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- Article (13)
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The main intention of this contribution is to discuss different nonlinear approaches to heart rate and blood pressure variability analysis for a better understanding of the cardiovascular regulation. We investigate measures of complexity which are based on symbolic dynamics, renormalised entropy and the finite time growth rates. The dual sequence method to estimate the baroreflex sensitivity and the maximal correlation method to estimate the nonlinear coupling between time series are employed for analysing bivariate data. The latter appears to be a suitable method to estimate the strength of the nonlinear coupling and the coupling direction. Heart rate and blood pressure data from clinical pilot studies and from very large clinical studies are analysed. We demonstrate that parameters from nonlinear dynamics are useful for risk stratification after myocardial infarction, for the prediction of life-threatening cardiac events even in short time series, and for modelling the relationship between heart rate and blood pressure regulation. These findings could be of importance for clinical diagnostics, in algorithms for risk stratification, and for therapeutic and preventive tools of next generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

We analyze the variability in the x-ray lightcurves of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 by linear and nonlinear time series analysis methods. While a linear model describes the overall second order properties of the observed data well, surrogate data analysis reveals a significant deviation from linearity. We discuss the relation between shot noise models usually applied to analyze these data and linear stochastic autoregressive models. We debate statistical and interpretational issues of surrogate data testing for the present context. Finally, we suggest a combination of tools from linear and nonlinear time series analysis methods as a procedure to test the predictions of astrophysical models on observed data.

Reconstruction of nonlinear time delay models from data by the use of optimal transformations
(1997)

We review the problem of estimating parameters and unobserved trajectory components from noisy time series measurements of continuous nonlinear dynamical systems. It is first shown that in parameter estimation techniques that do not take the measurement errors explicitly into account, like regression approaches, noisy measurements can produce inaccurate parameter estimates. Another problem is that for chaotic systems the cost functions that have to be minimized to estimate states and parameters are so complex that common optimization routines may fail. We show that the inclusion of information about the time-continuous nature of the underlying trajectories can improve parameter estimation considerably. Two approaches, which take into account both the errors-in-variables problem and the problem of complex cost functions, are described in detail: shooting approaches and recursive estimation techniques. Both are demonstrated on numerical examples

Estimation of parameters and unobserved components for nonlinear systems from noisy time series
(2002)

We study the problem of simultaneous estimation of parameters and unobserved states from noisy data of nonlinear time-continuous systems, including the case of additive stochastic forcing. We propose a solution by adapting the recently developed statistical method of unscented Kalman filtering to this problem. Due to its recursive and derivative-free structure, this method minimizes the cost function in a computationally efficient and robust way. It is found that parameters as well as unobserved components can be estimated with high accuracy, including confidence bands, from heavily noise-corrupted data.