### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Postprint (1245) (remove)

#### Language

- English (1245) (remove)

#### Keywords

- model (14)
- climate-change (13)
- climate (12)
- variability (11)
- anomalous diffusion (10)
- climate change (9)
- embodied cognition (9)
- eye movements (9)
- transport (9)
- German (8)

#### Institute

- Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät (282)
- Institut für Chemie (173)
- Humanwissenschaftliche Fakultät (156)
- Institut für Biochemie und Biologie (116)
- Institut für Psychologie (91)
- Strukturbereich Kognitionswissenschaften (62)
- Extern (59)
- Institut für Physik und Astronomie (58)
- Institut für Ernährungswissenschaft (42)
- Institut für Erd- und Umweltwissenschaften (40)

This paper argues that the texts surviving from the Old English period do not reflect the spoken language of the bulk of the population under Anglo-Saxon elite domination. While the Old English written documents suggest that the language was kept remarkably unchanged, i.e. was strongly monitored during the long OE period (some 500 years!), the spoken and "real Old English" is likely to have been very different and much more of the type of Middle English than the written texts. "Real Old Engish", i.e. of course only appeared in writing after the Norman Conquest. Middle English is therefore claimed to have begun with the 'late British' speaking shifters to Old English. The shift patterns must have differed in the various part of the island of Britain, as the shifters became exposed to further language contact with the Old Norse adstrate in the Danelaw areas and the Norman superstrate particularly in the South East, the South West having been least exposed to language contact after the original shift from 'Late British' to Old English. This explains why the North was historically the most innovative zone. This also explains the conservatism of the present day dialects in the South West. It is high time that historical linguists acknowledge the arcane character of the Old English written texts.

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an increasing coupling of N (N >= 2) synchronous dynamics on S-Zd (PCA). Increasing means the coupling preserves stochastic ordering. We first present our main construction theorem in the case where S is totally ordered; applications to attractive PCAs are given. When S is only partially ordered, we show on two examples that a coupling of more than two synchronous dynamics may not exist. We also prove an extension of our main result for a particular class of partially ordered spaces.

Ergodicity of PCA
(2004)

For a general attractive Probabilistic Cellular Automata on S-Zd, we prove that the (time-) convergence towards equilibrium of this Markovian parallel dynamics, exponentially fast in the uniform norm, is equivalent to a condition (A). This condition means the exponential decay of the influence from the boundary for the invariant measures of the system restricted to finite boxes. For a class of reversible PCA dynamics on {1,+1}(Zd), wit a naturally associated Gibbsian potential rho, we prove that a (spatial-) weak mixing condition (WM) for rho implies the validity of the assumption (A); thus exponential (time-) ergodicity of these dynamics towards the unique Gibbs measure associated to rho hods. On some particular examples we state that exponential ergodicity holds as soon as there is no phase transition.

In this paper, we consider families of time Markov fields (or reciprocal classes) which have the same bridges as a Brownian diffusion. We characterize each class as the set of solutions of an integration by parts formula on the space of continuous paths C[0; 1]; R-d) Our techniques provide a characterization of gradient diffusions by a duality formula and, in case of reversibility, a generalization of a result of Kolmogorov.

We develop a cluster expansion in space-time for an infinite-dimensional system of interacting diffusions where the drift term of each diffusion depends on the whole past of the trajectory; these interacting diffusions arise when considering the Langevin dynamics of a ferromagnetic system submitted to a disordered external magnetic field.

The authors analyse different Gibbsian properties of interactive Brownian diffusions X indexed by the d-dimensional lattice. In the first part of the paper, these processes are characterized as Gibbs states on path spaces. In the second part of the paper, they study the Gibbsian character on R^{Z^d} of the law at time t of the infinite-dimensional diffusion X(t), when the initial law is Gibbsian. AMS Classifications: 60G15 , 60G60 , 60H10 , 60J60

We prove in this paper an existence result for infinite-dimensional stationary interactive Brownian diffusions. The interaction is supposed to be small in the norm ||.||∞ but otherwise is very general, being possibly non-regular and non-Markovian. Our method consists in using the characterization of such diffusions as space-time Gibbs fields so that we construct them by space-time cluster expansions in the small coupling parameter.

Existing theoretical literature fails to explain satisfactorily the differences between the pay of workers that are covered by collective agreements and others who are not. This study aims at providing a model framework which is amenable for an analysis of this issue. Our general-equilibrium approach integrates a dual labor market and a two-sector product market. The results suggest that the so-called 'union wage gap' is largely determined by the degree of centralization of the bargains, and, to a somewhat lesser extent, by the expenditure share of the unionized sector's goods.