### Refine

#### Has Fulltext

- yes (448) (remove)

#### Year of publication

#### Document Type

- Preprint (448) (remove)

#### Language

- English (428)
- German (17)
- Multiple languages (2)
- French (1)

#### Keywords

- index (11)
- boundary value problems (9)
- elliptic operators (9)
- Fredholm property (8)
- K-theory (7)
- manifolds with singularities (6)
- pseudodifferential operators (6)
- relative index (6)
- Atiyah-Patodi-Singer theory (5)
- index theory (5)

#### Institute

- Institut für Mathematik (374)
- Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Dynamik komplexer Systeme (52)
- Institut für Physik und Astronomie (36)
- Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik (18)
- Extern (7)
- Wirtschaftswissenschaften (3)
- Institut für Psychologie (2)
- Hasso-Plattner-Institut für Digital Engineering gGmbH (1)
- Institut für Informatik und Computational Science (1)
- Institut für Religionswissenschaft (1)

The Collatz conjecture is a number theoretical problem, which has puzzled countless researchers using myriad approaches. Presently, there are scarcely any methodologies to describe and treat the problem from the perspective of the Algebraic Theory of Automata. Such an approach is promising with respect to facilitating the comprehension of the Collatz sequences "mechanics". The systematic technique of a state machine is both simpler and can fully be described by the use of algebraic means.
The current gap in research forms the motivation behind the present contribution. The present authors are convinced that exploring the Collatz conjecture in an algebraic manner, relying on findings and fundamentals of Graph Theory and Automata Theory, will simplify the problem as a whole.

The present work will introduce a Finite State Machine (FSM) that processes any Collatz Sequence; further, we will endeavor to investigate its behavior in relationship to transformations of a special infinite input. Moreover, we will prove that the machine’s word transformation is equivalent to the standard Collatz number transformation and subsequently discuss the possibilities for use of this approach at solving similar problems. The benefit of this approach is that the investigation of the word transformation performed by the Finite State Machine is less complicated than the traditional number-theoretical transformation.

In a bounded domain with smooth boundary in R^3 we consider the stationary Maxwell equations
for a function u with values in R^3 subject to a nonhomogeneous condition
(u,v)_x = u_0 on
the boundary, where v is a given vector field and u_0 a function on the boundary. We specify this problem within the framework of the Riemann-Hilbert boundary value problems for the Moisil-Teodorescu system. This latter is proved to satisfy the Shapiro-Lopaniskij condition if an only if the vector v is at no point tangent to the boundary. The Riemann-Hilbert problem for the Moisil-Teodorescu system fails to possess an adjoint boundary value problem with respect to the Green formula, which satisfies the Shapiro-Lopatinskij condition. We develop the construction of Green formula to get a proper concept of adjoint boundary value problem.

Luhmann in da Contact Zone
(2016)

Our aim in this contribution is to productively engage with the abstractions and complexities of Luhmann’s conceptions of society from a postcolonial perspective, with a particular focus on the explanatory powers of his sociological systems theory when it leaves the realms of Europe and ventures to describe regions of the global South. In view of its more recent global reception beyond Europe, our aim is to thus – following the lead of Dipesh Chakrabarty – provincialize Luhmann’s system theory especially with regard to its underlying assumptions about a global “world society”. For these purposes, we intend to revisit Luhmann in the post/colonial contact zone: We wish to reread Luhmann in the context of spaces of transcultural encounter where “global designs and local histories” (Mignolo), where inclusion into and exclusion from “world society” (Luhmann) clash and interact in intricate ways. The title of our contribution, ‘Luhmann in da Contact Zone’ is deliberately ambiguous: On the one hand, we of course use ‘Luhmann’ metonymically, as representative of a highly complex theoretical design. We shall cursorily outline this design with a special focus on the notion of a singular, modern “world society”, only to confront it with the epistemic challenges of the contact zone. On the other hand, this critique will also involve the close observation of Niklas Luhman as a human observer (a category which within the logic of systems theory actually does not exist) who increasingly transpires in his late writings on exclusion in the global South. By following this dual strategy, we wish to trace an increasing fracture between one Luhmann and the other, between abstract theoretical design and personalized testimony. It is by exploring and measuring this fracture that we hope to eventually be able to map out the potential of a possibly more productive encounter between systems theory and specific strands of postcolonial theory for a pluritopic reading of global modernity.

This essay reads Sam Selvon’s novel The Lonely Londoners (1956) as a milestone in the decolonisation of British fiction. After an introduction to Selvon and the core composition of the novel, it discusses the ways in which the narrative takes on issues of race and racism, how it in the tradition of the Trinidadian carnival confronts audiences with sexual profanation and black masculine swagger, and not least how the novel, especially through its elaborate use of creole Englishes, reimagines London as a West Indian metropolis. The essay then turns more systematically to the ways in which Selvon translates Western literary models and their isolated subject positions into collective modes of narrative performance taken from Caribbean orature and the calypsonian tradition. The Lonely Londoners breathes entirely new life into the ossified conventions of the English novel, and imbues it with unforeseen aesthetic, ethical, political and epistemological possibilities.

Recollecting Bones
(2016)

In the same “guarded, roundabout and reticent way” which Lindsay Barrett invokes for Australian conversations about imperial injustice, Germans, too, must begin to more systematically explore, in Paul Gilroy’s words, “the connections and the differences between anti-semitism and anti-black and other racisms and asses[s] the issues that arise when it can no longer be denied that they interacted over a long time in what might be seen as Fascism’s intellectual, ethical and scientific pre-history” (Gilroy 1996: 26). In the meantime, we need to care for the dead. We need to return them, first, from the status of scientific objects to the status of ancestral human beings, and then progressively, and proactively, as close as possible to the care of those communities from whom they were stolen.

Kleine Kosmopolitismen
(2016)

Postcolonial Justice
(2016)

Postcolonial Piracy
(2016)

Media piracy is a contested term in the academic as much as the public debate. It is used by the corporate industries as a synonym for the theft of protected media content with disastrous economic consequences. It is celebrated by technophile elites as an expression of freedom that ensures creativity as much as free market competition. Marxist critics and activists promote flapiracy as a subversive practice that undermines the capitalist world system and its structural injustices. Artists and entrepreneurs across the globe curse it as a threat to their existence, while many use pirate infrastructures and networks fundamentally for the production and dissemination of their art. For large sections of the population across the global South, piracy is simply the only means of accessing the medial flows of a progressively globalising planet.

Reflections of Lusáni Cissé
(2016)

This is a brief survey of a constructive technique of analytic continuation related to an explicit integral formula of Golusin and Krylov (1933). It goes far beyond complex analysis and applies to the Cauchy problem for elliptic partial differential equations as well. As started in the classical papers, the technique is elaborated in generalised Hardy spaces also called Hardy-Smirnov spaces.

In order to evade detection by network-traffic analysis, a growing proportion of malware uses the encrypted HTTPS protocol. We explore the problem of detecting malware on client computers based on HTTPS traffic analysis. In this setting, malware has to be detected based on the host IP address, ports, timestamp, and data volume information of TCP/IP packets that are sent and received by all the applications on the client. We develop a scalable protocol that allows us to collect network flows of known malicious and benign applications as training data and derive a malware-detection method based on a neural networks and sequence classification. We study the method's ability to detect known and new, unknown malware in a large-scale empirical study.

We consider the Navier-Stokes equations in the layer R^n x [0,T] over R^n with finite T > 0. Using the standard fundamental solutions of the Laplace operator and the heat operator, we reduce the Navier-Stokes equations to a nonlinear Fredholm equation of the form (I+K) u = f, where K is a compact continuous operator in anisotropic normed Hölder spaces weighted at the point at infinity with respect to the space variables. Actually, the weight function is included to provide a finite energy estimate for solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations for all t in [0,T]. On using the particular properties of the de Rham complex we conclude that the Fréchet derivative (I+K)' is continuously invertible at each point of the Banach space under consideration and the map I+K is open and injective in the space. In this way the Navier-Stokes equations prove to induce an open one-to-one mapping in the scale of Hölder spaces.

Convoluted Brownian motion
(2016)

In this paper we analyse semimartingale properties of a class of Gaussian periodic processes, called convoluted Brownian motions, obtained by convolution between a deterministic function and a Brownian motion. A classical
example in this class is the periodic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We compute their characteristics and show that in general, they are neither
Markovian nor satisfy a time-Markov field property. Nevertheless, by enlargement
of filtration and/or addition of a one-dimensional component, one can in some case recover the Markovianity. We treat exhaustively the case of the bidimensional trigonometric convoluted Brownian motion and the higher-dimensional monomial convoluted Brownian motion.

We prove statistical rates of convergence for kernel-based least squares regression from i.i.d. data using a conjugate gradient algorithm, where regularization against overfitting is obtained by early stopping. This method is related to Kernel Partial Least Squares, a regression method that combines supervised dimensionality reduction with least squares projection. Following the setting introduced in earlier related literature, we study so-called "fast convergence rates" depending on the regularity of the target regression function (measured by a source condition in terms of the kernel integral operator) and on the effective dimensionality of the data mapped into the kernel space. We obtain upper bounds, essentially matching known minimax lower bounds, for the L^2 (prediction) norm as well as for the stronger Hilbert norm, if the true
regression function belongs to the reproducing kernel Hilbert space. If the latter assumption is not fulfilled, we obtain similar convergence rates for appropriate norms, provided additional unlabeled data are available.

Using an algorithm based on a retrospective rejection sampling scheme, we propose an exact simulation of a Brownian diffusion whose drift admits several jumps. We treat explicitly and extensively the case of two jumps, providing numerical simulations. Our main contribution is to manage the technical difficulty due to the presence of two jumps thanks to a new explicit expression of the transition density of the skew Brownian motion with two semipermeable barriers and a constant drift.

When trying to extend the Hodge theory for elliptic complexes on compact closed manifolds to the case of compact manifolds with boundary one is led to a boundary value problem for
the Laplacian of the complex which is usually referred to as Neumann problem. We study the Neumann problem for a larger class of sequences of differential operators on
a compact manifold with boundary. These are sequences of small curvature, i.e., bearing the property that the composition of any two neighbouring operators has order less than two.

We consider a statistical inverse learning problem, where we observe the image of a function f through a linear operator A at i.i.d. random design points X_i, superposed with an additional noise. The distribution of the design points is unknown and can be very general. We analyze simultaneously the direct (estimation of Af) and the inverse (estimation of f) learning problems. In this general framework, we obtain strong and weak minimax optimal rates of convergence (as the number of observations n grows large) for a large class of spectral regularization methods over regularity classes defined through appropriate source conditions. This improves on or completes previous results obtained in related settings. The optimality of the obtained rates is shown not only in the exponent in n but also in the explicit dependence of the constant factor in the variance of the noise and the radius of the source condition set.

The aim of this paper is to bring together two areas which are of great importance for the study of overdetermined boundary value problems. The first area is homological algebra which is the main tool in constructing the formal theory of overdetermined problems. And the second area is the global calculus of pseudodifferential operators which allows one to develop explicit analysis.

This article assesses the distance between the laws of stochastic differential equations with multiplicative Lévy noise on path space in terms of their characteristics. The notion of transportation distance on the set of Lévy kernels introduced by Kosenkova and Kulik yields a natural and statistically tractable upper bound on the noise sensitivity. This extends recent results for the additive case in terms of coupling distances to the multiplicative case. The strength of this notion is shown in a statistical implementation for simulations and the example of a benchmark time series in paleoclimate.

Bridehood revisited
(2008)

Think local sell global
(2010)

Filming illegals
(2013)

Introduction
(2013)

We elaborate a boundary Fourier method for studying an analogue of the Hilbert problem for analytic functions within the framework of generalised Cauchy-Riemann equations. The boundary value problem need not satisfy the Shapiro-Lopatinskij condition and so it fails to be Fredholm in Sobolev spaces. We show a solvability condition of the Hilbert problem, which looks like those for ill-posed
problems, and construct an explicit formula for approximate solutions.

We continue our study of invariant forms of the classical equations of mathematical physics,
such as the Maxwell equations or the Lamé system, on manifold with boundary. To this end we interpret them in terms of the de Rham complex at a certain step. On using the structure of the complex we get an insight to predict a degeneracy deeply encoded
in the equations. In the present paper we develop an invariant approach to the classical Navier-Stokes equations.

We consider a Cauchy problem for the heat equation in a cylinder X x (0,T) over a domain X in the n-dimensional space with data on a strip lying on the lateral surface. The strip is of the form
S x (0,T), where S is an open subset of the boundary of X. The problem is ill-posed. Under natural restrictions on the configuration of S we derive an explicit formula for solutions of this problem.

In this paper we study the convergence of continuous Newton method for solving nonlinear equations with holomorphic mappings in complex Banach spaces. Our contribution is based on a recent progress in the geometric theory of spirallike functions. We prove convergence theorems and illustrate them by numerical simulations.

In this work we study reciprocal classes of Markov walks on graphs. Given a continuous time reference Markov chain on a graph, its reciprocal class is the set of all probability measures which can be represented as a mixture of the bridges of the reference walks. We characterize reciprocal classes with two different approaches. With the first approach we found it as the set of solutions to duality formulae on path space, where the differential operators have the interpretation of the addition of infinitesimal random loops to the paths of the canonical process. With the second approach we look at short time asymptotics of bridges. Both approaches allow an explicit computation of reciprocal characteristics, which are divided into two families, the loop characteristics and the arc characteristics. They are those specific functionals of the generator of the reference chain which determine its reciprocal class. We look at the specific examples such as Cayley graphs, the hypercube and planar graphs. Finally we establish the first concentration of measure results for the bridges of a continuous time Markov chain based on the reciprocal characteristics.

We describe a natural construction of deformation quantisation on a compact symplectic manifold with boundary. On the algebra of quantum observables a trace functional is defined which as usual annihilates the commutators. This gives rise to an index as the trace of the unity element. We formulate the index theorem as a conjecture and examine it by the classical harmonic oscillator.

Let A be a nonlinear differential operator on an open set X in R^n and S a closed subset of X. Given a class F of functions in X, the set S is said to be removable for F relative to A if any weak solution of A (u) = 0 in the complement of S of class F satisfies this equation weakly in all of X. For the most extensively studied classes F we show conditions on S which guarantee that S is removable for F relative to A.

In today’s life, embedded systems are ubiquitous. But they differ from traditional desktop systems in many aspects – these include predictable timing behavior (real-time), the management of scarce resources (memory, network), reliable communication protocols, energy management, special purpose user-interfaces (headless operation), system configuration, programming languages (to support software/hardware co-design), and modeling techniques. Within this technical report, authors present results from the lecture “Operating Systems for Embedded Computing” that has been offered by the “Operating Systems and Middleware” group at HPI in Winter term 2013/14. Focus of the lecture and accompanying projects was on principles of real-time computing. Students had the chance to gather practical experience with a number of different OSes and applications and present experiences with near-hardware programming. Projects address the entire spectrum, from bare-metal programming to harnessing a real-time OS to exercising the full software/hardware co-design cycle. Three outstanding projects are at the heart of this technical report. Project 1 focuses on the development of a bare-metal operating system for LEGO Mindstorms EV3. While still a toy, it comes with a powerful ARM processor, 64 MB of main memory, standard interfaces, such as Bluetooth and network protocol stacks. EV3 runs a version of 1 1 Introduction Linux. Sources are available from Lego’s web site. However, many devices and their driver software are proprietary and not well documented. Developing a new, bare-metal OS for the EV3 requires an understanding of the EV3 boot process. Since no standard input/output devices are available, initial debugging steps are tedious. After managing these initial steps, the project was able to adapt device drivers for a few Lego devices to an extent that a demonstrator (the Segway application) could be successfully run on the new OS. Project 2 looks at the EV3 from a different angle. The EV3 is running a pretty decent version of Linux- in principle, the RT_PREEMPT patch can turn any Linux system into a real-time OS by modifying the behavior of a number of synchronization constructs at the heart of the OS. Priority inversion is a problem that is solved by protocols such as priority inheritance or priority ceiling. Real-time OSes implement at least one of the protocols. The central idea of the project was the comparison of non-real-time and real-time variants of Linux on the EV3 hardware. A task set that showed effects of priority inversion on standard EV3 Linux would operate flawlessly on the Linux version with the RT_PREEMPT-patch applied. If only patching Lego’s version of Linux was that easy... Project 3 takes the notion of real-time computing more seriously. The application scenario was centered around our Carrera Digital 132 racetrack. Obtaining position information from the track, controlling individual cars, detecting and modifying the Carrera Digital protocol required design and implementation of custom controller hardware. What to implement in hardware, firmware, and what to implement in application software – this was the central question addressed by the project.

We define weak boundary values of solutions to those nonlinear differential equations which appear as Euler-Lagrange equations of variational problems. As a result we initiate the theory of Lagrangian boundary value problems in spaces of appropriate smoothness. We also analyse if the concept of mapping degree of current importance applies to the study of Lagrangian problems.

Processes having the same bridges as a given reference Markov process constitute its reciprocal class. In this paper we study the reciprocal class of a continuous time random walk with values in a countable Abelian group, we compute explicitly its reciprocal characteristics and we present an integral characterization of it. Our main tool is a new iterated version of the celebrated Mecke's formula from the point process theory, which allows us to study, as transformation on the path space, the addition of random loops. Thanks to the lattice structure of the set of loops, we even obtain a sharp characterization. At the end, we discuss several examples to illustrate the richness of reciprocal classes. We observe how their structure depends on the algebraic properties of the underlying group.

We establish in this paper the existence of weak solutions of infinite-dimensional shift invariant stochastic differential equations driven by a Brownian term. The drift function is very general, in the sense that it is supposed to be neither small or continuous, nor Markov. On the initial law we only assume that it admits a finite specific entropy. Our result strongly improves the previous ones obtained for free dynamics with a small perturbative drift. The originality of our method leads in the use of the specific entropy as a tightness tool and on a description of such stochastic differential equation as solution of a variational problem on the path space.

The zero-noise limit of differential equations with singular coefficients is investigated for the first time in the case when the noise is a general alpha-stable process. It is proved that extremal solutions are selected and the probability of selection is computed. Detailed analysis of the characteristic function of an exit time form on the half-line is performed, with a suitable decomposition in small and large jumps adapted to the singular drift.

This work is devoted to the convergence analysis of a modified Runge-Kutta-type iterative regularization method for solving nonlinear ill-posed problems under a priori and a posteriori stopping rules. The convergence rate results of the proposed method can be obtained under Hölder-type source-wise condition if the Fréchet derivative is properly scaled and locally Lipschitz continuous. Numerical results are achieved by using the Levenberg-Marquardt and Radau methods.

Processes having the same bridges as a given reference Markov process constitute its reciprocal class. In this paper we study the reciprocal class of compound Poisson processes whose jumps belong to a finite set A in R^d. We propose a characterization of the reciprocal class as the unique set of probability measures on which a family of time and space transformations induces the same density, expressed in terms of the reciprocal invariants. The geometry of A plays a crucial role in the design of the transformations, and we use tools from discrete geometry to obtain an optimal characterization. We deduce explicit conditions for two Markov jump processes to belong to the same class. Finally, we provide a natural interpretation of the invariants as short-time asymptotics for the probability that the reference process makes a cycle around its current state.

We consider a general class of finite dimensional deterministic dynamical systems with finitely many local attractors each of which supports a unique ergodic probability measure, which includes in particular the class of Morse–Smale systems in any finite dimension. The dynamical system is perturbed by a multiplicative non-Gaussian heavytailed Lévy type noise of small intensity ε > 0. Specifically we consider perturbations leading to a Itô, Stratonovich and canonical (Marcus) stochastic differential equation. The respective asymptotic first exit time and location problem from each of the domains of attractions in case of inward pointing vector fields in the limit of ε-> 0 has been investigated by the authors. We extend these results to domains with characteristic boundaries and show that the perturbed system exhibits a metastable behavior in the sense that there exits a unique ε-dependent time scale on which the random system converges to a continuous time Markov chain switching between the invariant measures. As examples we consider α-stable perturbations of the Duffing equation and a chemical system exhibiting a birhythmic behavior.

The paper is devoted to asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet problem for a second order partial differential equation containing a small parameter multiplying the highest order derivatives. It corresponds to a small perturbation of a dynamical system having a stationary solution in the domain. We focus on the case where the trajectories of the system go into the domain and the stationary solution is a proper node.

This article aims at the statistical assessment of time series with large fluctuations in short time, which are assumed to stem from a continuous process perturbed by a Lévy process exhibiting a heavy tail behavior. We propose an easily implementable procedure to estimate efficiently the statistical difference between the noisy behavior of the data and a given reference jump measure in terms of so-called coupling distances. After a short introduction to Lévy processes and coupling distances we recall basic statistical approximation results and derive rates of convergence. In the sequel the procedure is elaborated in detail in an abstract setting and eventually applied in a case study to simulated and paleoclimate data. It indicates the dominant presence of a non-stable heavy-tailed jump Lévy component for some tail index greater than 2.

We develop a new approach to the analysis of pseudodifferential operators with small parameter 'epsilon' in (0,1] on a compact smooth manifold X. The standard approach assumes action of operators in Sobolev spaces whose norms depend on 'epsilon'. Instead we consider the cylinder [0,1] x X over X and study pseudodifferential operators on the cylinder which act, by the very nature, on functions depending on 'epsilon' as well. The action in 'epsilon' reduces to multiplication by functions of this variable and does not include any differentiation. As but one result we mention asymptotic of solutions to singular perturbation problems for small values of 'epsilon'.

We consider infinite-dimensional diffusions where the interaction between the coordinates has a finite extent both in space and time. In particular, it is not supposed to be smooth or Markov. The initial state of the system is Gibbs, given by a strong summable interaction. If the strongness of this initial interaction is lower than a suitable level, and if the dynamical interaction is bounded from above in a right way, we prove that the law of the diffusion at any time t is a Gibbs measure with absolutely summable interaction. The main tool is a cluster expansion in space uniformly in time of the Girsanov factor coming from the dynamics and exponential ergodicity of the free dynamics to an equilibrium product measure.

We introduce the notion of coupling distances on the space of Lévy measures in order to quantify rates of convergence towards a limiting Lévy jump diffusion in terms of its characteristic triplet, in particular in terms of the tail of the Lévy measure. The main result yields an estimate of the Wasserstein-Kantorovich-Rubinstein distance on path space between two Lévy diffusions in terms of the couping distances. We want to apply this to obtain precise rates of convergence for Markov chain approximations and a statistical goodness-of-fit test for low-dimensional conceptual climate models with paleoclimatic data.

We consider a (generally, non-coercive) mixed boundary value problem in a bounded domain for a second order elliptic differential operator A. The differential operator is assumed to be of divergent form and the boundary operator B is of Robin type. The boundary is assumed to be a Lipschitz surface. Besides, we distinguish a closed subset of the boundary and control the growth of solutions near this set. We prove that the pair (A,B) induces a Fredholm operator L in suitable weighted spaces of Sobolev type, the weight function being a power of the distance to the singular set. Moreover, we prove the completeness of root functions related to L.

In a recent paper with N. Tarkhanov, the Lefschetz number for endomorphisms (modulo trace class operators) of sequences of trace class curvature was introduced. We show that this is a well defined, canonical extension of the classical Lefschetz number and establish the homotopy invariance of this number. Moreover, we apply the results to show that the Lefschetz fixed point formula holds for geometric quasiendomorphisms of elliptic quasicomplexes.

We study a boundary value problem for an overdetermined elliptic system of nonlinear first order differential equations with linear boundary operators. Such a problem is solvable for a small set of data, and so we pass to its variational formulation which consists in minimising the discrepancy. The Euler-Lagrange equations for the variational problem are far-reaching analogues of the classical Laplace equation. Within the framework of Euler-Lagrange equations we specify an operator on the boundary whose zero set consists precisely of those boundary data for which the initial problem is solvable. The construction of such operator has much in common with that of the familiar Dirichlet to Neumann operator. In the case of linear problems we establish complete results.

We consider an SDE driven by a Lévy noise on a foliated manifold, whose trajectories stay on compact leaves. We determine the effective behavior of the system subject to a small smooth transversal perturbation of positive order epsilon. More precisely, we show that the average of the transversal component of the SDE converges to the solution of a deterministic ODE, according to the average of the perturbing vector field with respect to the invariant measures on the leaves (of the unpertubed system) as epsilon goes to 0. In particular we give upper bounds for the rates of convergence. The main results which are proved for pure jump Lévy processes complement the result by Gargate and Ruffino for Stratonovich SDEs to Lévy driven SDEs of Marcus type.

We are interested in modeling the Darwinian evolution of a population described by two levels of biological parameters: individuals characterized by an heritable phenotypic trait submitted to mutation and natural selection and cells in these individuals influencing their ability to consume resources and to reproduce. Our models are rooted in the microscopic description of a random (discrete) population of individuals characterized by one or several adaptive traits and cells characterized by their type. The population is modeled as a stochastic point process whose generator captures the probabilistic dynamics over continuous time of birth, mutation and death for individuals and birth and death for cells. The interaction between individuals (resp. between cells) is described by a competition between individual traits (resp. between cell types). We are looking for tractable large population approximations. By combining various scalings on population size, birth and death rates and mutation step, the single microscopic model is shown to lead to contrasting nonlinear macroscopic limits of different nature: deterministic approximations, in the form of ordinary, integro- or partial differential equations, or probabilistic ones, like stochastic partial differential equations or superprocesses.

In this article we analyse the structure of Markov processes and reciprocal processes to underline their time symmetrical properties, and to compare them. Our originality consists in adopting a unifying approach of reciprocal processes, independently of special frameworks in which the theory was developped till now (diffusions, or pure jump processes). This leads to some new results, too.

Reciprocal processes, whose concept can be traced back to E. Schrödinger, form a class of stochastic processes constructed as mixture of bridges, that satisfy a time Markov field property. We discuss here a new unifying approach to characterize several types of reciprocal processes via duality formulae on path spaces: The case of reciprocal processes with continuous paths associated to Brownian diffusions and the case of pure jump reciprocal processes associated to counting processes are treated. This presentation is based on joint works with M. Thieullen, R. Murr and C. Léonard.

By means of the cluster expansion method we show that a recent result of Poghosyan and Ueltschi (2009) combined with a result of Nehring (2012) yields a construction of point processes of classical statistical mechanics as well as processes related to the Ginibre Bose gas of Brownian loops and to the dissolution in R^d of Ginibre's Fermi-Dirac gas of such loops. The latter will be identified as a Gibbs perturbation of the ideal Fermi gas. On generalizing these considerations we will obtain the existence of a large class of Gibbs perturbations of the so-called KMM-processes as they were introduced by Nehring (2012). Moreover, it is shown that certain "limiting Gibbs processes" are Gibbs in the sense of Dobrushin, Lanford and Ruelle if the underlying potential is positive. And finally, Gibbs modifications of infinitely divisible point processes are shown to solve a new integration by parts formula if the underlying potential is positive.

Transport Molecules play a crucial role for cell viability. Amongst others, linear motors transport cargos along rope-like structures from one location of the cell to another in a stochastic fashion. Thereby each step of the motor, either forwards or backwards, bridges a fixed distance. While moving along the rope the motor can also detach and is lost. We give here a mathematical formalization of such dynamics as a random process which is an extension of Random Walks, to which we add an absorbing state to model the detachment of the motor from the rope. We derive particular properties of such processes that have not been available before. Our results include description of the maximal distance reached from the starting point and the position from which detachment takes place. Finally, we apply our theoretical results to a concrete established model of the transport molecule Kinesin V.

We consider systems of Euler-Lagrange equations with two degrees of freedom and with Lagrangian being quadratic in velocities. For this class of equations the generic case of the equivalence problem is solved with respect to point transformations. Using Lie's infinitesimal method we construct a basis of differential invariants and invariant differentiation operators for such systems. We describe certain types of Lagrangian systems in terms of their invariants. The results are illustrated by several examples.

Amongst the many complex processes taking place in living cells, transport of cargoes across the cytosceleton is fundamental to cell viability and activity. To move cargoes between the different cell parts, cells employ Molecular Motors. The motors operate by transporting cargoes along the so-called cellular micro-tubules, namely rope-like structures that connect, for instance, the cell-nucleus and outer membrane. We introduce a new Markov Chain, the killed Quasi-Random-Walk, for such transport molecules and derive properties like the maximal run length and time. Furthermore we introduce permuted balance, which is a more flexible extension of the ordinary reversibility and introduce the notion of Time Duality, which compares certain passage times pathwise. We give a number of sufficient conditions for Time Duality based on the geometry of the transition graph. Both notions are closely related to properties of the killed Quasi-Random-Walk.

In this work we are concerned with the characterization of certain classes of stochastic processes via duality formulae. First, we introduce a new formulation of a characterization of processes with independent increments, which is based on an integration by parts formula satisfied by infinitely divisible random vectors. Then we focus on the study of the reciprocal classes of Markov processes. These classes contain all stochastic processes having the same bridges, and thus similar dynamics, as a reference Markov process. We start with a resume of some existing results concerning the reciprocal classes of Brownian diffusions as solutions of duality formulae. As a new contribution, we show that the duality formula satisfied by elements of the reciprocal class of a Brownian diffusion has a physical interpretation as a stochastic Newton equation of motion. In the context of pure jump processes we derive the following new results. We will analyze the reciprocal classes of Markov counting processes and characterize them as a group of stochastic processes satisfying a duality formula. This result is applied to time-reversal of counting processes. We are able to extend some of these results to pure jump processes with different jump-sizes, in particular we are able to compare the reciprocal classes of Markov pure jump processes through a functional equation between the jump-intensities.

Asymptotic solutions of the Dirichlet problem for the heat equation at a characteristic point
(2012)

The Dirichlet problem for the heat equation in a bounded domain is characteristic, for there are boundary points at which the boundary touches a characteristic hyperplane t = c, c being a constant. It was I.G. Petrovskii (1934) who first found necessary and sufficient conditions on the boundary which guarantee that the solution is continuous up to the characteristic point, provided that the Dirichlet data are continuous. This paper initiated standing interest in studying general boundary value problems for parabolic equations in bounded domains. We contribute to the study by constructing a formal solution of the Dirichlet problem for the heat equation in a neighbourhood of a characteristic boundary point and showing its asymptotic character.

We develop the method of Fischer-Riesz equations for general boundary value problems elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg. To this end we reduce them to a boundary problem for a (possibly overdetermined) first order system whose classical symbol has a left inverse. For such a problem there is a uniquely determined boundary value problem which is adjoint to the given one with respect to the Green formula. On using a well elaborated theory of approximation by solutions of the adjoint problem, we find the Cauchy data of solutions of our problem.

We study the Dirichlet problem in a bounded plane domain for the heat equation with small parameter multiplying the derivative in t. The behaviour of solution at characteristic points of the boundary is of special interest. The behaviour is well understood if a characteristic line is tangent to the boundary with contact degree at least 2. We allow the boundary to not only have contact of degree less than 2 with a characteristic line but also a cuspidal singularity at a characteristic point. We construct an asymptotic solution of the problem near the characteristic point to describe how the boundary layer degenerates.

A linear differential operator L is called weakly hypoelliptic if any local solution u of Lu = 0 is smooth. We allow for systems, i.e. the coefficients may be matrices, not necessarily of square size. This is a huge class of important operators which covers all elliptic, overdetermined elliptic, subelliptic and parabolic equations. We extend several classical theorems from complex analysis to solutions of any weakly hypoelliptic equation: the Montel theorem providing convergent subsequences, the Vitali theorem ensuring convergence of a given sequence, and Riemann's first removable singularity theorem. In the case of constant coefficients we show that Liouville's theorem holds, any bounded solution must be constant and any L^p solution must vanish.

We introduce renormalized integrals which generalize conventional measure theoretic integrals. One approximates the integration domain by measure spaces and defines the integral as the limit of integrals over the approximating spaces. This concept is implicitly present in many mathematical contexts such as Cauchy's principal value, the determinant of operators on a Hilbert space and the Fourier transform of an L^p function. We use renormalized integrals to define a path integral on manifolds by approximation via geodesic polygons. The main part of the paper is dedicated to the proof of a path integral formula for the heat kernel of any self-adjoint generalized Laplace operator acting on sections of a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold.

We consider orthogonal connections with arbitrary torsion on compact Riemannian manifolds. For the induced Dirac operators, twisted Dirac operators and Dirac operators of Chamseddine-Connes type we compute the spectral action. In addition to the Einstein-Hilbert action and the bosonic part of the Standard Model Lagrangian we find the Holst term from Loop Quantum Gravity, a coupling of the Holst term to the scalar curvature and a prediction for the value of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter.

We study boundary value problems for linear elliptic differential operators of order one. The underlying manifold may be noncompact, but the boundary is assumed to be compact. We require a symmetry property of the principal symbol of the operator along the boundary. This is satisfied by Dirac type operators, for instance. We provide a selfcontained introduction to (nonlocal) elliptic boundary conditions, boundary regularity of solutions, and index theory. In particular, we simplify and generalize the traditional theory of elliptic boundary value problems for Dirac type operators. We also prove a related decomposition theorem, a general version of Gromov and Lawson's relative index theorem and a generalization of the cobordism theorem.

This is an introduction to Wiener measure and the Feynman-Kac formula on general Riemannian manifolds for Riemannian geometers with little or no background in stochastics. We explain the construction of Wiener measure based on the heat kernel in full detail and we prove the Feynman-Kac formula for Schrödinger operators with bounded potentials. We also consider normal Riemannian coverings and show that projecting and lifting of paths are inverse operations which respect the Wiener measure.

We consider compact Riemannian spin manifolds without boundary equipped with orthogonal connections. We investigate the induced Dirac operators and the associated commutative spectral triples. In case of dimension four and totally anti-symmetric torsion we compute the Chamseddine-Connes spectral action, deduce the equations of motions and discuss critical points.

This paper examines and develops matrix methods to approximate the eigenvalues of a fourth order Sturm-Liouville problem subjected to a kind of fixed boundary conditions, furthermore, it extends the matrix methods for a kind of general boundary conditions. The idea of the methods comes from finite difference and Numerov's method as well as boundary value methods for second order regular Sturm-Liouville problems. Moreover, the determination of the correction term formulas of the matrix methods are investigated in order to obtain better approximations of the problem with fixed boundary conditions since the exact eigenvalues for q = 0 are known in this case. Finally, some numerical examples are illustrated.

The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the fact the the reciprocal function 1/zeta (s) extends from the interval (1/2,1) to an analytic function in the quarter-strip 1/2 < Re s < 1 and Im s > 0. Function theory allows one to rewrite the condition of analytic continuability in an elegant form amenable to numerical experiments.

On completeness of root functions of Sturm-Liouville problems with discontinuous boundary operators
(2012)

We consider a Sturm-Liouville boundary value problem in a bounded domain D of R^n. By this is meant that the differential equation is given by a second order elliptic operator of divergent form in D and the boundary conditions are of Robin type on bD. The first order term of the boundary operator is the oblique derivative whose coefficients bear discontinuities of the first kind. Applying the method of weak perturbation of compact self-adjoint operators and the method of rays of minimal growth, we prove the completeness of root functions related to the boundary value problem in Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces of various types.

We consider the Dirichlet, Neumann and Zaremba problems for harmonic functions in a bounded plane domain with nonsmooth boundary. The boundary curve belongs to one of the following three classes: sectorial curves, logarithmic spirals and spirals of power type. To study the problem we apply a familiar method of Vekua-Muskhelishvili which consists in using a conformal mapping of the unit disk onto the domain to pull back the problem to a boundary problem for harmonic functions in the disk. This latter is reduced in turn to a Toeplitz operator equation on the unit circle with symbol bearing discontinuities of second kind. We develop a constructive invertibility theory for Toeplitz operators and thus derive solvability conditions as well as explicit formulas for solutions.

We study maximal subsemigroups of the monoid T(X) of all full transformations on the set X = N of natural numbers containing a given subsemigroup W of T(X), where each element of a given set U is a generator of T(X) modulo W. This note continues the study of maximal subsemigroups of the monoid of all full transformations on an infinite set.

The authors discuss the use of the discrepancy principle for statistical inverse problems, when the underlying operator is of trace class. Under this assumption the discrepancy principle is well defined, however a plain use of it may occasionally fail and it will yield sub-optimal rates. Therefore, a modification of the discrepancy is introduced, which takes into account both of the above deficiencies. For a variety of linear regularization schemes as well as for conjugate gradient iteration this modification is shown to yield order optimal a priori error bounds under general smoothness assumptions. A posteriori error control is also possible, however at a sub-optimal rate, in general. This study uses and complements previous results for bounded deterministic noise.

In the limit we analyze the generators of families of reversible jump processes in the n-dimensional space associated with a class of symmetric non-local Dirichlet forms and show exponential decay of the eigenfunctions. The exponential rate function is a Finsler distance, given as solution of certain eikonal equation. Fine results are sensitive to the rate functions being twice differentiable or just Lipschitz. Our estimates are similar to the semiclassical Agmon estimates for differential operators of second order. They generalize and strengthen previous results on the lattice.