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Ocean convection is a highly non-linear and local process. Typically, a small-scale phenomenon of this kind entails numerical problems in the modelling of ocean circulation. One of the tasks to solve is the improvement of convection parameterization schemes, but the question of grid geometry also plays a considerable role. Here, this question is studied in the context of global ocean models coupled to an atmosphere model. Such ocean climate models have mostly structured, coarsely resolved grids. Using a simple conceptual two-layer model, we compare the discretization effects of a rectangular grid with those of a grid with hexagonal grid cells, focussing on average properties of the ocean. It turns out that systematic errors tend to be clearly smaller with the hexagonal grid. In a hysteresis experiment with the atmospheric boundary condition as a hysteresis parameter, the spatially averaged behaviour shows nonnegligible artificial steps for quadratic grid cells. This bias is reduced with the hexagonal grid. The same holds for the directional sensitivity (or horizontal anisotropy) which is found for different angles of the advection velocity. The grid with hexagonal grid cells shows much more isotropic results. From the limited viewpoint of these test experiments, it seems that the hexagonal grid (i.e. icosahedral-hexagonal grids on the sphere) is recommendable for ocean climate models. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

We demonstrate the occurrence of regimes with singular continuous (fractal) Fourier spectra in autonomous dissipative dynamical systems. The particular example in an ODE system at the accumulation points of bifurcation sequences associated to the creation of complicated homoclinic orbits. Two different machanisms responsible for the appearance of such spectra are proposed. In the first case when the geometry of the attractor is symbolically represented by the Thue-Morse sequence, both the continuous-time process and its descrete Poincaré map have singular power spectra. The other mechanism owes to the logarithmic divergence of the first return times near the saddle point; here the Poincaré map possesses the discrete spectrum, while the continuous-time process displays the singular one. A method is presented for computing the multifractal characteristics of the singular continuous spectra with the help of the usual Fourier analysis technique.

Anhand eines paradigmatischen Modellbeispiels werden die Konsequenzen der Koexistenz vieler Attraktoren auf die globale Dynamik schwach dissipativer Systeme studiert. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese Systeme eine sehr reichhaltige Dynamik besitzen und extrem sensitiv gegenüber Störungen in den Anfangsbedingungen sind. Diese Systeme zeichnen sich durch eine extrem hohe Flexibilität ihres Verhaltens aus.

Strange nonchaotic attractors typically appear in quasiperiodically driven nonlinear systems. Two methods of their characterization are proposed. The first one is based on the bifurcation analysis of the systems, resulting from periodic approximations of the quasiperiodic forcing. Secondly, we propose th characterize their strangeness by calculating a phase sensitivity exponent, that measures the sensitivity with respect to changes of the phase of the external force. It is shown, that phase sensitivity appears if there is a non-zero probability for positive local Lyapunov exponents to occur.

The quasiperiodically forced logistic map is analyzed at the terminal point of the torus-doubling bifurcation curve, where the dynamical regimes of torus, doubled torus, strange nonchaotic attractor, and chaos meet. Using the renormalization group approach we reveal scaling properties both for the critical attractor and for the parameter plane topography near the critical point.

Laser beam melt ablation - a contact-free machining process - offers several advantages compared to conventional processing mechanisms: there exists no tool wear and even extremely hard or brittle materials can be processed. During ablation the workpiece is molten by a CO2-laser beam, this melt is then driven out by the impulse of a process gas. The idea behind laser ablation is rather simple, but it has a major limitation in practical applications: with increasing ablation rates surface quality of the workpiece processed declines rapidly. At high ablation rates, depending on the process parameters different periodic-like structures can be observed on the ablated surface. These structures show a dependence on the line energy, which has been identified as a fundamental control parameter. In dependence on this parameter several regimes with different behaviours of the process have been separated. These regimes are distinguishable as well in the surfaces obtained as in the signals gained by the measurement of the process emissions. Further aim is to identify the different modes of the system and reach a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the molten material in order to understand the formation of these surface structures. With this it should be possible to influence the system in the direction of avoiding structure formation even at high ablation rates. Relying on the results on-line monitoring and control of the process should be studied.