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We analyze synchronization between two interacting populations of different phase oscillators. For the important case of asymmetric coupling functions, we find a much richer dynamical behavior compared to that of symmetrically coupled populations of identical oscillators. It includes three types of bistabilities, higher order entrainment and the existence of states with unusual stability properties. All possible routes to synchronization of the populations are presented and some stability boundaries are obtained analytically. The impact of these findings for neuroscience is discussed.

We analytically establish and numerically show that anomalous frequency synchronization occurs in a pair of asymmetrically coupled chaotic space extended oscillators. The transition to anomalous behaviors is crucially dependent on asymmetries in the coupling configuration, while the presence of phase defects has the effect of enhancing the anomaly in frequency synchronization with respect to the case of merely time chaotic oscillators.

Spatial correlations in environmental stochasticity can synchronize populations over wide areas, a phenomenon known as the Moran effect. The Moran effect has been confirmed in field, laboratory and theoretical investigations. Little is known, however, about the Moran effect in a common ecological case, when environmental variation is temporally autocorrelated and this autocorrelation varies spatially. Here we perform chemostat experiments to investigate the temporal response of independent phytoplankton populations to autocorrelated stochastic forcing. In contrast to naive expectation, two populations without direct coupling can be more strongly correlated than their environmental forcing (enhanced Moran effect), if the stochastic variations differ in their autocorrelation. Our experimental findings are in agreement with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. The enhanced Moran effect is robust to changes in population dynamics, noise spectra and different measures of correlation-suggesting that noise-induced synchrony may play a larger role for population dynamics than previously thought.

To develop and investigate detailed mathematical models of metabolic processes is one of the primary challenges in systems biology. However, despite considerable advance in the topological analysis of metabolic networks, kinetic modeling is still often severely hampered by inadequate knowledge of the enzyme-kinetic rate laws and their associated parameter values. Here we propose a method that aims to give a quantitative account of the dynamical capabilities of a metabolic system, without requiring any explicit information about the functional form of the rate equations. Our approach is based on constructing a local linear model at each point in parameter space, such that each element of the model is either directly experimentally accessible or amenable to a straightforward biochemical interpretation. This ensemble of local linear models, encompassing all possible explicit kinetic models, then allows for a statistical exploration of the comprehensive parameter space. The method is exemplified on two paradigmatic metabolic systems: the glycolytic pathway of yeast and a realistic-scale representation of the photosynthetic Calvin cycle.

Many real-world networks are characterized by adaptive changes in their topology depending on the state of their nodes. Here we study epidemic dynamics on an adaptive network, where the susceptibles are able to avoid contact with the infected by rewiring their network connections. This gives rise to assortative degree correlation, oscillations, hysteresis, and first order transitions. We propose a low-dimensional model to describe the system and present a full local bifurcation analysis. Our results indicate that the interplay between dynamics and topology can have important consequences for the spreading of infectious diseases and related applications

The Kuramoto phase-diffusion equation is a nonlinear partial differential equation which describes the spatiotemporal evolution of a phase variable in an oscillatory reaction-diffusion system. Synchronization manifests itself in a stationary phase gradient where all phases throughout a system evolve with the same velocity, the synchronization frequency. The formation of concentric waves can be explained by local impurities of higher frequency which can entrain their surroundings. Concentric waves in synchronization also occur in heterogeneous systems, where the local frequencies are distributed randomly. We present a perturbation analysis of the synchronization frequency where the perturbation is given by the heterogeneity of natural frequencies in the system. The nonlinearity in the form of dispersion leads to an overall acceleration of the oscillation for which the expected value can be calculated from the second-order perturbation terms. We apply the theory to simple topologies, like a line or sphere, and deduce the dependence of the synchronization frequency on the size and the dimension of the oscillatory medium. We show that our theory can be extended to include rotating waves in a medium with periodic boundary conditions. By changing a system parameter, the synchronized state may become quasidegenerate. We demonstrate how perturbation theory fails at such a critical point.

The behavior of weakly coupled self-sustained oscillators can often be well described by phase equations. Here we use the paradigm of Kuramoto phase oscillators which are coupled in a network to calculate first- and second-order corrections to the frequency of the fully synchronized state for nonidentical oscillators. The topology of the underlying coupling network is reflected in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the network Laplacian which influence the synchronization frequency in a particular way. They characterize the importance of nodes in a network and the relations between them. Expected values for the synchronization frequency are obtained for oscillators with quenched random frequencies on a class of scale-free random networks and for a Erdoumls-Reacutenyi random network. We briefly discuss an application of the perturbation theory in the second order to network structural analysis.

We present an automatic control method for phase locking of regular and chaotic non-identical oscillations, when all subsystems interact via feedback. This method is based on the well known principle of feedback control which takes place in nature and is successfully used in engineering. In contrast to unidirectional and bidirectional coupling, the approach presented here supposes the existence of a special controller, which allows to change the parameters of the controlled systems. First we discuss general principles of automatic phase synchronization (PS) for arbitrary coupled systems with a controller whose input is given by a special quadratic form of coordinates of the individual systems and its output is a result of the application of a linear differential operator. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for controlled PS on several examples: (i) two coupled regular oscillators, (ii) coupled regular and chaotic oscillators, (iii) two coupled chaotic R"ossler oscillators, (iv) two coupled foodweb models, (v) coupled chaotic R"ossler and Lorenz oscillators, (vi) ensembles of locally coupled regular oscillators, (vii) ensembles of locally coupled chaotic oscillators, and (viii) ensembles of globally coupled chaotic oscillators.

The detection and location of specific organisms in the aquatic environment, whether they are mates, prey or settlement sites, are two of the most important challenges facing aquatic animals. Large marine invertebrates such as a lobster have been found to locate specific organisms by navigating in the plume of chemicals emitted by the target. However, active plume tracking in flow by small organisms such as a marine larvae has recieved little scientific attention. Here, we present results from a study examining host location in flow by nauplius larvae of the barnacle Trevathana dentata, which inhabits the stony reef coral Cyphastrea chalcidicium.The experiments included analysis of larval motion in an annular flume under four conditions: (i) still water, (ii) in flow, (iii) in still water with waterborne host metabolites and (iv) in flow with host metabolites. Our results show that T. dentata nauplii are unable to locate their target organism in still water using chemotaxis, but are capable of efficient host location in flow using odour-gated rheotaxis. This technique may enable host location by earlier, less-developed larval stages.

The impact of temporally correlated fluctuating environments (coloured noise) on the extinction risk of populations has become a main focus in theoretical population ecology. In this study we particularly focus on the extinction risk in strongly autocorrelated environments. Here, in contrast to moderate autocorrelation, we found the extinction risk to be highly dependent on the process of noise generation, in particular on the method of variance scaling. Such variance scaling is commonly applied to avoid variance-driven biases when comparing the extinction risk for white and coloured noise. In this study we found an often-used scaling technique to lead to high variability in the resulting variances of different time series for strong auto-correlation eventually leading to deviations in the projected extinction risk. Therefore, we present an alternative method that always delivers the target variance, even in the case of strong temporal correlation. Furthermore, in contrast to the earlier method, our very intuitive method is not bound to auto-regressive processes but can be applied to all types of coloured noises. We recommend the method introduced here to be used when the target of interest is the effect of noise colour on extinction risk not obscured by any variance effects.