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We present a theoretical framework for the analysis of the statistical properties of thermal fluctuations on a lossy transmission line. A quantization scheme of the electrical signals in the transmission line is formulated. We discuss two applications in detail. Noise spectra at finite temperature for voltage and current are shown to deviate significantly from the Johnson-Nyquist limit, and they depend on the position on the transmission line. We analyze the spontaneous emission, at low temperature, of a Rydberg atom and its resonant enhancement due to vacuum fluctuations in a capacitively coupled transmission line. The theory can also be applied to study the performance of microscale and nanoscale devices, including high-resolution sensors and quantum information processors

During hopping an early burst can be observed in the EMG from the soleus muscle starting about 45 ms after touch-down. It may be speculated that this early EMG burst is a stretch reflex response superimposed on activity from a supra-spinal origin. We hypothesised that if a stretch reflex indeed contributes to the early EMG burst, then advancing or delaying the touch-down without the subject's knowledge should similarly advance or delay the burst. This was indeed the case when touch-down was advanced or delayed by shifting the height of a programmable platform up or down between two hops and this resulted in a correspondent shift of the early EMG burst. Our second hypothesis was that the motor cortex contributes to the first EMG burst during hopping. If so, inhibition of the motor cortex would reduce the magnitude of the burst. By applying a low-intensity magnetic stimulus it was possible to inhibit the motor cortex and this resulted in a suppression of the early EMG burst. These results suggest that sensory feedback and descending drive from the motor cortex are integrated to drive the motor neuron pool during the early EMG burst in hopping. Thus, simple reflexes work in concert with higher order structures to produce this repetitive movement.

Hysteresis in the pinning-depinning transitions of spiral waves rotating around a hole in a circular shaped two- dimensional excitable medium is studied both by use of the continuation software AUTO and by direct numerical integration of the reaction-diffusion equations for the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. In order to clarify the role of different factors in this phenomenon, a kinematical description is applied. It is found that the hysteresis phenomenon computed for the reaction-diffusion model can be reproduced qualitatively only when a nonlinear eikonal equation (i.e. velocity- curvature relationship) is assumed. However, to obtain quantitative agreement, the dispersion relation has to be taken into account.

The paper studies catalytic super-Brownian motion on the real line, where the branching rate is controlled by a catalyst. D. A. Dawson, K. Fleischmann and S. Roelly showed, for a broad class of catalysts, that, as for constant branching, the processes are absolutely continuous measures. This paper considers a class of catalysts, called moderate, which must satisfy a uniform boundedness condition and a condition controlling the degree of singularity---essentially that the mass of catalyst in small balls should (uniformly) be of order r^a, where a>0. The main result of this paper shows that for this class of catalysts there is a continuous density field for the process. Moreover the density is the unique solution (in law) of an appropriate SPDE.

The author considers the heat equation in dimension one with singular drift and inhomogeneous space-time white noise. In particular, the quadratic variation measure of the white noise is not required to be absolutely continuous w.r.t. the Lebesgue measure, neither in space nor in time. Under some assumptions the author gives statements on strong and weak existence as well as strong and weak uniqueness of continuous solutions.

Convergence of the frequency-magnitude distribution of global earthquakes - maybe in 200 years
(2013)

I study the ability to estimate the tail of the frequency-magnitude distribution of global earthquakes. While power-law scaling for small earthquakes is accepted by support of data, the tail remains speculative. In a recent study, Bell et al. (2013) claim that the frequency-magnitude distribution of global earthquakes converges to a tapered Pareto distribution. I show that this finding results from data fitting errors, namely from the biased maximum likelihood estimation of the corner magnitude theta in strongly undersampled models. In particular, the estimation of theta depends solely on the few largest events in the catalog. Taking this into account, I compare various state-of-the-art models for the global frequency-magnitude distribution. After discarding undersampled models, the remaining ones, including the unbounded Gutenberg-Richter distribution, perform all equally well and are, therefore, indistinguishable. Convergence to a specific distribution, if it ever takes place, requires about 200 years homogeneous recording of global seismicity, at least.

We show how the maximum magnitude within a predefined future time horizon may be estimated from an earthquake catalog within the context of Gutenberg-Richter statistics. The aim is to carry out a rigorous uncertainty assessment, and calculate precise confidence intervals based on an imposed level of confidence a. In detail, we present a model for the estimation of the maximum magnitude to occur in a time interval T-f in the future, given a complete earthquake catalog for a time period T in the past and, if available, paleoseismic events. For this goal, we solely assume that earthquakes follow a stationary Poisson process in time with unknown productivity Lambda and obey the Gutenberg-Richter law in magnitude domain with unknown b-value. The random variables. and b are estimated by means of Bayes theorem with noninformative prior distributions. Results based on synthetic catalogs and on retrospective calculations of historic catalogs from the highly active area of Japan and the low-seismicity, but high-risk region lower Rhine embayment (LRE) in Germany indicate that the estimated magnitudes are close to the true values. Finally, we discuss whether the techniques can be extended to meet the safety requirements for critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. For this aim, the maximum magnitude for all times has to be considered. In agreement with earlier work, we find that this parameter is not a useful quantity from the viewpoint of statistical inference.