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The behavior of weakly coupled self-sustained oscillators can often be well described by phase equations. Here we use the paradigm of Kuramoto phase oscillators which are coupled in a network to calculate first- and second-order corrections to the frequency of the fully synchronized state for nonidentical oscillators. The topology of the underlying coupling network is reflected in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the network Laplacian which influence the synchronization frequency in a particular way. They characterize the importance of nodes in a network and the relations between them. Expected values for the synchronization frequency are obtained for oscillators with quenched random frequencies on a class of scale-free random networks and for a Erdoumls-Reacutenyi random network. We briefly discuss an application of the perturbation theory in the second order to network structural analysis.

To develop and investigate detailed mathematical models of metabolic processes is one of the primary challenges in systems biology. However, despite considerable advance in the topological analysis of metabolic networks, kinetic modeling is still often severely hampered by inadequate knowledge of the enzyme-kinetic rate laws and their associated parameter values. Here we propose a method that aims to give a quantitative account of the dynamical capabilities of a metabolic system, without requiring any explicit information about the functional form of the rate equations. Our approach is based on constructing a local linear model at each point in parameter space, such that each element of the model is either directly experimentally accessible or amenable to a straightforward biochemical interpretation. This ensemble of local linear models, encompassing all possible explicit kinetic models, then allows for a statistical exploration of the comprehensive parameter space. The method is exemplified on two paradigmatic metabolic systems: the glycolytic pathway of yeast and a realistic-scale representation of the photosynthetic Calvin cycle.

Spatial correlations in environmental stochasticity can synchronize populations over wide areas, a phenomenon known as the Moran effect. The Moran effect has been confirmed in field, laboratory and theoretical investigations. Little is known, however, about the Moran effect in a common ecological case, when environmental variation is temporally autocorrelated and this autocorrelation varies spatially. Here we perform chemostat experiments to investigate the temporal response of independent phytoplankton populations to autocorrelated stochastic forcing. In contrast to naive expectation, two populations without direct coupling can be more strongly correlated than their environmental forcing (enhanced Moran effect), if the stochastic variations differ in their autocorrelation. Our experimental findings are in agreement with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. The enhanced Moran effect is robust to changes in population dynamics, noise spectra and different measures of correlation-suggesting that noise-induced synchrony may play a larger role for population dynamics than previously thought.

Trade plays a key role in the spread of alien species and has arguably contributed to the recent enormous acceleration of biological invasions, thus homogenizing biotas worldwide. Combining data on 60-year trends of bilateral trade, as well as on biodiversity and climate, we modeled the global spread of plant species among 147 countries. The model results were compared with a recently compiled unique global data set on numbers of naturalized alien vascular plant species representing the most comprehensive collection of naturalized plant distributions currently available. The model identifies major source regions, introduction routes, and hot spots of plant invasions that agree well with observed naturalized plant numbers. In contrast to common knowledge, we show that the 'imperialist dogma,' stating that Europe has been a net exporter of naturalized plants since colonial times, does not hold for the past 60 years, when more naturalized plants were being imported to than exported from Europe. Our results highlight that the current distribution of naturalized plants is best predicted by socioeconomic activities 20 years ago. We took advantage of the observed time lag and used trade developments until recent times to predict naturalized plant trajectories for the next two decades. This shows that particularly strong increases in naturalized plant numbers are expected in the next 20 years for emerging economies in megadiverse regions. The interaction with predicted future climate change will increase invasions in northern temperate countries and reduce them in tropical and (sub) tropical regions, yet not by enough to cancel out the trade-related increase.

Past studies have shown that the initiation of symbiosis between the Red-Sea soft coral Heteroxenia fuscescens and its symbiotic dinoflagellates occurs due to the chemical attraction of the motile algal cells to substances emanating from the coral polyps. However, the resulting swimming patterns of zooxanthellae have not been previously studied. This work examined algal swimming behaviour, host location and navigation capabilities under four conditions: (1) still water, (2) in still water with waterborne host attractants, (3) in flowing water, and (4) in flow with host attractants. Algae were capable of actively and effectively locating their host in still water as well as in flow. When in water containing host attractants, swimming became slower, motion patterns straighter and the direction of motion was mainly towards the host-even if this meant advancing upstream against flow velocities of up to 0.5 mm s(-1)supercript stop. Coral-algae encounter probability decreased the further downstream of the host algae were located, probably due to diffusion of the chemical signal. The results show how the chemoreceptive zooxanthellae modify their swimming pattern, direction, velocity, circuity and turning rate to accommodate efficient navigation in changing environmental conditions

Experimental evidence of anomalous phase synchronization in two diffusively coupled Chua oscillators
(2006)

We study the transition to phase synchronization in two diffusively coupled, nonidentical Chua oscillators. In the experiments, depending on the used parameterization, we observe several distinct routes to phase synchronization, including states of either in-phase, out-of-phase, or antiphase synchronization, which may be intersected by an intermediate desynchronization regime with large fluctuations of the frequency difference. Furthermore, we report the first experimental evidence of an anomalous transition to phase synchronization, which is characterized by an initial enlargement of the natural frequency difference with coupling strength. This results in a maximal frequency disorder at intermediate coupling levels, whereas usual phase synchronization via monotonic decrease in frequency difference sets in only for larger coupling values. All experimental results are supported by numerical simulations of two coupled Chua models

We present an automatic control method for phase locking of regular and chaotic non-identical oscillations, when all subsystems interact via feedback. This method is based on the well known principle of feedback control which takes place in nature and is successfully used in engineering. In contrast to unidirectional and bidirectional coupling, the approach presented here supposes the existence of a special controller, which allows to change the parameters of the controlled systems. First we discuss general principles of automatic phase synchronization (PS) for arbitrary coupled systems with a controller whose input is given by a special quadratic form of coordinates of the individual systems and its output is a result of the application of a linear differential operator. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for controlled PS on several examples: (i) two coupled regular oscillators, (ii) coupled regular and chaotic oscillators, (iii) two coupled chaotic R"ossler oscillators, (iv) two coupled foodweb models, (v) coupled chaotic R"ossler and Lorenz oscillators, (vi) ensembles of locally coupled regular oscillators, (vii) ensembles of locally coupled chaotic oscillators, and (viii) ensembles of globally coupled chaotic oscillators.

We analyse a generic bottom-up nutrient phytoplankton model to help understand the dynamics of seasonally recurring algae blooms. The deterministic model displays a wide spectrum of dynamical behaviours, from simple cyclical blooms which trigger annually, to irregular chaotic blooms in which both the time between outbreaks and their magnitudes are erratic. Unusually, despite the persistent seasonal forcing, it is extremely difficult to generate blooms that are both annually recurring and also chaotic or irregular (i.e. in amplitude) even though this characterizes many real time series. Instead the model has a tendency to `skip' with outbreaks often being suppressed from one year to the next. This behaviour is studied in detail and we develop an analytical expression to describe the model's flow in phase space, yielding insights into the mechanism of the bloom recurrence. We also discuss how modifications to the equations through the inclusion of appropriate functional forms can generate more realistic dynamics.

Biologists use mathematical functions to model, understand, and predict nature. For most biological processes, however, the exact analytical form is not known. This is also true for one of the most basic life processes, the uptake of food or resources. We show that the use of a number of nearly indistinguishable functions, which can serve as phenomenological descriptors of resource uptake, may lead to alarmingly different dynamical behaviour in a simple community model. More specifically, we demonstrate that the degree of resource enrichment needed to destabilize the community dynamics depends critically on the mathematical nature of the uptake function.

We study the pattern formation in a lattice of locally coupled phase oscillators with quenched disorder. In the synchronized regime quasi regular concentric waves can arise which are induced by the disorder of the system. Maximal regularity is found at the edge of the synchronization regime. The emergence of the concentric waves is related to the symmetry breaking of the interaction function. An explanation of the numerically observed phenomena is given in a one- dimensional chain of coupled phase oscillators. Scaling properties, describing the target patterns are obtained.