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Anhand eines paradigmatischen Modellbeispiels werden die Konsequenzen der Koexistenz vieler Attraktoren auf die globale Dynamik schwach dissipativer Systeme studiert. Es wird gezeigt, dass diese Systeme eine sehr reichhaltige Dynamik besitzen und extrem sensitiv gegenüber Störungen in den Anfangsbedingungen sind. Diese Systeme zeichnen sich durch eine extrem hohe Flexibilität ihres Verhaltens aus.

Strange nonchaotic attractors typically appear in quasiperiodically driven nonlinear systems. Two methods of their characterization are proposed. The first one is based on the bifurcation analysis of the systems, resulting from periodic approximations of the quasiperiodic forcing. Secondly, we propose th characterize their strangeness by calculating a phase sensitivity exponent, that measures the sensitivity with respect to changes of the phase of the external force. It is shown, that phase sensitivity appears if there is a non-zero probability for positive local Lyapunov exponents to occur.

We present a universal approach to the investigation of the dynamics in generalized models. In these models the processes that are taken into account are not restricted to specific functional forms. Therefore a single generalized models can describe a class of systems which share a similar structure. Despite this generality, the proposed approach allows us to study the dynamical properties of generalized models efficiently in the framework of local bifurcation theory. The approach is based on a normalization procedure that is used to identify natural parameters of the system. The Jacobian in a steady state is then derived as a function of these parameters. The analytical computation of local bifurcations using computer algebra reveals conditions for the local asymptotic stability of steady states and provides certain insights on the global dynamics of the system. The proposed approach yields a close connection between modelling and nonlinear dynamics. We illustrate the investigation of generalized models by considering examples from three different disciplines of science: a socioeconomic model of dynastic cycles in china, a model for a coupled laser system and a general ecological food web

Laser beam melt ablation - a contact-free machining process - offers several advantages compared to conventional processing mechanisms: there exists no tool wear and even extremely hard or brittle materials can be processed. During ablation the workpiece is molten by a CO2-laser beam, this melt is then driven out by the impulse of a process gas. The idea behind laser ablation is rather simple, but it has a major limitation in practical applications: with increasing ablation rates surface quality of the workpiece processed declines rapidly. At high ablation rates, depending on the process parameters different periodic-like structures can be observed on the ablated surface. These structures show a dependence on the line energy, which has been identified as a fundamental control parameter. In dependence on this parameter several regimes with different behaviours of the process have been separated. These regimes are distinguishable as well in the surfaces obtained as in the signals gained by the measurement of the process emissions. Further aim is to identify the different modes of the system and reach a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the molten material in order to understand the formation of these surface structures. With this it should be possible to influence the system in the direction of avoiding structure formation even at high ablation rates. Relying on the results on-line monitoring and control of the process should be studied.

As a non-contact process laser beam melt ablation offers several advantages compared to conventional processing mechanisms. During ablation the surface of the workpiece is molten by the energy of a CO2-laser beam, this melt is then driven out by the impulse of an additional process gas. Although the idea behind laser beam melt ablation is rather simple, the process itself has a major limitation in practical applications: with increasing ablation rate surface quality of the workpiece processed declines rapidly. With different ablation rates different surface structures can be distinguished, which can be characterised by suitable surface parameters. The corresponding regimes of pattern formation are found in linear and non-linear statistical properties of the recorded process emissions as well. While the ablation rate can be represented in terms of the line-energy, this parameter does not provide sufficient information about the full behaviour of the system. The dynamics of the system is dominated by oscillations due to the laser cycle but includes some periodically driven non-linear processes as well. Upon the basis of the measured time series, a corresponding model is developed. The deeper understanding of the process can be used to develop strategies for a process control.

Ocean convection is a highly non-linear and local process. Typically, a small-scale phenomenon of this kind entails numerical problems in the modelling of ocean circulation. One of the tasks to solve is the improvement of convection parameterization schemes, but the question of grid geometry also plays a considerable role. Here, this question is studied in the context of global ocean models coupled to an atmosphere model. Such ocean climate models have mostly structured, coarsely resolved grids. Using a simple conceptual two-layer model, we compare the discretization effects of a rectangular grid with those of a grid with hexagonal grid cells, focussing on average properties of the ocean. It turns out that systematic errors tend to be clearly smaller with the hexagonal grid. In a hysteresis experiment with the atmospheric boundary condition as a hysteresis parameter, the spatially averaged behaviour shows nonnegligible artificial steps for quadratic grid cells. This bias is reduced with the hexagonal grid. The same holds for the directional sensitivity (or horizontal anisotropy) which is found for different angles of the advection velocity. The grid with hexagonal grid cells shows much more isotropic results. From the limited viewpoint of these test experiments, it seems that the hexagonal grid (i.e. icosahedral-hexagonal grids on the sphere) is recommendable for ocean climate models. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Towards a better understanding of laser beam melt ablation using methods of statistical analysis
(2002)

Laser beam melt ablation, as a contact free machining process, offers several advantages compared to conventional processing mechanisms. Although the idea behind it is rather simple, the process has a major limitation: with increasing ablation rate surface quality of the workpiece processed declines rapidly. The structures observed show a clear dependence of the line energy. In dependence of this parameter several regimes of the process have been separated. These are clearly distinguishable as well in the surfaces obtained as in the signals gained by the measurement of the process emissions which is the observed quantity chosen.

Aspects of open ocean deep convection variability are explored with a two-box model. In order to place the model in a region of parameter space relevant to the real ocean, it is fitted to observational data from the Labrador Sea. A systematic fit to OWS Bravo data allows us to determine the model parameters and to locate the position of the Labrador Sea on a stability diagram. The model suggests that the Labrador Sea is in a bistable regime where winter convection can be either ?on? or ?off?, with both these possibilities being stable climate states. When shifting the surface buoyancy forcing slightly to warmer or fresher conditions, the only steady solution is one without winter convection. We then introduce short-term variability by adding a noise term to the surface temperature forcing, turning the box model into a stochastic climate model. The surface forcing anomalies generated in this way induce jumps between the two model states. These state transitions occur on the interannual to decadal timescale. Changing the average surface forcing towards more buoyant conditions lowers the frequency of convection. However, convection becomes more frequent with stronger variability in the surface forcing. As part of the natural variability, there is a non-negligible probability for decadal interruptions of convection. The results highlight the role of surface forcing variability for the persistence of convection in the ocean.