## 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik

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Mit der 4. Tagung zur Hochschuldidaktik Informatik wird eine Reihe fortgesetzt, die ihren Anfang 1998 in Stuttgart unter der Überschrift „Informatik und Ausbildung“ genommen hat. Seither dienen diese Tagungen den Lehrenden im Bereich der Hochschulinformatik als Forum der Information und des Diskurses über aktuelle didaktische und bildungspolitische Entwicklungen im Bereich der Informatikausbildung. Aktuell zählen dazu insbesondere Fragen der Bildungsrelevanz informatischer Inhalte und der Herausforderung durch eine stärkere Kompetenzorientierung in der Informatik. Die eingereichten Beiträge zur HDI 2010 in Paderborn veranschaulichen unterschiedliche Bemühungen, sich mit relevanten Problemen der Informatikdidaktik an Hochschulen in Deutschland (und z. T. auch im Ausland) auseinanderzusetzen. Aus der Breite des Spektrums der Einreichungen ergaben sich zugleich Probleme bei der Begutachtung. Letztlich konnten von den zahlreichen Einreichungen nur drei die Gutachter so überzeugen, dass sie uneingeschränkt in ihrer Langfassung akzeptiert wurden. Neun weitere Einreichungen waren trotz Kritik überwiegend positiv begutachtet worden, so dass wir diese als Kurzfassung bzw. Diskussionspapier in die Tagung aufgenommen haben.

The difference-list technique is described in literature as effective method for extending lists to the right without using calls of append/3. There exist some proposals for automatic transformation of list programs into differencelist programs. However, we are interested in construction of difference-list programs by the programmer, avoiding the need of a transformation step. In [GG09] it was demonstrated, how left-recursive procedures with a dangling call of append/3 can be transformed into right-recursion using the unfolding technique. For simplification of writing difference-list programs using a new cons/2 procedure was introduced. In the present paper, we investigate how efficieny is influenced using cons/2. We measure the efficiency of procedures using accumulator technique, cons/2, DCG’s, and difference lists and compute the resulting speedup in respect to the simple procedure definition using append/3. Four Prolog systems were investigated and we found different behaviour concerning the speedup by difference lists. A result of our investigations is, that an often advice given in the literature for avoiding calls append/3 could not be confirmed in this strong formulation.

A deterministic cycle scheduling of partitions at the operating system level is supposed for a multiprocessor system. In this paper, we propose a tool for generating such schedules. We use constraint based programming and develop methods and concepts for a combined interactive and automatic partition scheduling system. This paper is also devoted to basic methods and techniques for modeling and solving this partition scheduling problem. Initial application of our partition scheduling tool has proved successful and demonstrated the suitability of the methods used.

In the most abstract definition of its operational semantics, the declarative and concurrent programming language CHR is trivially non-terminating for a significant class of programs. Common refinements of this definition, in closing the gap to real-world implementations, compromise on declarativity and/or concurrency. Building on recent work and the notion of persistent constraints, we introduce an operational semantics avoiding trivial non-termination without compromising on its essential features.

Different properties of programs, implemented in Constraint Handling Rules (CHR), have already been investigated. Proving these properties in CHR is fairly simpler than proving them in any type of imperative programming language, which triggered the proposal of a methodology to map imperative programs into equivalent CHR. The equivalence of both programs implies that if a property is satisfied for one, then it is satisfied for the other. The mapping methodology could be put to other beneficial uses. One such use is the automatic generation of global constraints, at an attempt to demonstrate the benefits of having a rule-based implementation for constraint solvers.

Deductive databases need general formulas in rule bodies, not only conjuctions of literals. This is well known since the work of Lloyd and Topor about extended logic programming. Of course, formulas must be restricted in such a way that they can be effectively evaluated in finite time, and produce only a finite number of new tuples (in each iteration of the TP-operator: the fixpoint can still be infinite). It is also necessary to respect binding restrictions of built-in predicates: many of these predicates can be executed only when certain arguments are ground. Whereas for standard logic programming rules, questions of safety, allowedness, and range-restriction are relatively easy and well understood, the situation for general formulas is a bit more complicated. We give a syntactic analysis of formulas that guarantees the necessary properties.

Abstract interpretation-based model checking provides an approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. In practice, most previous work on abstract model checking is either restricted to verifying universal properties, or develops special techniques for temporal logics such as modal transition systems or other dual transition systems. By contrast we apply completely standard techniques for constructing abstract interpretations to the abstraction of a CTL semantic function, without restricting the kind of properties that can be verified. Furthermore we show that this leads directly to implementation of abstract model checking algorithms for abstract domains based on constraints, making use of an SMT solver.

The interest in extensions of the logic programming paradigm beyond the class of normal logic programs is motivated by the need of an adequate representation and processing of knowledge. One of the most difficult problems in this area is to find an adequate declarative semantics for logic programs. In the present paper a general preference criterion is proposed that selects the ‘intended’ partial models of generalized logic programs which is a conservative extension of the stationary semantics for normal logic programs of [Prz91]. The presented preference criterion defines a partial model of a generalized logic program as intended if it is generated by a stationary chain. It turns out that the stationary generated models coincide with the stationary models on the class of normal logic programs. The general wellfounded semantics of such a program is defined as the set-theoretical intersection of its stationary generated models. For normal logic programs the general wellfounded semantics equals the wellfounded semantics.

We propose a paraconsistent declarative semantics of possibly inconsistent generalized logic programs which allows for arbitrary formulas in the body and in the head of a rule (i.e. does not depend on the presence of any specific connective, such as negation(-as-failure), nor on any specific syntax of rules). For consistent generalized logic programs this semantics coincides with the stable generated models introduced in [HW97], and for normal logic programs it yields the stable models in the sense of [GL88].

We present the tool Kato which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first tool for plagiarism detection that is directly tailored for answer-set programming (ASP). Kato aims at finding similarities between (segments of) logic programs to help detecting cases of plagiarism. Currently, the tool is realised for DLV programs but it is designed to handle various logic-programming syntax versions. We review basic features and the underlying methodology of the tool.