## Institut für Informatik und Computational Science

Today, InfiniBand is an evolving high speed interconnect technology to build high performance computing clusters, that achieve top 10 rankings in the current top 500 of the worldwide fastest supercomputers. Network interfaces (called host channel adapters) provide transport layer services over connections and datagrams in reliable or unreliable manner. Additionally, InfiniBand supports remote direct memory access (RDMA) primitives that allow for one- sided communication. Using server load balancing together with a high performance cluster makes it possible to build a fast, scalable, and reliable service infrastructure. We have designed and implemented a scalable load balancer for InfiniBand clusters called SLIBNet. Our investigations show that the InfiniBand architecture offers features which perfectly support load balancing. We want to thank the Megware Computer GmbH for providing us an InfiniBand switch to realize a server load balancing testbed.

With the success of wireless technologies in consumer electronics, standard wireless technologies are envisioned for the deployment in industrial environments as well. Industrial applications involving mobile subsystems or just the desire to save cabling make wireless technologies attractive. Nevertheless, these applications often have stringent requirements on reliability and timing. In wired environments, timing and reliability are well catered for by fieldbus systems (which are a mature technology designed to enable communication between digital controllers and the sensors and actuators interfacing to a physical process). When wireless links are included, reliability and timing requirements are significantly more difficult to meet, due to the adverse properties of the radio channels. In this paper we thus discuss some key issues coming up in wireless fieldbus and wireless industrial communication systems:1)fundamental problems like achieving timely and reliable transmission despite channel errors; 2) the usage of existing wireless technologies for this specific field of applications; and 3) the creation of hybrid systems in which wireless stations are included into existing wired systems

Motivation: Visualizing and analysing the potential non-linear structure of a dataset is becoming an important task in molecular biology. This is even more challenging when the data have missing values. Results: Here, we propose an inverse model that performs non-linear principal component analysis (NLPCA) from incomplete datasets. Missing values are ignored while optimizing the model, but can be estimated afterwards. Results are shown for both artificial and experimental datasets. In contrast to linear methods, non-linear methods were able to give better missing value estimations for non-linear structured data. Application: We applied this technique to a time course of metabolite data from a cold stress experiment on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and could approximate the mapping function from any time point to the metabolite responses. Thus, the inverse NLPCA provides greatly improved information for better understanding the complex response to cold stress

This paper proposes a new independent component analysis (ICA) method which is able to unmix overcomplete mixtures of sparce or structured signals like speech, music or images. Furthermore, the method is designed to be robust against outliers, which is a favorable feature for ICA algorithms since most of them are extremely sensitive to outliers. Our approach is based on a simple outlier index. However, instead of robustifying an existing algorithm by some outlier rejection technique we show how this index can be used directly to solve the ICA problem for super-Gaussian sources. The resulting inlier-based ICA (IBICA) is outlier-robust by construction and can be used for standard ICA as well as for overcomplete ICA (i.e. more source signals than observed signals). (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

Data recorded in electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface experiments is generally very noisy, non-stationary, and contaminated with artifacts that can deteriorate discrimination/classification methods. In this paper, we extend the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm with the aim to alleviate these adverse effects. In particular, we suggest an extension of CSP to the state space, which utilizes the method of time delay embedding. As we will show, this allows for individually tuned frequency filters at each electrode position and, thus, yields an improved and more robust machine learning procedure. The advantages of the proposed method over the original CSP method are verified in terms of an improved information transfer rate (bits per trial) on a set of EEG-recordings from experiments of imagined limb movements

Phase synchronization is an important phenomenon that occurs in a wide variety of complex oscillatory processes. Measuring phase synchronization can therefore help to gain fundamental insight into nature. In this Letter we point out that synchronization analysis techniques can detect spurious synchronization, if they are fed with a superposition of signals such as in electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography data. We show how techniques from blind source separation can help to nevertheless measure the true synchronization and avoid such pitfalls

Geovisualization offers powerful tools, techniques, and strategies to present, explore, analyze, and manage geoinformation. Interactive geovirtual environments such as virtual 3D maps or virtual 3D city models, however, raise the question how to control geodata usage and distribution. We present a concept for embedding digital rights in geovisualizations. It is based on geo-documents, an object-oriented scheme to specify a wide range of geo visualizations. Geo-documents are assembled by building blocks categorized into presentation, structure, interaction, animation, and Digital Rights Management (DRM) classes. DRM objects allow for defining permissions and constraints for all objects contained in geo-documents. In this way, authors of geo visualizations can control how their geo-documents are used, personalized, and redistributed by users. The strengths of the presented concept include the ability to integrate heterogeneous 2D and 3D geodata within a compact design scheme and the ability to cope with privacy, security, and copyright issues. Embedded digital rights in geovisualizations can be applied to improve the usability of geodata user interfaces, to implement publisher-subscriber communication systems for geodata, and to establish business models for geodata trading systems

Reiter's default logic is one of the best known and most studied of the approaches to nonmonotonic reasoning. Several variants of default logic have subsequently been proposed to give systems with properties differing from the original. In this paper, we examine the relationship between default logic and its major variants. We accomplish this by translating a default theory under a variant interpretation into a second default theory, under the original Reiter semantics, wherein the variant interpretation is respected. That is, in each case we show that, given an extension of a translated theory, one may extract an extension of the original variant default logic theory. We show how constrained, rational, justified, and cumulative default logic can be expressed in Reiter's default logic. As well, we show how Reiter's default logic can be expressed in rational default logic. From this, we suggest that any such variant can be similarly treated. Consequently, we provide a unification of default logics, showing how the original formulation of default logic may express its variants. Moreover, the translations clearly express the relationships between alternative approaches to default logic. The translations themselves are shown to generally have good properties. Thus, in at least a theoretical sense, we show that these variants are in a sense superfluous, in that for any of these variants of default logic, we can exactly mimic the behaviour of a variant in standard default logic. As well, the translations lend insight into means of classifying the expressive power of default logic variants; specifically we suggest that the property of semi-monotonicity represents a division with respect to expressibility, whereas regularity and cumulativity do not

In this paper we prove Chaitin's "heuristic principle," the theorems of a finitely-specified theory cannot be significantly more complex than the theory itself, for an appropriate measure of complexity. We show that the measure is invariant under the change of the Godel numbering. For this measure, the theorems of a finitely-specified, sound, consistent theory strong enough to formalize arithmetic which is arithmetically sound (like Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with choice or Peano Arithmetic) have bounded complexity, hence every sentence of the theory which is significantly more complex than the theory is unprovable. Previous results showing that incompleteness is not accidental, but ubiquitous are here reinforced in probabilistic terms: the probability that a true sentence of length n is provable in the theory tends to zero when n tends to infinity, while the probability that a sentence of length n is true is strictly positive. (c) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

We study a novel representation of semiautomata, which is motivated by the method of trace-assertion specifications of software modules. Each state of the semiautomaton is represented by an arbitrary word leading to that state, the canonical word. The transitions of the semiautomaton give rise to a right congruence, the state-equivalence, on the set of input words of the semiautomaton: two words are state-equivalent if and only if they lead to the same state. We present a simple algorithm for finding a set of generators for state-equivalence. Directly from this set of generators, we construct a confluent prefix-rewriting system which permits us to transform any word to its canonical representative. In general, the rewriting system may allow infinite derivations. To address this issue, we impose the condition of prefix-continuity on the set of canonical words. A set is prefix-continuous if, whenever a word w and a prefix u of w axe in the set, then all the prefixes of w longer than u are also in the set. Prefix-continuous sets include prefix-free and prefix-closed sets as special cases. We prove that the rewriting system is Noetherian if and only if the set of canonical words is prefix-continuous. Furthermore, if the set of canonical words is prefix- continuous, then the set of rewriting rules is irredundant. We show that each prefix-continuous canonical set corresponds to a spanning forest of the semiautomaton

E-Government requires technical and organizational innovation. Research has already shown that the respective innovation process is complex and contingent upon specific organizational structures. Managing such innovation processes successfully is difficult. Drawing on assumptions of micropolitical behavior, a framework of innovation arenas is proposed. It supports the analysis of ongoing E-Government projects as well as the ex post investigation of successful or failed projects. Testing this framework in case studies already demonstrates its usefulness for individual actors making strategic choices about change management. Furthermore, the results indicate that many commonly held assumptions about successful change management have to be reconsidered

We investigate the operation problem for linear and deterministic context-free languages: Fix an operation on formal languages. Given linear (deterministic, respectively) context-free languages, is the application of this operation to the given languages still a linear (deterministic, respectively) context-free language? Besides the classical operations, for which the linear and deterministic context-free languages are not closed, we also consider the recently introduced root and power operation. We show non-semidecidability, to be more precise, we show completeness for the second level of the arithmetic hierarchy for all of the aforementioned operations, except for the power operation, if the underlying alphabet contains at least two letters. The result for the power opera, tion solves an open problem stated in Theoret. Comput. Sci. 314 (2004) 445-449

It is proved that the number of components in context-free cooperating distributed (CD) grammar systems can be reduced to 3 when they are working in the so-called sf-mode of derivation, which is the cooperation protocol which has been considered first for CD grammar systems. In this derivation mode, a component continues the derivation until and unless there is a nonterminal in the sentential form which cannot be rewritten according to that component. Moreover, it is shown that CD grammar systems in sf-mode with only one component can generate only the context-free languages but they can generate non-context-free languages if two components are used. The sf-mode of derivation is compared with other well-known cooperation protocols with respect to the hierarchies induced by the number of components. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Computational methods for the design of effective therapies against drug resistant HIV strains
(2005)

The development of drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment of HIV infection. The extraordinary replication dynamics of HIV facilitates its escape from selective pressure exerted by the human immune system and by combination drug therapy. We have developed several computational methods whose combined use can support the design of optimal antiretroviral therapies based on viral genomic data

This paper analyses data privacy issues as they arise from different deployment scenarios for networks that use embedded sensor devices. Maintaining data privacy in pervasive environments requires the management and implementation of privacy protection measures close to the data source. We propose a set of atomic privacy parameters that is generic enough to form specific privacy classes and might be applied directly at the embedded sensor device.