymer
(2010)

Bulk electron transport in a high mobility n-type polymer is studied by time-of-flight photocurrent measurements and electron-only devices. Bulk electron mobilities of similar to 5 x 10(-3) cm(2)/Vs are obtained. The analysis of the electron currents suggests the presence of an injection barrier for all conventionally used low workfunction cathodes.