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Various kinds of typed attributed graphs are used to represent states of systems from a broad range of domains. For dynamic systems, established formalisms such as graph transformations provide a formal model for defining state sequences. We consider the extended case where time elapses between states and introduce a logic to reason about these sequences. With this logic we express properties on the structure and attributes of states as well as on the temporal occurrence of states that are related by their inner structure, which no formal logic over graphs accomplishes concisely so far. Firstly, we introduce graphs with history by equipping every graph element with the timestamp of its creation and, if applicable, its deletion. Secondly, we define a logic on graphs by integrating the temporal operator until into the well-established logic of nested graph conditions. Thirdly, we prove that our logic is equally expressive to nested graph conditions by providing a suitable reduction. Finally, the implementation of this reduction allows for the tool-based analysis of metric temporal properties for state sequences.

Graphs are ubiquitous in Computer Science. For this reason, in many areas, it is very important to have the means to express and reason about graph properties. In particular, we want to be able to check automatically if a given graph property is satisfiable. Actually, in most application scenarios it is desirable to be able to explore graphs satisfying the graph property if they exist or even to get a complete and compact overview of the graphs satisfying the graph property.
We show that the tableau-based reasoning method for graph properties as introduced by Lambers and Orejas paves the way for a symbolic model generation algorithm for graph properties. Graph properties are formulated in a dedicated logic making use of graphs and graph morphisms, which is equivalent to firstorder logic on graphs as introduced by Courcelle. Our parallelizable algorithm gradually generates a finite set of so-called symbolic models, where each symbolic model describes a set of finite graphs (i.e., finite models) satisfying the graph property. The set of symbolic models jointly describes all finite models for the graph property (complete) and does not describe any finite graph violating the graph property (sound). Moreover, no symbolic model is already covered by another one (compact). Finally, the algorithm is able to generate from each symbolic model a minimal finite model immediately and allows for an exploration of further finite models. The algorithm is implemented in the new tool AutoGraph.

Cyber-physical systems often encompass complex concurrent behavior with timing constraints and probabilistic failures on demand. The analysis whether such systems with probabilistic timed behavior adhere to a given specification is essential. When the states of the system can be represented by graphs, the rule-based formalism of Probabilistic Timed Graph Transformation Systems (PTGTSs) can be used to suitably capture structure dynamics as well as probabilistic and timed behavior of the system. The model checking support for PTGTSs w.r.t. properties specified using Probabilistic Timed Computation Tree Logic (PTCTL) has been already presented. Moreover, for timed graph-based runtime monitoring, Metric Temporal Graph Logic (MTGL) has been developed for stating metric temporal properties on identified subgraphs and their structural changes over time. In this paper, we (a) extend MTGL to the Probabilistic Metric Temporal Graph Logic (PMTGL) by allowing for the specification of probabilistic properties, (b) adapt our MTGL satisfaction checking approach to PTGTSs, and (c) combine the approaches for PTCTL model checking and MTGL satisfaction checking to obtain a Bounded Model Checking (BMC) approach for PMTGL. In our evaluation, we apply an implementation of our BMC approach in AutoGraph to a running example.

An der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen des Qualitätspakt Lehre-Projekts „Qualität etablieren in Lehre und Lernen (QueLL)“ Maßnahmen für eine Verbesserung der Studienbedingungen und eine Weiterentwicklung der Lehre und des Lernens durchgeführt. Die während der neunjährigen Projektlaufzeit thematisierten Fragestellungen, erarbeiteten Lösungsansätze und entsprechenden Erfahrungen werden im vorliegenden Sammelband in Form von wissenschaftlichen Auseinandersetzungen und Werkstattberichten dargestellt und diskutiert.
Die Beiträge spiegeln in ihrer thematischen Vielfalt unterschiedliche universitäre Übergangsphasen wider, wie in diesem Fall den Übergang in die Hochschule, Übergänge innerhalb der Hochschule (im Kontext der Organisationsentwicklung, der Weiterbildung akademischer Statusgruppen oder der Entwicklung einer digitalen Lehr-Lernkultur) und schließlich den Übergang in die Berufspraxis. Denn während der Projektlaufzeit hat sich gezeigt, dass die Gestaltung von Lehre und Lernen letztlich immer eine Gestaltung solcher Übergänge ist: sowohl zwischen den innerinstitutionellen Ebenen und Bereichen als auch zwischen Akteur/innen der Hochschule und schließlich ebenso innerhalb des Student Life Cycle. Weiterhin wird anhand der Beiträge deutlich, dass die Entwicklung von Lehre und Studium nicht als isolierte Aufgabe verstanden werden kann, sondern in die Strukturen und Prozesse der Universität hineinwirken und Formen der Zusammenarbeit etablieren sollte, die es braucht, um Projekte nachhaltig zu gestalten.
Ziel dieses Bandes ist es, zur Diskussion über Gelingensbedingungen einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung von Lehre und Lernen beizutragen. Damit richtet er sich an Akteur/innen aus der Hochschulleitung, an Lehrende und Forschende sowie Mitarbeitende des Third Space.

Graphs are ubiquitous in computer science. Moreover, in various application fields, graphs are equipped with attributes to express additional information such as names of entities or weights of relationships. Due to the pervasiveness of attributed graphs, it is highly important to have the means to express properties on attributed graphs to strengthen modeling capabilities and to enable analysis. Firstly, we introduce a new logic of attributed graph properties, where the graph part and attribution part are neatly separated. The graph part is equivalent to first-order logic on graphs as introduced by Courcelle. It employs graph morphisms to allow the specification of complex graph patterns. The attribution part is added to this graph part by reverting to the symbolic approach to graph attribution, where attributes are represented symbolically by variables whose possible values are specified by a set of constraints making use of algebraic specifications. Secondly, we extend our refutationally complete tableau-based reasoning method as well as our symbolic model generation approach for graph properties to attributed graph properties. Due to the new logic mentioned above, neatly separating the graph and attribution parts, and the categorical constructions employed only on a more abstract level, we can leave the graph part of the algorithms seemingly unchanged. For the integration of the attribution part into the algorithms, we use an oracle, allowing for flexible adoption of different available SMT solvers in the actual implementation. Finally, our automated reasoning approach for attributed graph properties is implemented in the tool AutoGraph integrating in particular the SMT solver Z3 for the attribute part of the properties. We motivate and illustrate our work with a particular application scenario on graph database query validation.

The analysis of behavioral models is of high importance for cyber-physical systems, as the systems often encompass complex behavior based on e.g. concurrent components with mutual exclusion or probabilistic failures on demand. The rule-based formalism of probabilistic timed graph transformation systems is a suitable choice when the models representing states of the system can be understood as graphs and timed and probabilistic behavior is important. However, model checking PTGTSs is limited to systems with rather small state spaces.
We present an approach for the analysis of large scale systems modeled as probabilistic timed graph transformation systems by systematically decomposing their state spaces into manageable fragments. To obtain qualitative and quantitative analysis results for a large scale system, we verify that results obtained for its fragments serve as overapproximations for the corresponding results of the large scale system. Hence, our approach allows for the detection of violations of qualitative and quantitative safety properties for the large scale system under analysis. We consider a running example in which we model shuttles driving on tracks of a large scale topology and for which we verify that shuttles never collide and are unlikely to execute emergency brakes. In our evaluation, we apply an implementation of our approach to the running example.

The formal modeling and analysis is of crucial importance for software development processes following the model based approach. We present the formalism of Interval Probabilistic Timed Graph Transformation Systems (IPTGTSs) as a high-level modeling language. This language supports structure dynamics (based on graph transformation), timed behavior (based on clocks, guards, resets, and invariants as in Timed Automata (TA)), and interval probabilistic behavior (based on Discrete Interval Probability Distributions). That is, for the probabilistic behavior, the modeler using IPTGTSs does not need to provide precise probabilities, which are often impossible to obtain, but rather provides a probability range instead from which a precise probability is chosen nondeterministically. In fact, this feature on capturing probabilistic behavior distinguishes IPTGTSs from Probabilistic Timed Graph Transformation Systems (PTGTSs) presented earlier.
Following earlier work on Interval Probabilistic Timed Automata (IPTA) and PTGTSs, we also provide an analysis tool chain for IPTGTSs based on inter-formalism transformations. In particular, we provide in our tool AutoGraph a translation of IPTGTSs to IPTA and rely on a mapping of IPTA to Probabilistic Timed Automata (PTA) to allow for the usage of the Prism model checker. The tool Prism can then be used to analyze the resulting PTA w.r.t. probabilistic real-time queries asking for worst-case and best-case probabilities to reach a certain set of target states in a given amount of time.

Embedded real-time systems generate state sequences where time elapses between state changes. Ensuring that such systems adhere to a provided specification of admissible or desired behavior is essential. Formal model-based testing is often a suitable cost-effective approach. We introduce an extended version of the formalism of symbolic graphs, which encompasses types as well as attributes, for representing states of dynamic systems. Relying on this extension of symbolic graphs, we present a novel formalism of timed graph transformation systems (TGTSs) that supports the model-based development of dynamic real-time systems at an abstract level where possible state changes and delays are specified by graph transformation rules. We then introduce an extended form of the metric temporal graph logic (MTGL) with increased expressiveness to improve the applicability of MTGL for the specification of timed graph sequences generated by a TGTS. Based on the metric temporal operators of MTGL and its built-in graph binding mechanics, we express properties on the structure and attributes of graphs as well as on the occurrence of graphs over time that are related by their inner structure. We provide formal support for checking whether a single generated timed graph sequence adheres to a provided MTGL specification. Relying on this logical foundation, we develop a testing framework for TGTSs that are specified using MTGL. Lastly, we apply this testing framework to a running example by using our prototypical implementation in the tool AutoGraph.

Graph repair, restoring consistency of a graph, plays a prominent role in several areas of computer science and beyond: For example, in model-driven engineering, the abstract syntax of models is usually encoded using graphs. Flexible edit operations temporarily create inconsistent graphs not representing a valid model, thus requiring graph repair. Similarly, in graph databases—managing the storage and manipulation of graph data—updates may cause that a given database does not satisfy some integrity constraints, requiring also graph repair. We present a logic-based incremental approach to graph repair, generating a sound and complete (upon termination) overview of least-changing repairs. In our context, we formalize consistency by so-called graph conditions being equivalent to first-order logic on graphs. We present two kind of repair algorithms: State-based repair restores consistency independent of the graph update history, whereas deltabased (or incremental) repair takes this history explicitly into account. Technically, our algorithms rely on an existing model generation algorithm for graph conditions implemented in AutoGraph. Moreover, the delta-based approach uses the new concept of satisfaction (ST) trees for encoding if and how a graph satisfies a graph condition. We then demonstrate how to manipulate these STs incrementally with respect to a graph update.