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- NBO analysis (2)
- Steric effect (2)
- Taft equation (2)
- Ab initio MO computations (1)
- Conformational equilibria (1)
- Cyclohexyl esters (1)
- NBO and STERIC analyses (1)
- Polar effect (1)
- Polar substituent constant (1)
- Steric substituent constant (1)

The electronic effects of the 5- and 6-membered heterocyclic rings on the C=N-N unit of five different hydrazone derivatives of pyridine-2-, -3- and -4-carbaldehydes, pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde, furan-2- and -3-carbaldehydes and thiophene-2- and -3-carbaldehydes have been studied with the aid of 13C and 15N NMR measurements together with the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. As model compounds are used the corresponding substituted benzaldehyde derivatives. The polarization of the C=N unit of the hydrazone functionality of the heteroaryl derivatives occurs in an analogous manner with that of phenyl derivatives. The electron-withdrawing heteroaryl groups destabilize and the electron-donating groups stabilize the positive charge development at the CN carbon while the effect on the negative charge development is opposite. The 15N NMR chemical shift of the C=N and C=N-N nitrogens and the NBO charges at C=N-N unit can be correlated with the replacement substituent constants of the heteroaryl groups. 13C NMR shifts of the C=N carbon of N,N- dialkylhydrazones of the heteroarenecarbaldehydes can be correlated with a dual parameter equation possessing the polar substituent constant ;* of the heteroaryl group and the electronegativity of the heteroatom as variables.

The conformations of N-benzylideneani lines p-X-C6H4-CH=N-C6H4 p-Y (X, Y = NO2, CN, CF3, F, Cl, Br, H, Me, OMe, NMe2) have been studied by B3LYP density functional (DFT) hybrid method in combination with the 6-31G* or 6-311G* split valence basis set. The twist of the plane of the aniline ring with respect to the other part of the molecule (tau(2)) is systematically controlled by substituents X and Y, the effect of Y being larger. The value of the dihedral angle tau(2), correlates nicely with equation tau(2) = rho(F)(Y)(x)sigma(F)(Y)+rho(+R)(Y)(x)sigma(+)(R)(Y) + k(x) or tau(2) = rho(F)(X)(y)sigma(F)(X)+rho(-)(R)(X)(y)sigma(+)(R)(X) + k(y), respectively, when aniline or benzylidene substituent is varied. ED substituents X diminish the sensitivity of tau(2) to the aniline substituent Y[rho(F)(Y)(x) and rho(+)(R)(Y)(x)] while ED substituents Y increase the sensitivity Of T2 to the benzylidene substituent X[rho(F)(X)(y) and rho(+)(R)(X)(y)]. There seems to be two competitive conjugative interactions for the aniline ring n electrons: one with the nitrogen lone pair and one with the C=N unit. Substituents X and Y adjust the extent of these interactions and therefore the conformation of the molecule. A good correlation is observed between the dihedral angle tau(2) and the experimental C-13 NMR chemical shift of the C=N carbon of N-benzylideneanilines in CDCl3 (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Propagation of inductive and resonance effects of phenyl substituents within 1-(substituted phenyl)-6,7- dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro- and -1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines were studied with the aid of C-13 and N-15 NMR chemical shifts and ab initio calculations. The substituent-induced changes in the chemical shift (SCS) were correlated with a dual substituent parameter equation. The contributions of conjugative (rho(R)) and nonconjugative effects (rho(F)) were analyzed, and mapping of the substituent-induced changes is given over the entire isoquinoline moiety for both series. The experimental results can be rationalized with the aid of the resonance polarization concept. This means the consideration of the substituent-sensitive balance of different resonance structures, i.e., electron delocalization, and the effect of the aromatic ring substituents on their relative contributions. With tetrahydroisoquinolines, the delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair (stereoelectronic effect) particularly contributes. Correlation analysis of the Mulliken atomic charges for the dihydroisoquinoline derivatives was also performed. The results support the concept of the substituent-sensitive polarization of the isoquinoline moiety even if the polarization pattern achieved via the NMR approach is not quite the same as that predicted by the computational charges. Previously the concepts of localized pi- polarization and extended polarization have been used to explain polar substituent effects within aromatic side-chain derivatives. We consider that the resonance polarization model effectively contributes to the understanding of the polar substituent effects

The nature of the major steric substituent constant scales for alkyl substituents, i.e. Omega(S), E-R and E-S' scales, was studied with the aid of the NBO and the natural steric (STERIC) analyses. Cyclohexyl esters R-3-CCOOC6H11 (R = alkyl or H) were used as the model compounds. Special emphasis was laid on the potential contribution of the polar component in these steric substituent parameters. In the light of our model the Omega(S) scale seems to be dominantly a steric substituent constant scale as is seen on the strengths of the good correlation between the Omega(S) constants of the CR3 group and the total steric exchange energy values E-TSEE for the model compounds. However, the Omega(S) values also seem to include a minor electronic component due to the varying electrostatic effect via the C alpha atom. On the other hand, E-R and E-S' parameters largely hinge on the size dependent polar effect of the CR3 alkyl group. By way of our model this repulsive interaction can be quantified by descriptor Delta q(OCO), the natural charge difference q(C)(C=O) - Sigma qO for the O-C(=O) functional group. Delta q(OCO) depends on the E-TSEE values, on qC alpha and on the polarization coefficients of the oxygen hybrid in the NBO of the pi(C=O) bond. The size sensitivity of the kinetic E-S' constants can be connected to variation of the Burgi-Dunitz angle in the transition state for the standard reaction used. A comparison is made for the q(C)(C=O) or Delta q(OCO) values computed on the one hand with the NBO formalism and on the other hand with the Hirshfeld formalism. A practical novel substituent constant q(C)(C=O) for the size of the alkyl groups is introduced.

The validity of the Taft equation: log(k(R)/k(CH3)) = rho*sigma* + delta E-S was studied with the aid of NBO computational results concerning cyclohexyl esters RCOOC6H11 [R = Methyl, Ethyl, n-Propyl, Isopropyl, n-Butyl, Isobutyl, sec-Butyl, tert-Butyl, Neopentyl, CH(CH2CH3)(2), CH(CH3)C(CH3)(3), C(CH3)(2)CH2CH3, C(CH3)(2)C(CH3)(3), CH(CH3)(Np), CH(iPr)(tBu), C(Me)(Et)(iPr), C(Et)(2)(tBu) or C(Et)(iPr)(tBu)]. It was proved that the sigma*(alkyl) value is a composite substitutent constant including the polar and steric contributions. A novel computational sigma(q)* substituent constant scale is presented based on the NBO atomic charges of the alpha-carbon and the computational total steric exchange energies E(ster) of the cyclohexyl esters specified above. The method used offers a useful way to calculate sigma*(alkyl) values for alkyl groups for which experimental Taft's polar sigma* parameters are not available.

The proportion of the axial conformer increases in the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium of cyclohexyl acetates (RCOOC(6)H(11), R reversible arrow Me, Et, iPr, tBu, CH(2)Cl, CHCl(2), CO(3). CH(2)Br, CHBr(2), CBr(3)) with the increasing size of the acyloxy substitution. The nature of this unexpected steric substituent effect, which is opposite to general stereochemical concepts, was studied by means of ab kiln MO method, accompanied by NBO and isodesmic calculations. NBO parameters seem to be good descriptors for quantitative prediction of the experimental Delta G degrees value of the title conformational equilibrium. The origin and propagation of the substituent effect of the polar substitutions (CH(2)Cl, CHCl(2), CCl(3), CH(2)Br, CHBr(2), CBr(3)) differ, however, from those of the pure alkyl (Me, Et, iPr, tBu) substitutions. The Delta G degrees value of the polar derivatives depends on the qC8 charges, on the occupation of the sigma(center dot)(C1-07) orbital and on the hyperconjugative pi(center dot)(c=O) -> sigma(center dot)(C10-X) and sigma(center dot)(C10-X) -> pi(center dot)(c=O) interactions. The substituent sensitivity of these NBC parameters for the two conformers differ to the effect that the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium is shifted to the left side with increasing electron withdrawing character of the acyloxy group. The Delta G degrees values of the alkyl derivatives are interpreted in terms of the calculated dipole moments. The destabilization in the non-polar medium (the experimental Delta G degrees values used were measured in CD(2)Cl(2)) due to the enhanced dipolar character is more prominent in the case of the equatorial alkyl conformers. As the consequence, the ax reversible arrow eq equilibrium is shifted to the left despite the increasing size of the R group when going from Me to tBu substitution.

Equilibria between the Z (tau(1) = 0 degrees) and E (tau(1) = 180 degrees) conformers of p-substituted phenyl acetates 4 and trifluoroacetates 5 (X = OMe, Me, H, Cl, CN, NO2) were studied by ab initio calculations at the HF/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G* levels of theory. The preference for the Z conformer, Delta E(HF), was calculated to be 5.36 kcal mol(-1) and 7.50 kcal mot(-1) for phenyl acetate and phenyl trifluoroacetate (i.e., with X = H), respectively. The increasing electron-withdrawing ability of the phenyl substituent X increases the preference of the Z conformer. An excellent correlation with a negative slope was observed for both series between Delta E of the E-Z equilibrium and the Hammett sigma constant. By using an appropriate isodesmic reaction, it was shown that electron-withdrawing substituents decrease the stability of both conformers, but the effect is higher with the E conformer. Electron-withdrawing phenyl substituents decrease the delocalization of the lone pair of the ether oxygen to the C=O antibonding orbital (n(O) -> pi*(C=O)) in both the E and Z forms and in both series studied; this effect is higher in the E conformer than in the Z conformer. The n(O) -> pi*(C=O) electron donation has a minimum value with tau(1) = 90 degrees and a maximum value with tau(1) = 90 degrees (the Z conformer), the value with tau(1) = 180 degrees (the E conformer) being between these two values, obviously due to steric hindrance. The effects of the phenyl substituents on the reactivity of the esters studied are discussed in terms of molecular orbital interactions. ED/EW substituents adjust the availability of the pi*(C=O) antibonding orbital to interact with the lone pair orbital of the attacking nucleophile and therefore affect the reactivity: EW substituents increase and ED substituents decrease it. Excellent correlations were observed between the rate coefficients of nucleophilic acyl substitutions and pi*(C=O) occupancies of the ester series 4 and