## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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In the here presented work we discuss a series of results that are all in one way or another connected to the phenomenon of trapping in black hole spacetimes.
First we present a comprehensive review of the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT-de-Sitter family of black hole spacetimes and their most important properties. From there we go into a detailed analysis of the bahaviour of null geodesics in the exterior region of a sub-extremal Kerr spacetime. We show that most well known fundamental properties of null geodesics can be represented in one plot. In particular, one can see immediately that the ergoregion and trapping are separated in phase space.
We then consider the sets of future/past trapped null geodesics in the exterior region of a sub-extremal Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime. We show that from the point of view of any timelike observer outside of such a black hole, trapping can be understood as two smooth sets of spacelike directions on the celestial sphere of the observer. Therefore the topological structure of the trapped set on the celestial sphere of any observer is identical to that in Schwarzschild.
We discuss how this is relevant to the black hole stability problem.
In a further development of these observations we introduce the notion of what it means for the shadow of two observers to be degenerate. We show that, away from the axis of symmetry, no continuous degeneration exists between the shadows of observers at any point in the exterior region of any Kerr-Newman black hole spacetime of unit mass. Therefore, except possibly for discrete changes, an observer can, by measuring the black holes shadow, determine the angular momentum and the charge of the black hole under observation, as well as the observer's radial position and angle of elevation above the equatorial plane. Furthermore, his/her relative velocity compared to a standard observer can also be measured. On the other hand, the black hole shadow does not allow for a full parameter resolution in the case of a Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT black hole, as a continuous degeneration relating specific angular momentum, electric charge, NUT charge and elevation angle exists in this case.
We then use the celestial sphere to show that trapping is a generic feature of any black hole spacetime.
In the last chapter we then prove a generalization of the mode stability result of Whiting (1989) for the Teukolsky equation for the case of real frequencies. The main result of the last chapter states that a separated solution of the Teukolsky equation governing massless test fields on the Kerr spacetime, which is purely outgoing at infinity, and purely ingoing at the horizon, must vanish. This has the consequence, that for real frequencies, there are linearly independent fundamental solutions of the radial Teukolsky equation which are purely ingoing at the horizon, and purely outgoing at infinity, respectively. This fact yields a representation formula for solutions of the inhomogenous Teukolsky equation, and was recently used by Shlapentokh-Rothman (2015) for the scalar wave equation.

During the last few years there was a tremendous growth of scientific activities in the fields related to both Physics and Control theory: nonlinear dynamics, micro- and nanotechnologies, self-organization and complexity, etc. New horizons were opened and new exciting applications emerged. Experts with different backgrounds starting to work together need more opportunities for information exchange to improve mutual understanding and cooperation. The Conference "Physics and Control 2007" is the third international conference focusing on the borderland between Physics and Control with emphasis on both theory and applications. With its 2007 address at Potsdam, Germany, the conference is located for the first time outside of Russia. The major goal of the Conference is to bring together researchers from different scientific communities and to gain some general and unified perspectives in the studies of controlled systems in physics, engineering, chemistry, biology and other natural sciences. We hope that the Conference helps experts in control theory to get acquainted with new interesting problems, and helps experts in physics and related fields to know more about ideas and tools from the modern control theory.

Supernovae are known to be the dominant energy source for driving turbulence in the interstellar medium. Yet, their effect on magnetic field amplification in spiral galaxies is still poorly understood. Analytical models based on the uncorrelated-ensemble approach predicted that any created field will be expelled from the disk before a significant amplification can occur. By means of direct simulations of supernova-driven turbulence, we demonstrate that this is not the case. Accounting for vertical stratification and galactic differential rotation, we find an exponential amplification of the mean field on timescales of 100Myr. The self-consistent numerical verification of such a “fast dynamo” is highly beneficial in explaining the observed strong magnetic fields in young galaxies. We, furthermore, highlight the importance of rotation in the generation of helicity by showing that a similar mechanism based on Cartesian shear does not lead to a sustained amplification of the mean magnetic field. This finding impressively confirms the classical picture of a dynamo based on cyclonic turbulence.

I perform and analyse the first ever calculations of rotating stellar iron core collapse in {3+1} general relativity that start out with presupernova models from stellar evolutionary calculations and include a microphysical finite-temperature nuclear equation of state, an approximate scheme for electron capture during collapse and neutrino pressure effects. Based on the results of these calculations, I obtain the to-date most realistic estimates for the gravitational wave signal from collapse, bounce and the early postbounce phase of core collapse supernovae. I supplement my {3+1} GR hydrodynamic simulations with 2D Newtonian neutrino radiation-hydrodynamic supernova calculations focussing on (1) the late postbounce gravitational wave emission owing to convective overturn, anisotropic neutrino emission and protoneutron star pulsations, and (2) on the gravitational wave signature of accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs to neutron stars.

This thesis is focussed on the electronic properties of the new material class named topological insulators. Spin and angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy have been applied to reveal several unique properties of the surface state of these materials. The first part of this thesis introduces the methodical background of these quite established experimental techniques.
In the following chapter, the theoretical concept of topological insulators is introduced. Starting from the prominent example of the quantum Hall effect, the application of topological invariants to classify material systems is illuminated. It is explained how, in presence of time reversal symmetry, which is broken in the quantum Hall phase, strong spin orbit coupling can drive a system into a topologically non trivial phase. The prediction of the spin quantum Hall effect in two dimensional insulators an the generalization to the three dimensional case of topological insulators is reviewed together with the first experimental realization of a three dimensional topological insulator in the Bi1-xSbx alloys given in the literature.
The experimental part starts with the introduction of the Bi2X3 (X=Se, Te) family of materials. Recent theoretical predictions and experimental findings on the bulk and surface electronic structure of these materials are introduced in close discussion to our own experimental results. Furthermore, it is revealed, that the topological surface state of Bi2Te3 shares its orbital symmetry with the bulk valence band and the observation of a temperature induced shift of the chemical potential is to a high probability unmasked as a doping effect due to residual gas adsorption.
The surface state of Bi2Te3 is found to be highly spin polarized with a polarization value of about 70% in a macroscopic area, while in Bi2Se3 the polarization appears reduced, not exceeding 50%. We, however, argue that the polarization is most likely only extrinsically limited in terms of the finite angular resolution and the lacking detectability of the out of plane component of the electron spin. A further argument is based on the reduced surface quality of the single crystals after cleavage and, for Bi2Se3 a sensitivity of the electronic structure to photon exposure.
We probe the robustness of the topological surface state in Bi2X3 against surface impurities in Chapter 5. This robustness is provided through the protection by the time reversal symmetry. Silver, deposited on the (111) surface of Bi2Se3 leads to a strong electron doping but the surface state is observed up to a deposited Ag mass equivalent to one atomic monolayer. The opposite sign of doping, i.e., hole-like, is observed by exposing oxygen to Bi2Te3. But while the n-type shift of Ag on Bi2Se3 appears to be more or less rigid, O2 is lifting the Dirac point of the topological surface state in Bi2Te3 out of the valence band minimum at $\Gamma$. After increasing the oxygen dose further, it is possible to shift the Dirac point to the Fermi level, while the valence band stays well beyond. The effect is found reversible, by warming up the samples which is interpreted in terms of physisorption of O2.
For magnetic impurities, i.e., Fe, we find a similar behavior as for the case of Ag in both Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. However, in that case the robustness is unexpected, since magnetic impurities are capable to break time reversal symmetry which should introduce a gap in the surface state at the Dirac point which in turn removes the protection. We argue, that the fact that the surface state shows no gap must be attributed to a missing magnetization of the Fe overlayer. In Bi2Te3 we are able to observe the surface state for deposited iron mass equivalents in the monolayer regime. Furthermore, we gain control over the sign of doping through the sample temperature during deposition.
Chapter6 is devoted to the lifetime broadening of the photoemission signal from the topological surface states of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. It is revealed that the hexagonal warping of the surface state in Bi2Te3 introduces an anisotropy for electrons traveling along the two distinct high symmetry directions of the surface Brillouin zone, i.e., $\Gamma$K and $\Gamma$M. We show that the phonon coupling strength to the surface electrons in Bi2Te3 is in nice agreement with the theoretical prediction but, nevertheless, higher than one may expect. We argue that the electron-phonon coupling is one of the main contributions to the decay of photoholes but the relatively small size of the Fermi surface limits the number of phonon modes that may scatter off electrons. This effect is manifested in the energy dependence of the imaginary part of the electron self energy of the surface state which shows a decay to higher binding energies in contrast to the monotonic increase proportional to E$^2$ in the Fermi liquid theory due to electron-electron interaction.
Furthermore, the effect of the surface impurities of Chapter 5 on the quasiparticle life- times is investigated. We find that Fe impurities have a much stronger influence on the lifetimes as compared to Ag. Moreover, we find that the influence is stronger independently of the sign of the doping. We argue that this observation suggests a minor contribution of the warping on increased scattering rates in contrast to current belief. This is additionally confirmed by the observation that the scattering rates increase further with increasing silver amount while the doping stays constant and by the fact that clean Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 show very similar scattering rates regardless of the much stronger warping in Bi2Te3.
In the last chapter we report on a strong circular dichroism in the angle distribution of the photoemission signal of the surface state of Bi2Te3. We show that the color pattern obtained by calculating the difference between photoemission intensities measured with opposite photon helicity reflects the pattern expected for the spin polarization. However, we find a strong influence on strength and even sign of the effect when varying the photon energy. The sign change is qualitatively confirmed by means of one-step photoemission calculations conducted by our collaborators from the LMU München, while the calculated spin polarization is found to be independent of the excitation energy. Experiment and theory together unambiguously uncover the dichroism in these systems as a final state effect and the question in the title of the chapter has to be negated: Circular dichroism in the angle distribution is not a new spin sensitive technique.

Mass accretion onto compact objects through accretion disks is a common phenomenon in the universe. It is seen in all energy domains from active galactic nuclei through cataclysmic variables (CVs) to young stellar objects. Because CVs are fairly easy to observe, they provide an ideal opportunity to study accretion disks in great detail and thus help us to understand accretion also in other energy ranges. Mass accretion in these objects is often accompanied by mass outflow from the disks. This accretion disk wind, at least in CVs, is thought to be radiatively driven, similar to O star winds. WOMPAT, a 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for accretion disk winds of CVs is presented.

In the modern industrialized countries every year several hundred thousands of people die due to the sudden cardiac death. The individual risk for this sudden cardiac death cannot be defined precisely by common available, non-invasive diagnostic tools like Holter-monitoring, highly amplified ECG and traditional linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore, we apply some rather unconventional methods of nonlinear dynamics to analyse the HRV. Especially, some complexity measures that are basing on symbolic dynamics as well as a new measure, the renormalized entropy, detect some abnormalities in the HRV of several patients who have been classified in the low risk group by traditional methods. A combination of these complexity measures with the parameters in the frequency domain seems to be a promising way to get a more precise definition of the individual risk. These findings have to be validated by a representative number of patients.

This thesis rests on two large Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) surveys. The first survey deals with galaxies that host low-level AGNs (LLAGN) and aims at identifying such galaxies by quantifying their variability. While numerous studies have shown that AGNs can be variable at all wavelengths, the nature of the variability is still not well understood. Studying the properties of LLAGNs may help to understand better galaxy evolution, and how AGNs transit between active and inactive states. In this thesis, we develop a method to extract variability properties of AGNs. Using multi-epoch deep photometric observations, we subtract the contribution of the host galaxy at each epoch to extract variability and estimate AGN accretion rates. This pipeline will be a powerful tool in connection with future deep surveys such as PANSTARS. The second study in this thesis describes a survey of X-ray selected AGN hosts at redshifts z>1.5 and compares them to quiescent galaxies. This survey aims at studying environments, sizes and morphologies of star-forming high-redshift AGN hosts in the COSMOS Survey at the epoch of peak AGN activity. Between redshifts 1.5<z<3.8, the COSMOS HST/ACS imaging probes the UV regime, where separating the AGN flux from its host galaxy is very challenging. Nevertheless, we successfully derived the structural properties of 249 AGN hosts using two-dimensional surface-brightness profile fitting with the GALFIT package. This is the largest sample of AGN hosts at redshift z>1.5 to date. We analyzed the evolution of structural parameters of AGN and non-AGN host galaxies with redshift, and compared their disturbance rates to identify the more probable AGN triggering mechanism in the 43.5<log_10 L_X<45 luminosity range. We also conducted mock AGN and quiescent galaxies observations to determine errors and corrections for the derived parameters. We find that the size-absolute magnitude relations of AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies are very similar, with estimated mean sizes in both samples decreasing by ~50% between redshifts z=1.5 and z=3.5. Morphological classification of both active and quiescent galaxies shows that the majority of the AGN host galaxies are disc-dominated, with disturbance rates that are significantly lower than among the non-AGN galaxies. Such a finding suggests that Major Mergers are probably not responsible for triggering AGN accretion in most of these galaxies. Other secular mechanisms should therefore be responsible.

We have used techniques of nonlinear dynamics to compare a special model for the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field with the observational data. Although this model is rather simple, there is no essential difference to the data by means of well-known characteristics, such as correlation function and probability distribution. Applying methods of symbolic dynamics we have found that the considered model is not able to describe the dynamical properties of the observed process. These significant differences are expressed by algorithmic complexity and Renyi information.

Collisions of black holes and neutron stars, named mixed binaries in the following, are interesting because of at least two reasons. Firstly, it is expected that they emit a large amount of energy as gravitational waves, which could be measured by new detectors. The form of those waves is expected to carry information about the internal structure of such systems. Secondly, collisions of such objects are the prime suspects of short gamma ray bursts. The exact mechanism for the energy emission is unknown so far. In the past, Newtonian theory of gravitation and modifications to it were often used for numerical simulations of collisions of mixed binary systems. However, near to such objects, the gravitational forces are so strong, that the use of General Relativity is necessary for accurate predictions. There are a lot of problems in general relativistic simulations. However, systems of two neutron stars and systems of two black holes have been studies extensively in the past and a lot of those problems have been solved. One of the remaining problems so far has been the use of hydrodynamic on excision boundaries. Inside excision regions, no evolution is carried out. Such regions are often used inside black holes to circumvent instabilities of the numerical methods near the singularity. Methods to handle hydrodynamics at such boundaries have been described and tests are shown in this work. One important test and the first application of those methods has been the simulation of a collapsing neutron star to a black hole. The success of these simulations and in particular the performance of the excision methods was an important step towards simulations of mixed binaries. Initial data are necessary for every numerical simulation. However, the creation of such initial data for general relativistic situations is in general very complicated. In this work it is shown how to obtain initial data for mixed binary systems using an already existing method for initial data of two black holes. These initial data have been used for evolutions of such systems and problems encountered are discussed in this work. One of the problems are instabilities due to different methods, which could be solved by dissipation of appropriate strength. Another problem is the expected drift of the black hole towards the neutron star. It is shown, that this can be solved by using special gauge conditions, which prevent the black hole from moving on the computational grid. The methods and simulations shown in this work are only the starting step for a much more detailed study of mixed binary system. Better methods, models and simulations with higher resolution and even better gauge conditions will be focus of future work. It is expected that such detailed studies can give information about the emitted gravitational waves, which is important in view of the newly built gravitational wave detectors. In addition, these simulations could give insight into the processes responsible for short gamma ray bursts.