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- K-theory (7)
- elliptic operators (6)
- relative index (6)
- Atiyah-Patodi-Singer theory (5)
- Fredholm property (5)
- index theory (5)
- boundary value problems (4)
- elliptic operator (4)
- index (4)
- manifold with singularities (4)

The aim of this paper is to explain the notion of subspace defined by means of pseudodifferential projection and give its applications in elliptic theory. Such subspaces are indispensable in the theory of well-posed boundary value problems for an arbitrary elliptic operator, including the Dirac operator, which has no classical boundary value problems. Pseudodifferential subspaces can be used to compute the fractional part of the spectral Atiyah–Patodi–Singer eta invariant, when it defines a homotopy invariant (Gilkey’s problem). Finally, we explain how pseudodifferential subspaces can be used to give an analytic realization of the topological K-group with finite coefficients in terms of elliptic operators. It turns out that all three applications are based on a theory of elliptic operators on closed manifolds acting in subspaces.

Contents: Chapter 6: Elliptic Theory on Manifolds with Edges Introduction 6.1. Motivation and Main Constructions 6.1.1. Manifolds with edges 6.1.2. Edge-degenerate differential operators 6.1.3. Symbols 6.1.4. Elliptic problems 6.2. Pseudodifferential Operators 6.2.1. Edge symbols 6.2.2. Pseudodifferential operators 6.2.3. Quantization 6.3. Elliptic Morphisms and the Finiteness Theorem 6.3.1. Matrix Green operators 6.3.2. General morphisms 6.3.3. Ellipticity, Fredholm property, and smoothness Appendix A. Fiber Bundles and Direct Integrals A.1. Local theory A.2. Globalization A.3. Versions of the Definition of the Norm

Contents: Chapter 7: The Index Problemon Manifolds with Singularities Preface 7.1. The Simplest Index Formulas 7.1.1. General properties of the index 7.1.2. The index of invariant operators on the cylinder 7.1.3. Relative index formulas 7.1.4. The index of general operators on the cylinder 7.1.5. The index of operators of the form 1 + G with a Green operator G 7.1.6. The index of operators of the form 1 + G on manifolds with edges 7.1.7. The index on bundles with smooth base and fiber having conical points 7.2. The Index Problem for Manifolds with Isolated Singularities 7.2.1. Statement of the index splitting problem 7.2.2. The obstruction to the index splitting 7.2.3. Computation of the obstruction in topological terms 7.2.4. Examples. Operators with symmetries 7.3. The Index Problem for Manifolds with Edges 7.3.1. The index excision property 7.3.2. The obstruction to the index splitting 7.4. Bibliographical Remarks

Contents: Chapter 5: Manifolds with Isolated Singularities 5.1. Differential Operators and the Geometry of Singularities 5.1.1. How do isolated singularities arise? Examples 5.1.2. Definition and methods for the description of manifolds with isolated singularities 5.1.3. Bundles. The cotangent bundle 5.2. Asymptotics of Solutions, Function Spaces,Conormal Symbols 5.2.1. Conical singularities 5.2.2. Cuspidal singularities 5.3. A Universal Representation of Degenerate Operators and the Finiteness Theorem 5.3.1. The cylindrical representation 5.3.2. Continuity and compactness 5.3.3. Ellipticity and the finiteness theorem 5.4. Calculus of ΨDO 5.4.1. General ΨDO 5.4.2. The subalgebra of stabilizing ΨDO 5.4.3. Ellipticity and the finiteness theorem

Contents: Chapter 3: Eta Invariant and the Spectral Flow 3.1. Introduction 3.2. The Classical Spectral Flow 3.2.1. Definition and main properties 3.2.2. The spectral flow formula for periodic families 3.3. The Atiyah–Patodi–Singer Eta Invariant 3.3.1. Definition of the eta invariant 3.3.2. Variation under deformations of the operator 3.3.3. Homotopy invariance. Examples 3.4. The Eta Invariant of Families with Parameter (Melrose’s Theory) 3.4.1. A trace on the algebra of parameter-dependent operators 3.4.2. Definition of the Melrose eta invariant 3.4.3. Relationship with the Atiyah–Patodi–Singer eta invariant 3.4.4. Locality of the derivative of the eta invariant. Examples 3.5. The Spectral Flow of Families of Parameter-Dependent Operators 3.5.1. Meromorphic operator functions. Multiplicities of singular points 3.5.2. Definition of the spectral flow 3.6. Higher Spectral Flows 3.6.1. Spectral sections 3.6.2. Spectral flow of homotopies of families of self-adjoint operators 3.6.3. Spectral flow of homotopies of families of parameter-dependent operators 3.7. Bibliographical Remarks

Contents: Chapter 4: Pseudodifferential Operators 4.1. Preliminary Remarks 4.1.1. Why are pseudodifferential operators needed? 4.1.2. What is a pseudodifferential operator? 4.1.3. What properties should the pseudodifferential calculus possess? 4.2. Classical Pseudodifferential Operators on Smooth Manifolds 4.2.1. Definition of pseudodifferential operators on a manifold 4.2.2. Hörmander’s definition of pseudodifferential operators 4.2.3. Basic properties of pseudodifferential operators 4.3. Pseudodifferential Operators in Sections of Hilbert Bundles 4.3.1. Hilbert bundles 4.3.2. Operator-valued symbols. Specific features of the infinite-dimensional case 4.3.3. Symbols of compact fiber variation 4.3.4. Definition of pseudodifferential operators 4.3.5. The composition theorem 4.3.6. Ellipticity 4.3.7. The finiteness theorem 4.4. The Index Theorem 4.4.1. The Atiyah–Singer index theorem 4.4.2. The index theorem for pseudodifferential operators in sections of Hilbert bundles 4.4.3. Proof of the index theorem 4.5. Bibliographical Remarks

Contents: Chapter 1: Localization (Surgery) in Elliptic Theory 1.1. The Index Locality Principle 1.1.1. What is locality? 1.1.2. A pilot example 1.1.3. Collar spaces 1.1.4. Elliptic operators 1.1.5. Surgery and the relative index theorem 1.2. Surgery in Index Theory on Smooth Manifolds 1.2.1. The Booß–Wojciechowski theorem 1.2.2. The Gromov–Lawson theorem 1.3. Surgery for Boundary Value Problems 1.3.1. Notation 1.3.2. General boundary value problems 1.3.3. A model boundary value problem on a cylinder 1.3.4. The Agranovich–Dynin theorem 1.3.5. The Agranovich theorem 1.3.6. Bojarski’s theorem and its generalizations 1.4. (Micro)localization in Lefschetz theory 1.4.1. The Lefschetz number 1.4.2. Localization and the contributions of singular points 1.4.3. The semiclassical method and microlocalization 1.4.4. The classical Atiyah–Bott–Lefschetz theorem

For elliptic problems on manifolds with edges, we construct index formulas in form of a sum of homotopy invariant contributions of the strata (the interior of the manifold and the edge). Both terms are the indices of elliptic operators, one of which acts in spaces of sections of finite-dimensional vector bundles on a compact closed manifold and the other in spaces of sections of infinite-dimensional vector bundles over the edge.

Relative elliptic theory
(2002)

This paper is a survey of relative elliptic theory (i.e. elliptic theory in the category of smooth embeddings), closely related to the Sobolev problem, first studied by Sternin in the 1960s. We consider both analytic aspects to the theory (the structure of the algebra of morphismus, ellipticity, Fredholm property) and topological aspects (index formulas and Riemann-Roch theorems). We also study the algebra of Green operators arising as a subalgebra of the algebra of morphisms.

When studyind elliptic operators on manifolds with nonisolated singularities one naturally encounters families of conormal symbols (i.e. operators elliptic with parameter p ∈ IR in the sense of Agranovich-Vishik) parametrized by the set of singular points. For homotopies of such families we define the notion of spectral flow, which in this case is an element of the K-group of the parameter space. We prove that the spectral flow is equal to the index of some family of operators on the infinite cone.

We prove a theorem describing the behaviour of the relative index of families of Fredholm operators under surgery performed on spaces where the operators act. In connection with additional conditions (like symmetry conditions) this theorem results in index formulas for given operator families. By way of an example, we give an application to index theory of families of boundary value problems.

This is a survey of recent results concerning the general index locality principle, associated surgery, and their applications to elliptic operators on smooth manifolds and manifolds with singularities as well as boundary value problems. The full version of the paper is submitted for publication in Russian Mathematical Surveys.

The paper deals with elliptic theory on manifolds with boundary represented as a covering space. We compute the index for a class of nonlocal boundary value problems. For a nontrivial covering, the index defect of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer boundary value problem is computed. We obtain the Poincaré duality in the K-theory of the corresponding manifolds with singularities.

We prove a general theorem on the behavior of the relative index under surgery for a wide class of Fredholm operators, including relative index theorems for elliptic operators due to Gromov-Lawson, Anghel, Teleman, Booß-Bavnbek-Wojciechowski, et al. as special cases. In conjunction with additional conditions (like symmetry conditions), this theorem permits one to compute the analytical index of a given operator. In particular, we obtain new index formulas for elliptic pseudodifferential operators and quantized canonical transformations on manifolds with conical singularities.

Content: 0.1 Preliminary Remarks Chapter 1: Noncommutative Analysis: Main Ideas, Definitions, and Theorems 1.1 Functions of One Operator (Functional Calculi) 1.2 Functions of Several Operators 1.3 Main Formulas of Operator Calculus 1.4 Main Tools of Noncommutative Analysis 1.5 Composition Laws and Ordered Representations

The topological significance of the spectral Atiyah-Patodi-Singer η-invariant is investigated. We show that twice the fractional part of the invariant is computed by the linking pairing in K-theory with the orientation bundle of the manifold. The Pontrjagin duality implies the nondegeneracy of the linking form. An example of a nontrivial fractional part for an even-order operator is presented.

Quantization methods in differential equations : Chapter 2: Quantization of Lagrangian modules
(1999)

In this chapter we use the wave packet transform described in Chapter 1 to quantize extended classical states represented by so-called Lagrangian sumbanifolds of the phase space. Functions on a Lagrangian manifold form a module over the ring of classical Hamiltonian functions on the phase space (with respect to pointwise multiplication). The quantization procedure intertwines this multiplication with the action of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians; hence we speak of quantization of Lagrangian modules. The semiclassical states obtained by this quantization procedure provide asymptotic solutions to differential equations with a small parameter. Locally, such solutions can be represented by WKB elements. Global solutions are given by Maslov's canonical operator [2]; also see, e.g., [3] and the references therein. Here the canonical operator is obtained in the framework of the universal quantization procedure provided by the wave packet transform. This procedure was suggested in [4] (see also the references there) and further developed in [5]; our exposition is in the spirit of these papers. Some further bibliographical remarks can be found in the beginning of Chapter 1.

The homotopy classification and the index of boundary value problems for general elliptic operators
(1999)

We give the homotopy classification and compute the index of boundary value problems for elliptic equations. The classical case of operators that satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition is studied first. We also consider the general case of boundary value problems for operators that do not necessarily satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition.

We prove a general theorem on the local property of the relative index for a wide class of Fredholm operators, including relative index theorems for elliptic operators due to Gromov-Lawson, Anghel, Teleman, Booß-Bavnbek-Wojciechowski, et al. as special cases. In conjunction with additional conditions (like symmetry conditions) this theorem permits one to compute the analytical index of a given operator. In particular, we obtain new index formulas for elliptic pseudodifferential operators and quantized canonical transformations on manifolds with conical singularities as well as for elliptic boundary value problems with a symmetry condition for the conormal symbol.

The paper deals with the calculation of the fractional part of the η-invariant for elliptic self-adjoint operators in topological terms. The method used to obtain the corresponding formula is based on the index theorem for elliptic operators in subspaces obtained in [1], [2]. It also utilizes K-theory with coefficients Zsub(n). In particular, it is shown that the group K(T*M,Zsub(n)) is realized by elliptic operators (symbols) acting in appropriate subspaces.

An elliptic theory is constructed for operators acting in subspaces defined via even pseudodifferential projections. Index formulas are obtained for operators on compact manifolds without boundary and for general boundary value problems. A connection with Gilkey's theory of η-invariants is established.

In the paper we study the possibility to represent the index formula for spectral boundary value problems as a sum of two terms, the first one being homotopy invariant of the principal symbol, while the second depends on the conormal symbol of the problem only. The answer is given in analytical, as well as in topological terms.

The quantization of contact transformations of the cosphere bundle over a manifold with conical singularities is described. The index of Fredholm operators given by this quantization is calculated. The answer is given in terms of the Epstein-Melrose contact degree and the conormal symbol of the corresponding operator.

For elliptic operators on manifolds with boundary, we define spectral boundary value problems, which generalize the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer problem to the case of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions, operators of arbitrary order, and nonself-adjoint conormal symbols. The Fredholm property is proved and equivalence with certain elliptic equations on manifolds with conical singularities is established.

We construct a theory of general boundary value problems for differential operators whose symbols do not necessarily satisfy the Atiyah-Bott condition [3] of vanishing of the corresponding obstruction. A condition for these problems to be Fredholm is introduced and the corresponding finiteness theorems are proved.

The paper contains the proof of the index formula for manifolds with conical points. For operators subject to an additional condition of spectral symmetry, the index is expressed as the sum of multiplicities of spectral points of the conormal symbol (indicial family) and the integral from the Atiyah-Singer form over the smooth part of the manifold. The obtained formula is illustrated by the example of the Euler operator on a two-dimensional manifold with conical singular point.