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It is proposed that xanthophylls, and carotenoids in general, may assist in energy transfer from the chlorophyll Soret band to the Q band. Ground-state (1A(g)) and excited-state (1B(u)) optimizations of violaxanthin (Vx) and zeaxanthin (Zx) are performed in an environment mimicking the light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), including the closest chlorophyll b molecule (Chl). Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, CAM-B3LYP functional) is used in combination with a semi-empirical description to obtain the excited-state geometries, supported by additional DFT/multireference configuration interaction calculations, with and without point charges representing LHCII. In the ground state, Vx and Zx show similar properties. At the 1B(u) minimum, the energy of the Zx 1Bu state is below the Chl Q band, in contrast to Vx. Both Vx and Zx may act as acceptors of Soret-state energy; transfer to the Q band seems to be favored for Vx. These findings suggest that carotenoids may generally mediate Soret-to-Q energy flow in LHCII.

The time-dependent approach to electronic spectroscopy, as popularized by Heller and co-workers in the 1980s, is applied here in conjunction with linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory to study vibronic absorption and resonance Raman spectra of beta-carotene, with and without a solvent. Two-state models, the harmonic and the Condon approximations are used in order to do so. A new code has been developed which includes excited state displacements, vibrational frequency shifts, and Duschinsky rotation, i.e., mode mixing, for both non-adiabatic spectroscopies. It is shown that Duschinsky rotation has a pronounced effect on the resonance Raman spectra of beta-carotene. In particular, it can explain a recently found anomalous behaviour of the so-called nu(1) peak in resonance Raman spectra [N. Tschirner, M. Schenderlein, K. Brose, E. Schlodder, M. A. Mroginski, C. Thomsen, and P. Hildebrandt, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 11471 (2009)], which shifts with the change in excitation wavelength.

We present quantum simulations of a vibrating hydrogen molecule H-2 and address the issue of electron correlation. After appropriately setting the frame and the observer plane, we were able to determine precisely the number of electrons and nuclei which actually flow by evaluating electronic and nuclear fluxes. This calculation is repeated for three levels of quantum chemistry, for which we account for no correlation, Hartree-Fock, static correlation, and dynamic correlation. Exciting each of these systems with the same amount of energy, we show that the electron correlation can be revealed with the knowledge of quantum fluxes. This is evidenced by a clear sensitivity of these fluxes to electron correlation. In particular, we find that this correlation remarkably enhances more electronic yield than the nuclear one. It turns out that less electrons accompany the nuclei in Hartree-Fock than in the correlation cases.

Optical properties of modified diamondoids have been studied theoretically using vibrationally resolved electronic absorption, emission and resonance Raman spectra. A time-dependent correlation function approach has been used for electronic two-state models, comprising a ground state (g) and a bright, excited state (e), the latter determined from linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The harmonic and Condon approximations were adopted. In most cases origin shifts, frequency alteration and Duschinsky rotation in excited states were considered. For other cases where no excited state geometry optimization and normal mode analysis were possible or desired, a short-time approximation was used. The optical properties and spectra have been computed for (i) a set of recently synthesized sp(2)/sp(3) hybrid species with CQC double-bond connected saturated diamondoid subunits, (ii) functionalized (mostly by thiol or thione groups) diamondoids and (iii) urotropine and other C-substituted diamondoids. The ultimate goal is to tailor optical and electronic features of diamondoids by electronic blending, functionalization and substitution, based on a molecular-level understanding of the ongoing photophysics.

The time-dependent approach to electronic spectroscopy, as popularized by Heller and coworkers in the 1980's, is applied here in conjunction with linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory to study vibronic absorption, emission and resonance Raman spectra of several diamondoids. Two-state models, the harmonic and the Condon approximations, are used for the calculations, making them easily applicable to larger molecules. The method is applied to nine pristine lower and higher diamondoids: adamantane, diamantane, triamantane, and three isomers each of tetramantane and pentamantane. We also consider a hybrid species “Dia = Dia” – a shorthand notation for a recently synthesized molecule comprising two diamantane units connected by a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond. We resolve and interpret trends in optical and vibrational properties of these molecules as a function of their size, shape, and symmetry, as well as effects of “blending” with sp2-hybridized C-atoms. Time-dependent correlation functions facilitate the computations and shed light on the vibrational dynamics following electronic transitions.

Optical properties of modified diamondoids have been studied theoretically using vibrationally resolved electronic absorption, emission and resonance Raman spectra. A time-dependent correlation function approach has been used for electronic two-state models, comprising a ground state (g) and a bright, excited state (e), the latter determined from linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The harmonic and Condon approximations were adopted. In most cases origin shifts, frequency alteration and Duschinsky rotation in excited states were considered. For other cases where no excited state geometry optimization and normal mode analysis were possible or desired, a short-time approximation was used. The optical properties and spectra have been computed for (i) a set of recently synthesized sp2/sp3 hybrid species with C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double-bond connected saturated diamondoid subunits, (ii) functionalized (mostly by thiol or thione groups) diamondoids and (iii) urotropine and other C-substituted diamondoids. The ultimate goal is to tailor optical and electronic features of diamondoids by electronic blending, functionalization and substitution, based on a molecular-level understanding of the ongoing photophysics.