## 004 Datenverarbeitung; Informatik

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Various kinds of typed attributed graphs are used to represent states of systems from a broad range of domains. For dynamic systems, established formalisms such as graph transformations provide a formal model for defining state sequences. We consider the extended case where time elapses between states and introduce a logic to reason about these sequences. With this logic we express properties on the structure and attributes of states as well as on the temporal occurrence of states that are related by their inner structure, which no formal logic over graphs accomplishes concisely so far. Firstly, we introduce graphs with history by equipping every graph element with the timestamp of its creation and, if applicable, its deletion. Secondly, we define a logic on graphs by integrating the temporal operator until into the well-established logic of nested graph conditions. Thirdly, we prove that our logic is equally expressive to nested graph conditions by providing a suitable reduction. Finally, the implementation of this reduction allows for the tool-based analysis of metric temporal properties for state sequences.

Advanced mechatronic systems have to integrate existing technologies from mechanical, electrical and software engineering. They must be able to adapt their structure and behavior at runtime by reconfiguration to react flexibly to changes in the environment. Therefore, a tight integration of structural and behavioral models of the different domains is required. This integration results in complex reconfigurable hybrid systems, the execution logic of which cannot be addressed directly with existing standard modeling, simulation, and code-generation techniques. We present in this paper how our component-based approach for reconfigurable mechatronic systems, M ECHATRONIC UML, efficiently handles the complex interplay of discrete behavior and continuous behavior in a modular manner. In addition, its extension to even more flexible reconfiguration cases is presented.

Today, software has become an intrinsic part of complex distributed embedded real-time systems. The next generation of embedded real-time systems will interconnect the today unconnected systems via complex software parts and the service-oriented paradigm. Therefore besides timed behavior and probabilistic behaviour also structure dynamics, where the architecture can be subject to changes at run-time, e.g. when dynamic binding of service end-points is employed or complex collaborations are established dynamically, is required. However, a modeling and analysis approach that combines all these necessary aspects does not exist so far.
To fill the identified gap, we propose Probabilistic Timed Graph Transformation Systems (PTGTSs) as a high-level description language that supports all the necessary aspects of structure dynamics, timed behavior, and probabilistic behavior. We introduce the formal model of PTGTSs in this paper and present a mapping of models with finite state spaces to probabilistic timed automata (PTA) that allows to use the PRISM model checker to analyze PTGTS models with respect to PTCTL properties.

While offering significant expressive power, graph transformation systems often come with rather limited capabilities for automated analysis, particularly if systems with many possible initial graphs and large or infinite state spaces are concerned. One approach that tries to overcome these limitations is inductive invariant checking. However, the verification of inductive invariants often requires extensive knowledge about the system in question and faces the approach-inherent challenges of locality and lack of context.
To address that, this report discusses k-inductive invariant checking for graph transformation systems as a generalization of inductive invariants. The additional context acquired by taking multiple (k) steps into account is the key difference to inductive invariant checking and is often enough to establish the desired invariants without requiring the iterative development of additional properties.
To analyze possibly infinite systems in a finite fashion, we introduce a symbolic encoding for transformation traces using a restricted form of nested application conditions. As its central contribution, this report then presents a formal approach and algorithm to verify graph constraints as k-inductive invariants. We prove the approach's correctness and demonstrate its applicability by means of several examples evaluated with a prototypical implementation of our algorithm.

The correctness of model transformations is a crucial element for model-driven engineering of high quality software. In particular, behavior preservation is the most important correctness property avoiding the introduction of semantic errors during the model-driven engineering process. Behavior preservation verification techniques either show that specific properties are preserved, or more generally and complex, they show some kind of behavioral equivalence or refinement between source and target model of the transformation. Both kinds of behavior preservation verification goals have been presented with automatic tool support for the instance level, i.e. for a given source and target model specified by the model transformation. However, up until now there is no automatic verification approach available at the transformation level, i.e. for all source and target models specified by the model transformation.
In this report, we extend our results presented in [27] and outline a new sophisticated approach for the automatic verification of behavior preservation captured by bisimulation resp. simulation for model transformations specified by triple graph grammars and semantic definitions given by graph transformation rules. In particular, we show that the behavior preservation problem can be reduced to invariant checking for graph transformation and that the resulting checking problem can be addressed by our own invariant checker even for a complex example where a sequence chart is transformed into communicating automata. We further discuss today's limitations of invariant checking for graph transformation and motivate further lines of future work in this direction.

Graph queries have lately gained increased interest due to application areas such as social networks, biological networks, or model queries. For the relational database case the relational algebra and generalized discrimination networks have been studied to find appropriate decompositions into subqueries and ordering of these subqueries for query evaluation or incremental updates of query results. For graph database queries however there is no formal underpinning yet that allows us to find such suitable operationalizations. Consequently, we suggest a simple operational concept for the decomposition of arbitrary complex queries into simpler subqueries and the ordering of these subqueries in form of generalized discrimination networks for graph queries inspired by the relational case. The approach employs graph transformation rules for the nodes of the network and thus we can employ the underlying theory. We further show that the proposed generalized discrimination networks have the same expressive power as nested graph conditions.

Graph transformation systems are a powerful formal model to capture model transformations or systems with infinite state space, among others. However, this expressive power comes at the cost of rather limited automated analysis capabilities. The general case of unbounded many initial graphs or infinite state spaces is only supported by approaches with rather limited scalability or expressiveness. In this report we improve an existing approach for the automated verification of inductive invariants for graph transformation systems. By employing partial negative application conditions to represent and check many alternative conditions in a more compact manner, we can check examples with rules and constraints of substantially higher complexity. We also substantially extend the expressive power by supporting more complex negative application conditions and provide higher accuracy by employing advanced implication checks. The improvements are evaluated and compared with another applicable tool by considering three case studies.

Graph databases provide a natural way of storing and querying graph data. In contrast to relational databases, queries over graph databases enable to refer directly to the graph structure of such graph data. For example, graph pattern matching can be employed to formulate queries over graph data.
However, as for relational databases running complex queries can be very time-consuming and ruin the interactivity with the database. One possible approach to deal with this performance issue is to employ database views that consist of pre-computed answers to common and often stated queries. But to ensure that database views yield consistent query results in comparison with the data from which they are derived, these database views must be updated before queries make use of these database views. Such a maintenance of database views must be performed efficiently, otherwise the effort to create and maintain views may not pay off in comparison to processing the queries directly on the data from which the database views are derived.
At the time of writing, graph databases do not support database views and are limited to graph indexes that index nodes and edges of the graph data for fast query evaluation, but do not enable to maintain pre-computed answers of complex queries over graph data. Moreover, the maintenance of database views in graph databases becomes even more challenging when negation and recursion have to be supported as in deductive relational databases.
In this technical report, we present an approach for the efficient and scalable incremental graph view maintenance for deductive graph databases. The main concept of our approach is a generalized discrimination network that enables to model nested graph conditions including negative application conditions and recursion, which specify the content of graph views derived from graph data stored by graph databases. The discrimination network enables to automatically derive generic maintenance rules using graph transformations for maintaining graph views in case the graph data from which the graph views are derived change. We evaluate our approach in terms of a case study using multiple data sets derived from open source projects.

An increasing demand on functionality and flexibility leads to an integration of beforehand isolated system solutions building a so-called System of Systems (SoS). Furthermore, the overall SoS should be adaptive to react on changing requirements and environmental conditions. Due SoS are composed of different independent systems that may join or leave the overall SoS at arbitrary point in times, the SoS structure varies during the systems lifetime and the overall SoS behavior emerges from the capabilities of the contained subsystems. In such complex system ensembles new demands of understanding the interaction among subsystems, the coupling of shared system knowledge and the influence of local adaptation strategies to the overall resulting system behavior arise. In this report, we formulate research questions with the focus of modeling interactions between system parts inside a SoS. Furthermore, we define our notion of important system types and terms by retrieving the current state of the art from literature. Having a common understanding of SoS, we discuss a set of typical SoS characteristics and derive general requirements for a collaboration modeling language. Additionally, we retrieve a broad spectrum of real scenarios and frameworks from literature and discuss how these scenarios cope with different characteristics of SoS. Finally, we discuss the state of the art for existing modeling languages that cope with collaborations for different system types such as SoS.