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Traditional probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis as well as the estimation of ground-motion models (GMMs) is based on the ergodic assumption, which means that the distribution of ground motions over time at a given site is the same as their spatial distribution over all sites for the same magnitude, distance, and site condition. With a large increase in the number of recorded ground-motion data, there are now repeated observations at given sites and from multiple earthquakes in small regions, so that assumption can be relaxed. We use a novel approach to develop a nonergodic GMM, which is cast as a varying-coefficient model (VCM). In this model, the coefficients are allowed to vary by geographical location, which makes it possible to incorporate effects of spatially varying source, path, and site conditions. Hence, a separate set of coefficients is estimated for each source and site coordinate in the data set. The coefficients are constrained to be similar for spatially nearby locations. This is achieved by placing a Gaussian process prior on the coefficients. The amount of correlation is determined by the data. The spatial correlation structure of the model allows one to extrapolate the varying coefficients to a new location and trace the corresponding uncertainties. The approach is illustrated with the Next Generation Attenuation-West2 data set, using only Californian records. The VCM outperforms a traditionally estimated GMM in terms of generalization error and leads to a reduction in the aleatory standard deviation by similar to 40%, which has important implications for seismic-hazard calculations. The scaling of the model with respect to its predictor variables such as magnitude and distance is physically plausible. The epistemic uncertainty associated with the predicted ground motions is small in places where events or stations are close and large where data are sparse.

We study prediction problems in which the conditional distribution of the output given the input varies as a function of task variables which, in our applications, represent space and time. In varying-coefficient models, the coefficients of this conditional are allowed to change smoothly in space and time; the strength of the correlations between neighboring points is determined by the data. This is achieved by placing a Gaussian process (GP) prior on the coefficients. Bayesian inference in varying-coefficient models is generally intractable. We show that with an isotropic GP prior, inference in varying-coefficient models resolves to standard inference for a GP that can be solved efficiently. MAP inference in this model resolves to multitask learning using task and instance kernels. We clarify the relationship between varying-coefficient models and the hierarchical Bayesian multitask model and show that inference for hierarchical Bayesian multitask models can be carried out efficiently using graph-Laplacian kernels. We explore the model empirically for the problems of predicting rent and real-estate prices, and predicting the ground motion during seismic events. We find that varying-coefficient models with GP priors excel at predicting rents and real-estate prices. The ground-motion model predicts seismic hazards in the State of California more accurately than the previous state of the art.

One of the goals of artificial intelligence is to develop agents that learn and act in complex environments. Realistic environments typically feature a variable number of objects, relations amongst them, and non-deterministic transition behavior. While standard probabilistic sequence models provide efficient inference and learning techniques for sequential data, they typically cannot fully capture the relational complexity. On the other hand, statistical relational learning techniques are often too inefficient to cope with complex sequential data. In this paper, we introduce a simple model that occupies an intermediate position in this expressiveness/efficiency trade-off. It is based on CP-logic (Causal Probabilistic Logic), an expressive probabilistic logic for modeling causality. However, by specializing CP-logic to represent a probability distribution over sequences of relational state descriptions and employing a Markov assumption, inference and learning become more tractable and effective. Specifically, we show how to solve part of the inference and learning problems directly at the first-order level, while transforming the remaining part into the problem of computing all satisfying assignments for a Boolean formula in a binary decision diagram. We experimentally validate that the resulting technique is able to handle probabilistic relational domains with a substantial number of objects and relations.

We introduce hierarchical kFOIL as a simple extension of the multitask kFOIL learning algorithm. The algorithm first learns a core logic representation common to all tasks, and then refines it by specialization on a per-task basis. The approach can be easily generalized to a deeper hierarchy of tasks. A task clustering algorithm is also proposed in order to automatically generate the task hierarchy. The approach is validated on problems of drug-resistance mutation prediction and protein structural classification. Experimental results show the advantage of the hierarchical version over both single and multi task alternatives and its potential usefulness in providing explanatory features for the domain. Task clustering allows to further improve performance when a deeper hierarchy is considered.

Evaluating the quality of ranking functions is a core task in web search and other information retrieval domains. Because query distributions and item relevance change over time, ranking models often cannot be evaluated accurately on held-out training data. Instead, considerable effort is spent on manually labeling the relevance of query results for test queries in order to track ranking performance. We address the problem of estimating ranking performance as accurately as possible on a fixed labeling budget. Estimates are based on a set of most informative test queries selected by an active sampling distribution. Query labeling costs depend on the number of result items as well as item-specific attributes such as document length. We derive cost-optimal sampling distributions for the commonly used performance measures Discounted Cumulative Gain and Expected Reciprocal Rank. Experiments on web search engine data illustrate significant reductions in labeling costs.

From face to face
(2019)

Despite advances in the conceptualisation of facial mimicry, its role in the processing of social information is a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between mimicry and cognitive and emotional empathy. To assess mimicry, facial electromyography was recorded for 70 participants while they completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test, which presents complex context-embedded emotional expressions. As predicted, inter-individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy were associated with the level of facial mimicry. For positive emotions, the intensity of the mimicry response scaled with the level of state emotional empathy. Mimicry was stronger for the emotional empathy task compared to the cognitive empathy task. The specific empathy condition could be successfully detected from facial muscle activity at the level of single individuals using machine learning techniques. These results support the view that mimicry occurs depending on the social context as a tool to affiliate and it is involved in cognitive as well as emotional empathy.