## Institut für Physik und Astronomie

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- Doctoral Thesis (5)
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- Synchronization (9) (remove)

We study synchronization in a Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators with a bi-harmonic coupling function, in the thermodynamic limit of large populations. We develop a method for an analytic solution of self-consistent equations describing uniformly rotating complex order parameters, both for single-branch (one possible state of locked oscillators) and multi-branch (two possible values of locked phases) entrainment. We show that synchronous states coexist with the neutrally linearly stable asynchronous regime. The latter has a finite life time for finite ensembles, this time grows with the ensemble size as a power law. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

In this paper, we study the complete synchronization of a class of time-varying delayed coupled chaotic systems using feedback control. In terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities, a sufficient condition is obtained through using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and differential equation in equalities. The conditions can be easily verified and implemented. We present two simulation examples to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

We investigated EEG-power and EEG-coherence changes in a unimodal and a crossmodal matching-to-sample working memory task with either visual or kinesthetic stimuli. Angle-shaped trajectories were used as stimuli presented either as a moving dot on a screen or as a passive movement of a haptic device. Effects were evaluated during the different phases of encoding, maintenance, and recognition. Alpha power was modulated during encoding by the stimulus modality, and in crossmodal conditions during encoding and maintenance by the expected modality of the upcoming test stimulus. These power modulations were observed over modality-specific cortex regions. Systematic changes of coherence for crossmodal compared to unimodal tasks were not observed during encoding and maintenance but only during recognition. There, coherence in the theta-band increased between electrode sites over left central and occipital cortex areas in the crossmodal compared to the unimodal conditions. The results underline the importance of modality-specific representations and processes in unimodal and crossmodal working memory tasks. Crossmodal recognition of visually and kinesthetically presented object features seems to be related to a direct interaction of somatosensory/motor and visual cortex regions by means of long-range synchronization in the theta-band and such interactions seem to take place at the beginning of the recognition phase, i.e. when crossmodal transfer is actually necessary.

The mammalian brain is, with its numerous neural elements and structured complex connectivity, one of the most complex systems in nature. Recently, large-scale corticocortical connectivities, both structural and functional, have received a great deal of research attention, especially using the approach of complex networks. Here, we try to shed some light on the relationship between structural and functional connectivities by studying synchronization dynamics in a realistic anatomical network of cat cortical connectivity. We model the cortical areas by a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons (multilevel model) and by a neural mass model (population model). With weak couplings, the multilevel model displays biologically plausible dynamics and the synchronization patterns reveal a hierarchical cluster organization in the network structure. We can identify a group of brain areas involved in multifunctional tasks by comparing the dynamical clusters to the topological communities of the network. With strong couplings of multilevel model and by using neural mass model, the dynamics are characterized by well-defined oscillations. The synchronization patterns are mainly determined by the node intensity (total input strengths of a node); the detailed network topology is of secondary importance. The biologically improved multilevel model exhibits similar dynamical patterns in the two regimes. Thus, the study of synchronization in a multilevel complex network model of cortex can provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks.

In the present dissertation paper we study problems related to synchronization phenomena in the presence of noise which unavoidably appears in real systems. One part of the work is aimed at investigation of utilizing delayed feedback to control properties of diverse chaotic dynamic and stochastic systems, with emphasis on the ones determining predisposition to synchronization. Other part deals with a constructive role of noise, i.e. its ability to synchronize identical self-sustained oscillators. First, we demonstrate that the coherence of a noisy or chaotic self-sustained oscillator can be efficiently controlled by the delayed feedback. We develop the analytical theory of this effect, considering noisy systems in the Gaussian approximation. Possible applications of the effect for the synchronization control are also discussed. Second, we consider synchrony of limit cycle systems (in other words, self-sustained oscillators) driven by identical noise. For weak noise and smooth systems we proof the purely synchronizing effect of noise. For slightly different oscillators and/or slightly nonidentical driving, synchrony becomes imperfect, and this subject is also studied. Then, with numerics we show moderate noise to be able to lead to desynchronization of some systems under certain circumstances. For neurons the last effect means “antireliability” (the “reliability” property of neurons is treated to be important from the viewpoint of information transmission functions), and we extend our investigation to neural oscillators which are not always limit cycle ones. Third, we develop a weakly nonlinear theory of the Kuramoto transition (a transition to collective synchrony) in an ensemble of globally coupled oscillators in presence of additional time-delayed coupling terms. We show that a linear delayed feedback not only controls the transition point, but effectively changes the nonlinear terms near the transition. A purely nonlinear delayed coupling does not affect the transition point, but can reduce or enhance the amplitude of collective oscillations.

In nature one commonly finds interacting complex oscillators which by the coupling scheme form small and large networks, e.g. neural networks. Surprisingly, the oscillators can synchronize, still preserving the complex behavior. Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon in coupled nonlinear oscillators. Synchronization can be enhanced at different levels, that is, the constraints on which the synchronization appears. Those can be in the trajectory amplitude, requiring the amplitudes of both oscillators to be equal, giving place to complete synchronization. Conversely, the constraint could also be in a function of the trajectory, e.g. the phase, giving place to phase synchronization (PS). In this case, one requires the phase difference between both oscillators to be finite for all times, while the trajectory amplitude may be uncorrelated. The study of PS has shown its relevance to important technological problems, e.g. communication, collective behavior in neural networks, pattern formation, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, as well as behavioral activities. It has been reported that it mediates processes of information transmission and collective behavior in neural and active networks and communication processes in the Human brain. In this work, we have pursed a general way to analyze the onset of PS in small and large networks. Firstly, we have analyzed many phase coordinates for compact attractors. We have shown that for a broad class of attractors the PS phenomenon is invariant under the phase definition. Our method enables to state about the existence of phase synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators without having to measure the phase. This is done by observing the oscillators at special times, and analyzing whether this set of points is localized. We have show that this approach is fruitful to analyze the onset of phase synchronization in chaotic attractors whose phases are not well defined, as well as, in networks of non-identical spiking/bursting neurons connected by chemical synapses. Moreover, we have also related the synchronization and the information transmission through the conditional observations. In particular, we have found that inside a network clusters may appear. These can be used to transmit more than one information, which provides a multi-processing of information. Furthermore, These clusters provide a multichannel communication, that is, one can integrate a large number of neurons into a single communication system, and information can arrive simultaneously at different places of the network.

This work deals with the connection between two basic phenomena in Nonlinear Dynamics: synchronization of chaotic systems and recurrences in phase space. Synchronization takes place when two or more systems adapt (synchronize) some characteristic of their respective motions, due to an interaction between the systems or to a common external forcing. The appearence of synchronized dynamics in chaotic systems is rather universal but not trivial. In some sense, the possibility that two chaotic systems synchronize is counterintuitive: chaotic systems are characterized by the sensitivity ti different initial conditions. Hence, two identical chaotic systems starting at two slightly different initial conditions evolve in a different manner, and after a certain time, they become uncorrelated. Therefore, at a first glance, it does not seem to be plausible that two chaotic systems are able to synchronize. But as we will see later, synchronization of chaotic systems has been demonstrated. On one hand it is important to investigate the conditions under which synchronization of chaotic systems occurs, and on the other hand, to develop tests for the detection of synchronization. In this work, I have concentrated on the second task for the cases of phase synchronization (PS) and generalized synchronization (GS). Several measures have been proposed so far for the detection of PS and GS. However, difficulties arise with the detection of synchronization in systems subjected to rather large amounts of noise and/or instationarities, which are common when analyzing experimental data. The new measures proposed in the course of this thesis are rather robust with respect to these effects. They hence allow to be applied to data, which have evaded synchronization analysis so far. The proposed tests for synchronization in this work are based on the fundamental property of recurrences in phase space.

This thesis analyses synchronization phenomena occurring in large ensembles of interacting oscillatory units. In particular, the effects of nonisochronicity (frequency dependence on the oscillator's amplitude) on the macroscopic transition to synchronization are studied in detail. The new phenomena found (Anomalous Synchronization) are investigated in populations of oscillators as well as between oscillator's ensembles.

In a classical context, synchronization means adjustment of rhythms of self-sustained periodic oscillators due to their weak interaction. The history of synchronization goes back to the 17th century when the famous Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens reported on his observation of synchronization of pendulum clocks: when two such clocks were put on a common support, their pendula moved in a perfect agreement. In rigorous terms, it means that due to coupling the clocks started to oscillate with identical frequencies and tightly related phases. Being, probably, the oldest scientifically studied nonlinear effect, synchronization was understood only in 1920-ies when E. V. Appleton and B. Van der Pol systematically - theoretically and experimentally - studied synchronization of triode generators. Since that the theory was well developed and found many applications. Nowadays it is well-known that certain systems, even rather simple ones, can exhibit chaotic behaviour. It means that their rhythms are irregular, and cannot be characterized only by one frequency. However, as is shown in the Habilitation work, one can extend the notion of phase for systems of this class as well and observe their synchronization, i.e., agreement of their (still irregular!) rhythms: due to very weak interaction there appear relations between the phases and average frequencies. This effect, called phase synchronization, was later confirmed in laboratory experiments of other scientific groups. Understanding of synchronization of irregular oscillators allowed us to address important problem of data analysis: how to reveal weak interaction between the systems if we cannot influence them, but can only passively observe, measuring some signals. This situation is very often encountered in biology, where synchronization phenomena appear on every level - from cells to macroscopic physiological systems; in normal states as well as in severe pathologies. With our methods we found that cardiovascular and respiratory systems in humans can adjust their rhythms; the strength of their interaction increases with maturation. Next, we used our algorithms to analyse brain activity of Parkinsonian patients. The results of this collaborative work with neuroscientists show that different brain areas synchronize just before the onset of pathological tremor. Morevoever, we succeeded in localization of brain areas responsible for tremor generation.