## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

Correlation functions of a driven two-level system embedded in a photonic crystal are analyzed. The spectral density of the photonic bands near a gap makes this system non-Markovian. The equations of motion for two-time correlations are derived by two different methods, the quantum regression theorem and the fluctuation dissipation theorem, and found to be the same.

The problem under consideration in the thesis is a two level atom in a photonic crystal and a pumping laser. The photonic crystal provides an environment for the atom, that modifies the decay of the exited state, especially if the atom frequency is close to the band gap. The population inversion is investigated als well as the emission spectrum. The dynamics is analysed in the context of open quantum systems. Due to the multiple reflections in the photonic crystal, the system has a finite memory that inhibits the Markovian approximation. In the Heisenberg picture the equations of motion for the system variables form a infinite hierarchy of integro-differential equations. To get a closed system, approximations like a weak coupling approximation are needed. The thesis starts with a simple photonic crystal that is amenable to analytic calculations: a one-dimensional photonic crystal, that consists of alternating layers. The Bloch modes inside and the vacuum modes outside a finite crystal are linked with a transformation matrix that is interpreted as a transfer matrix. Formulas for the band structure, the reflection from a semi-infinite crystal, and the local density of states in absorbing crystals are found; defect modes and negative refraction are discussed. The quantum optics section of the work starts with the discussion of three problems, that are related to the full resonance fluorescence problem: a pure dephasing model, the driven atom and resonance fluorescence in free space. In the lowest order of the system-environment coupling, the one-time expectation values for the full problem are calculated analytically and the stationary states are discussed for certain cases. For the calculation of the two time correlation functions and spectra, the additional problem of correlations between the two times appears. In the Markovian case, the quantum regression theorem is valid. In the general case, the fluctuation dissipation theorem can be used instead. The two-time correlation functions are calculated by the two different methods. Within the chosen approximations, both methods deliver the same result. Several plots show the dependence of the spectrum on the parameters. Some examples for squeezing spectra are shown with different approximations. A projection operator method is used to establish two kinds of Markovian expansion with and without time convolution. The lowest order is identical with the lowest order of system environment coupling, but higher orders give different results.