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- surface chemistry (2)
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We present a new global ground state potential energy surface (PES) for carbon monoxide at a coverage of 1/4, on a rigid Ru(0001) surface [Ru(0001)(2x2):CO]. All six adsorbate degrees of freedom are considered. For constructing the PES, we make use of more than 90 000 points calculated with periodic density functional theory using the RPBE exchange-correlation functional and an empirical van der Waals correction. These points are used for interpolation, utilizing a symmetry-adapted corrugation reducing procedure (CRP). Three different interpolation schemes with increasing accuracy have been realized, giving rise to three flavours of the CRP PES. The CRP PES yields in agreement with the DFT reference and experiments, the atop position of CO to be the most stable adsorption geometry, for the most accurate interpolation with an adsorption energy of 1.69 eV. The CRP PES shows that diffusion parallel to the surface is hindered by a barrier of 430 meV, and that dissociation is facilitated but still activated. As a first "real" application and further test of the new potential, the six-dimensional vibrational Schrodinger equation is solved variationally to arrive at fully coupled, anharmonic frequencies and vibrational wavefunctions for the vibrating, adsorbed CO molecule. Good agreement with experiment is found also here. Being analytical, the new PES opens an efficient way towards multidimensional dynamics. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

We report quantum chemical calculations, mostly based on density functional theory, on azobenzene and substituted azobenzenes as neutral molecules or ions, in ground and excited states. Both the cis and trans configurations are computed as well as the activation energies to transform one isomer into the other and the possible reaction paths and reaction surfaces along the torsion and inversion modes. All calculations are done for the isolated species, but results are discussed in light of recent experiments aiming at the switching of surface mounted azobenzenes by scanning tunneling microscopes.

The role of electronic friction and, more generally, of nonadiabatic effects during dynamical processes at the gas/metal surface interface is still a matter of discussion. In particular, it is not clear if electronic nonadiabaticity has an effect under "mild" conditions, when molecules in low rovibrational states interact with a metal surface. In this paper, we investigate the role of electronic friction on the dissociative sticking and (inelastic) scattering of vibrationally and rotationally cold H-2 molecules at a Ru(0001) surface theoretically. For this purpose, classical molecular dynamics with electronic friction (MDEF) calculations are performed and compared to MD simulations without friction. The two H atoms move on a six-dimensional potential energy surface generated from gradient-corrected density functional theory (DFT), that is, all molecular degrees of freedom are accounted for. Electronic friction is included via atomic friction coefficients obtained from an embedded atom, free electron gas (FEG) model, with embedding densities taken from gradient-corrected DFT. We find that within this model, dissociative sticking probabilities as a function of impact kinetic energies and impact angles are hardly affected by nonadiabatic effects. If one accounts for a possibly enhanced electronic friction near the dissociation barrier, on the other hand, reduced sticking probabilities are observed, in particular, at high impact energies. Further, there is always an influence on inelastic scattering, in particular, as far as the translational and internal energy distribution of the reflected molecules is concerned. Additionally, our results shed light on the role played by the velocity distribution of the incident molecular beam for adsorption probabilities, where, in particular, at higher impact energies, large effects are found.

A Langevin model accounting for all six molecular degrees of freedom is applied to femtosecond-laser induced, hot-electron driven dynamics of Ru(0001)(2 x 2): CO. In our molecular dynamics with electronic friction approach, a recently developed potential energy surface based on gradient-corrected density functional theory accounting for van der Waals interactions is adopted. Electronic friction due to the coupling of molecular degrees of freedom to electron-hole pairs in the metal are included via a local density friction approximation, and surface phonons by a generalized Langevin oscillator model. The action of ultrashort laser pulses enters through a substrate-mediated, hot-electron mechanism via a time-dependent electronic temperature (derived from a two-temperature model), causing random forces acting on the molecule. The model is applied to laser induced lateral diffusion of CO on the surface, "hot adsorbate" formation, and laser induced desorption. Reaction probabilities are strongly enhanced compared to purely thermal processes, both for diffusion and desorption. Reaction yields depend in a characteristic (nonlinear) fashion on the applied laser fluence, as well as branching ratios for various reaction channels. Computed two-pulse correlation traces for desorption and other indicators suggest that aside from electron-hole pairs, phonons play a non-negligible role for laser induced dynamics in this system, acting on a surprisingly short time scale. Our simulations on precomputed potentials allow for good statistics and the treatment of long-time dynamics (300 ps), giving insight into this system which hitherto has not been reached. We find generally good agreement with experimental data where available and make predictions in addition. A recently proposed laser induced population of physisorbed precursor states could not be observed with the present low-coverage model.

Selective excitation of molecule-surface vibrations in H2 and D2 dissociatively adsorbed on Ru(0001)
(2012)

In this contribution we report about the selective vibrational excitation of H2 and D2 on Ru(0001) as an example for nonadiabatic coupling of an open quantum system to a dissipative environment. We investigate the possibility of achieving state-selective vibrational excitations of H2 and D2 adsorbed on a Ru(0001) surface using picosecond infrared laser pulses. The systems behavior is explored using pulses that are rationally designed and others that are optimized using a time-local variant of Optimal Control Theory. The effects of dissipation on the laser-driven dynamics are studied using the reduced-density matrix formalism. The non-adiabatic couplings between adsorbate and surface are computed perturbatively, for which our recently introduced state-resolved anharmonic rate model is used. It is shown that mode- and state-selective excitation can be achieved in the absence of dissipation when using optimized laser pulses. The inclusion of dissipation in the model reduces the state selectivity and the population transfer yield to highly excited states. In this case, mode activation is most effectively realized by a rational pulse of carefully chosen duration rather than by a locally optimized pulse.

We investigate the effect of intermode coupling and anharmonicity on the excitation and relaxation dynamics of CO on Cu(100). The nonadiabatic coupling of the adsorbate to the surface is treated perturbatively using a position-dependent state-resolved transition rate model. Using the potential energy surface of Marquardt et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)], which provides an accurate description of intermode interactions, we propose a four-dimensional model that represents simultaneously the diffusion and the desorption of the adsorbate. The system is driven by both rational and optimized infrared laser pulses to favor either selective mode and state excitations or lateral displacement along the diffusion coordinate. The dissipative dynamics is simulated using the reduced density matrix in its Lindblad form. We show that coupling between the degrees of freedom, mediated by the creation and annihilation of electron-hole pairs in the metal substrate, significantly affects the system excitation and relaxation dynamics. In particular, the angular degrees of freedom appear to play an important role in the energy redistribution among the molecule-surface vibrations. We also show that coherent excitation using simple IR pulses can achieve population transfer to a specific target to some extent but does not allow enforcement of the directionality to the diffusion motion.

We investigate the recombinative desorption of hydrogen and deuterium from a Ru(0001) surface initiated by femtosecond laser pulses. We adopt a quantum mechanical two-state model including three molecular degrees of freedom to describe the dynamics within the desorption induced by electronic transition (DIET) limit. The energy distributions as well as the state-resolved and ensemble properties of the desorbed molecules are analyzed in detail by using the time-energy method. Our results shed light on the experimentally observed 1) large isotopic effects regarding desorption yields and translational energies and 2) the nonequal energy partitioning into internal and translational modes. In particular, it is shown that a single temperature is sufficient to characterize the energy distributions for all degrees of freedom. Further, we confirm that quantization effects play an important role in the determination of the energy partitioning.

Laser-induced condensed phase reactions are often interpreted as nonequilibrium phenomena that go beyond conventional thermodynamics. Here, we show by Langevin dynamics and for the example of femtosecond-laser desorption of hydrogen from a ruthenium surface that light adsorbates thermalize rapidly due to ultrafast energy redistribution after laser excitation. Despite the complex reaction mechanism involving hot electrons in the surface region, all desorption product properties are characterized by equilibrium distributions associated with a single, unique temperature. This represents an example of ultrahot chemistry on the subpicosecond time scale.

Stochastic approach to laser-induced ultrafast dynamics : the desorption of H-2/D-2 from Ru(0001)
(2010)

The desorption of molecular hydrogen and deuterium induced by femtosecond-laser pulses is studied theoretically for the so-called DIMET (Desorption Induced by Multiple Electronic Transitions) process. These investigations are based on nonadiabatic classical Monte Carlo trajectory (CMCT) simulations on a ground and an excited state potential energy surface, including up to all six adsorbate degrees of freedom. The focus is on the hot-electron mediated energy transfer from the surface to the molecule and back, and the energy partitioning between the different degrees of freedom of the desorbing molecules. We first validate for a two-mode model comprising the desorption mode and the internal vibrational coordinate, the classical Monte Carlo trajectory method by comparing with Monte Carlo wavepacket (MCWP) calculations arising from a fully quantum mechanical open-system density matrix treatment. We then proceed by extending the CMCT calculations to include all six nuclear degrees of freedom of the desorbing molecule. This allows for a detailed comparison between theory and experiment concerning isotope effects, energy partitioning (translational, vibrational, and rotational energies and their distributions), and the dependence of these properties on the laser fluence. The most important findings are as follows. (i) CMCT agrees qualitative with the MCWP scheme. (ii) The basic experimental features such as the large isotope effect, the non-linear increase of yield with laser fluence, translationally hot products (in the order of several 1000 K) and non-equipartitioning of translational and internal energies (E-trans > E- vib > E-rot) are well reproduced. (iii) Predictions concerning a strong angular dependence of translational energies at large observation angles are also made.