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We study transient work fluctuation relations (FRs) for Gaussian stochastic systems generating anomalous diffusion. For this purpose we use a Langevin approach by employing two different types of additive noise: (i) internal noise where the fluctuation dissipation relation of the second kind (FDR II) holds, and (ii) external noise without FDR II. For internal noise we demonstrate that the existence of FDR II implies the existence of the fluctuation dissipation relation of the first kind (FDR I), which in turn leads to conventional (normal) forms of transient work FRs. For systems driven by external noise we obtain violations of normal FRs, which we call anomalous FRs. We derive them in the long-time limit and demonstrate the existence of logarithmic factors in FRs for intermediate times. We also outline possible experimental verifications.

We address the problem of recognizing alpha-stable Levy distribution with Levy index close to 2 from experimental data. We are interested in the case when the sample size of available data is not large, thus the power law asymptotics of the distribution is not clearly detectable, and the shape of the empirical probability density function is close to a Gaussian. We propose a testing procedure combining a simple visual test based on empirical fourth moment with the Anderson-Darling and Jarque-Bera statistical tests and we check the efficiency of the method on simulated data. Furthermore, we apply our method to the analysis of turbulent plasma density and potential fluctuations measured in the stellarator-type fusion device and demonstrate that the phenomenon of the L-H transition from low confinement, L mode, to a high confinement, H mode, which occurs in this device is accompanied by the transition from Levy to Gaussian fluctuation statistics.

We consider the effective surface motion of a particle that intermittently unbinds from a planar surface and performs bulk excursions. Based on a random-walk approach, we derive the diffusion equations for surface and bulk diffusion including the surface-bulk coupling. From these exact dynamic equations, we analytically obtain the propagator of the effective surface motion. This approach allows us to deduce a superdiffusive, Cauchy-type behavior on the surface, together with exact cutoffs limiting the Cauchy form. Moreover, we study the long-time dynamics for the surface motion.

We demonstrate the non-ergodicity of a simple Markovian stochastic process with space-dependent diffusion coefficient D(x). For power-law forms D(x) similar or equal to vertical bar x vertical bar(alpha), this process yields anomalous diffusion of the form < x(2)(t)> similar or equal to t(2/(2-alpha)). Interestingly, in both the sub- and superdiffusive regimes we observe weak ergodicity breaking: the scaling of the time-averaged mean-squared displacement <(delta(2)(Delta))over bar> remains linear in the lag time Delta and thus differs from the corresponding ensemble average < x(2)(t)>. We analyse the non-ergodic behaviour of this process in terms of the time-averaged mean- squared displacement (delta(2)) over bar and its random features, i.e. the statistical distribution of (delta(2)) over bar and the ergodicity breaking parameters. The heterogeneous diffusion model represents an alternative approach to non- ergodic, anomalous diffusion that might be particularly relevant for diffusion in heterogeneous media.

We study the properties of the probability density function (PDF) of a bistable system driven by heavy tailed white symmetric L,vy noise. The shape of the stationary PDF is found analytically for the particular case of the L,vy index alpha = 1 (Cauchy noise). For an arbitrary L,vy index we employ numerical methods based on the solution of the stochastic Langevin equation and space fractional kinetic equation. In contrast to the bistable system driven by Gaussian noise, in the L,vy case, the positions of maxima of the stationary PDF do not coincide with the positions of minima of the bistable potential. We provide a detailed study of the distance between the maxima and the minima as a function of the depth of the potential and the L,vy noise parameters.

In various biological systems and small scale technological applications particles transiently bind to a cylindrical surface. Upon unbinding the particles diffuse in the vicinal bulk before rebinding to the surface. Such bulk-mediated excursions give rise to an effective surface translation, for which we here derive and discuss the dynamic equations, including additional surface diffusion. We discuss the time evolution of the number of surface-bound particles, the effective surface mean squared displacement, and the surface propagator. In particular, we observe sub- and superdiffusive regimes. A plateau of the surface mean-squared displacement reflects a stalling of the surface diffusion at longer times. Finally, the corresponding first passage problem for the cylindrical geometry is analysed.

Standard continuous time random walk (CTRW) models are renewal processes in the sense that at each jump a new, independent pair of jump length and waiting time are chosen. Globally, anomalous diffusion emerges through scale-free forms of the jump length and/or waiting time distributions by virtue of the generalized central limit theorem. Here we present a modified version of recently proposed correlated CTRW processes, where we incorporate a power-law correlated noise on the level of both jump length and waiting time dynamics. We obtain a very general stochastic model, that encompasses key features of several paradigmatic models of anomalous diffusion: discontinuous, scale-free displacements as in Levy flights, scale-free waiting times as in subdiffusive CTRWs, and the long-range temporal correlations of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We derive the exact solutions for the single-time probability density functions and extract the scaling behaviours. Interestingly, we find that different combinations of the model parameters lead to indistinguishable shapes of the emerging probability density functions and identical scaling laws. Our model will be useful for describing recent experimental single particle tracking data that feature a combination of CTRW and FBM properties.

Based on the space-fractional Fokker-Planck equation with a delta-sink term, we study the efficiency of random search processes based on Levy flights with power-law distributed jump lengths in the presence of an external drift, for instance, an underwater current, an airflow, or simply the preference of the searcher based on prior experience. While Levy flights turn out to be efficient search processes when the target is upstream relative to the starting point, in the downstream scenario, regular Brownian motion turns out to be advantageous. This is caused by the occurrence of leapovers of Levy flights, due to which Levy flights typically overshoot a point or small interval. Studying the solution of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, we establish criteria when the combination of the external stream and the initial distance between the starting point and the target favours Levy flights over the regular Brownian search. Contrary to the common belief that Levy flights with a Levy index alpha = 1 (i.e. Cauchy flights) are optimal for sparse targets, we find that the optimal value for alpha may range in the entire interval (1, 2) and explicitly include Brownian motion as the most efficient search strategy overall.

It is generally believed that random search processes based on scale-free, Levy stable jump length distributions (Levy flights) optimize the search for sparse targets. Here we show that this popular search advantage is less universal than commonly assumed. We study the efficiency of a minimalist search model based on Levy flights in the absence and presence of an external drift (underwater current, atmospheric wind, a preference of the walker owing to prior experience, or a general bias in an abstract search space) based on two different optimization criteria with respect to minimal search time and search reliability (cumulative arrival probability). Although Levy flights turn out to be efficient search processes when the target is far from the starting point, or when relative to the starting point the target is upstream, we show that for close targets and for downstream target positioning regular Brownian motion turns out to be the advantageous search strategy. Contrary to claims that Levy flights with a critical exponent alpha = 1 are optimal for the search of sparse targets in different settings, based on our optimization parameters the optimal a may range in the entire interval (1, 2) and especially include Brownian motion as the overall most efficient search strategy.