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Eine Nutzung der optischen Anisotropie dünner Schichten ist vor allem für die Displaytechnologie, die optische Datenspeicherung und für optische Sicherheitselemente von hoher Bedeutung. Diese Doktorarbeit befasst sich mit theoretischen und experimentellen Untersuchung von dreidimensionaler Anisotropie und dabei insbesondere mit der Untersuchung von lichtinduzierter dreidimensionaler Anisotropie in organischen dünnen Polymer-Schichten. Die gewonnenen Erkentnisse und entwickelten Methoden können wertvolle Beiträge für Optimierungsprozesse, wie bei der Kompensation der Blickwinkelabhängigkeit von Flüssigkristall-Displays, liefern. Die neue Methode der Immersions-Transmissions-Ellipsometrie (ITE) zur Untersuchung von dünneren Schichten wurde im Rahmen dieser Dissertation entwickelt. Diese Methode gestattet es, in Kombination mit konventioneller Reflexions- und Transmissionsellipsometrie, die absoluten dreidimensionalen Brechungsindices einer biaxialen Schicht zu bestimmen. Erstmals gelang es damit, das dreidimensionale Brechungsindexellipsoid von transparenten, dünneren (150 nm) Filmen hochgenau (drei Stellen hinter dem Komma) zu bestimmen. Die ITE-Methode hat demzufolge das Potential, auch bei noch dünneren Schichten mit Gewinn eingesetzt werden zu können. Die lichtinduzierte Generierung von dreidimensionaler Anisotropie wurde in dünnen Schichten von azobenzenhaltigen und zimtsäurehaltigen, amorphen und flüssig-kristallinen Homo- und Copolymeren untersucht. Erstmals wurden quantitative Untersuchungen zur Änderung von lichtinduzierten, dreidimensionalen Anisotropien in dünnen Schichten von azobenzenhaltigen und zimtsäurehaltigen Polymeren bei Tempern oberhalb der Glastemperatur durchgeführt. Bei vielen der untersuchten Polymere war die dreidimensionale Ordnung nach dem Bestrahlen mit polarisiertem Licht und anschließendem Tempern oberhalb der Glastemperatur scheinbar von der Schichtdicke abhängig. Die Ursache liegt wohl in der, mit der neuentwickelten ITE-Methode detektierten, planaren Ausgangsorientierung der aufgeschleuderten dünneren Schichten. Um Verkippungs-Gradienten in dickeren Polymerschichten in ihrem Verlauf zu bestimmen, wurde eine spezielle Methode unter Benutzung der Wellenleitermoden-Spektroskopie entwickelt. Quantenchemisch bestimmte, maximal induzierbare Doppelbrechungen in flüssig-kristallinen Polymeren wurden mit den experimentell gefundenen Ordnungen verglichen.

This thesis analyses synchronization phenomena occurring in large ensembles of interacting oscillatory units. In particular, the effects of nonisochronicity (frequency dependence on the oscillator's amplitude) on the macroscopic transition to synchronization are studied in detail. The new phenomena found (Anomalous Synchronization) are investigated in populations of oscillators as well as between oscillator's ensembles.

This thesis presents new approaches to evolutions of binary black hole systems in numerical relativity. We analyze and compare evolutions from various physically motivated initial data sets, in particular presenting the first evolutions of Thin Sandwich data generated by the Meudon group. For the first time two different quasi-circular orbit initial data sequences are compared through fully 3d numerical evolutions: Puncture data and Thin Sandwich data (TSD) based on a helical killing vector ansatz. The two different sets are compared in terms of the physical quantities that can be measured from the numerical data, and in terms of their evolutionary behavior. The evolutions demonstrate that for the latter, "Meudon" datasets, the black holes do in fact orbit for a longer amount of time before they merge, in comparison with Puncture data from the same separation. This indicates they are potentially better estimates of quasi-circular orbit parameters. The merger times resulting from the numerical simulations are consistent with independent Post-Newtonian estimates that the final plunge phase of a black hole inspiral should take 60% of an orbit.

In festen azobenzenhaltigen Polymeren wurde bei Bestrahlung mit blauem Licht ein makroskopischer Materialtransport beobachtet. Um die Dynamik der Gitterentstehung zu verfolgen, wurde am Speicherring für Synchrotronstrahlung ein Gitterschreibaufbau errichtet. Damit konnte erstmals in dieser Arbeit die Gitterbildungsgeschwindigkeit in-situ simultan mit Röntgen- und Lichtstreuung untersucht werden. Mit Hilfe einer speziellen Anpassung der Röntgenstreutheorie konnten sehr gute Übereinstimmungen von theoretischen Berechnungen mit den Messergebnissen erzielt werden. Dabei konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sich zeitgleich mit einem Oberflächengitter auch ein Dichtegitter entwickelt. Durch die Trennung beider Streuanteile ließ sich die Dynamik der Strukturentstehungen bestimmen. Des weiteren konnte erstmals mit Hilfe der Photoelektronenspektroskopie die molekulare Orientierung an der Oberfläche eines Oberflächengitters nachgewiesen werden. Die Bewegungsursache kann auf einen Impulsübertrag während der Isomerisierung zurückgeführt werden, während die Bewegungsrichtung durch den elektrischen Feldvektor festgelegt wird. Die Theorie der Gitterentstehung konnte verbessert werden.

One of the most striking features of ecological systems is their ability to undergo sudden outbreaks in the population numbers of one or a small number of species. The similarity of outbreak characteristics, which is exhibited in totally different and unrelated (ecological) systems naturally leads to the question whether there are universal mechanisms underlying outbreak dynamics in Ecology. It will be shown into two case studies (dynamics of phytoplankton blooms under variable nutrients supply and spread of epidemics in networks of cities) that one explanation for the regular recurrence of outbreaks stems from the interaction of the natural systems with periodical variations of their environment. Natural aquatic systems like lakes offer very good examples for the annual recurrence of outbreaks in Ecology. The idea whether chaos is responsible for the irregular heights of outbreaks is central in the domain of ecological modeling. This question is investigated in the context of phytoplankton blooms. The dynamics of epidemics in networks of cities is a problem which offers many ecological and theoretical aspects. The coupling between the cities is introduced through their sizes and gives rise to a weighted network which topology is generated from the distribution of the city sizes. We examine the dynamics in this network and classified the different possible regimes. It could be shown that a single epidemiological model can be reduced to a one-dimensional map. We analyze in this context the dynamics in networks of weighted maps. The coupling is a saturation function which possess a parameter which can be interpreted as an effective temperature for the network. This parameter allows to vary continously the network topology from global coupling to hierarchical network. We perform bifurcation analysis of the global dynamics and succeed to construct an effective theory explaining very well the behavior of the system.

The correlations between the chemical structures of the 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds and their corresponding vapour deposited film structures on Si/SiO2 were systematically investigated with AFM, XSR and IR for the first time. The result shows that the film structure depends strongly on the substrate temperature (Ts). For the compounds with ether bridge group, the film periodicity depends linearly on the length of the aliphatic chain. The films based on those oxadiazols have ordered structure in the investigated substrate temperature region, while die amide bridged compounds form ordered film only at high Ts due to the formation of intermolecular H-bond. The tilt angle of most molecules is determined by the pi-pi complexes between the molecules. The intermolecular interaction between head groups leads to the structural transformation during the thermal treatment after deposition. All the ether bridged oxadiazoles form films with bilayer structure, while amide bridged oxadiazole form film bilayer structure only when the molecule has a head group.

We calculate the additional carbon emissions as a result of the conversion of natural land in a process of urbanisation; and the change of carbon flows by “urbanised” ecosystems, when the atmospheric carbon is exported to the neighboring territories, from 1980 till 2050 for the eight regions of the world. As a scenario we use combined UN and demographic model′s prognoses for regional total and urban population growth. The calculations of urban areas dynamics are based on two models: the regression model and the Gamma-model. The urbanised area is sub-divided on built-up, „green“ (parks, etc.) and informal settlements (favelas) areas. The next step is to calculate the regional and world dynamics of carbon emission and export, and the annual total carbon balance. Both models give similar results with some quantitative differences. In the first model, the world annual emissions attain a maximum of 205 MtC/year between 2020-2030. Emissions will then slowly decrease. The maximum contributions are given by China and the Asia and Pacific regions. In the second model, world annual emissions increase to 1.25 GtC in 2005, beginning to decrease afterwards. If we compare the emission maximum with the annual emission caused by deforestation, 1.36GtC per year, then we can say that the role of urbanised territories (UT) is of a comparable magnitude. Regarding the world annual export of carbon by UT, we observe its monotonous growth by three times, from 24 MtC to 66 MtC in the first model, and from 249 MtC to 505 MtC in the second one. The latter, is therefore comparable to the amount of carbon transported by rivers into the ocean (196-537 MtC). By estimating the total balance we find that urbanisation shifts the total balance towards a “sink” state. The urbanisation is inhibited in the interval 2020-2030, and by 2050 the growth of urbanised areas would almost stop. Hence, the total emission of natural carbon at that stage will stabilise at the level of the 1980s (80 MtC per year). As estimated by the second model, the total balance, being almost constant until 2000, then starts to decrease at an almost constant rate. We can say that by the end of the XXI century, the total carbon balance will be equal to zero, when the exchange flows are fully balanced, and may even be negative, when the system begins to take up carbon from the atmosphere, i.e., becomes a “sink”.

A polymer is a large molecule made up of many elementary chemical units, joined together by covalent bonds (for example, polyethylene). Polyelectrolytes (PELs) are polymer chains containing a certain amount of ionizable monomers. With their specific properties PELs acquire big importance in molecular and cell biology as well as in technology. Compared to neutral polymers the theory of PELs is less understood. In particular, this is valid for PELs in poor solvents. A poor solvent environment causes an effective attraction between monomers. Hence, for PELs in a poor solvent, there occurs a competition between attraction and repulsion. Strong or quenched PELs are completely dissociated at any accessible pH. The position of charges along the chain is fixed by chemical synthesis. On the other hand, in weak or annealed PELs dissociation of charges depends on solution pH. For the first time the simulation results have given direct evidence that at rather poor solvents an annealed PEL indeed undergoes a first-order phase transition when the chemical potential (solution pH) reaches at a certain value. The discontinuous transition occurs between a weakly charged compact globular structure and a strongly charged stretched configuration. At not too poor solvents theory predicts that globule would become unstable with respect to the formation of pearl-necklaces. The results show that pearl-necklaces exist in annealed PELs indeed. Furthermore, as predicted by theory, the simulation results have shown that annealed PELs display a sharp transition from a highly charged stretched state to a weakly charged globule at a critical salt concentration.

Robotic telescopes & Doppler imaging : measuring differential rotation on long-period active stars
(2004)

The sun shows a wide variety of magnetic-activity related phenomena. The magnetic field responsible for this is generated by a dynamo process which is believed to operate in the tachocline, which is located at the bottom of the convection zone. This dynamo is driven in part by differential rotation and in part by magnetic turbulences in the convection zone. The surface differential rotation, one key ingredient of dynamo theory, can be measured by tracing sunspot positions.To extend the parameter space for dynamo theories, one can extend these measurements to other stars than the sun. The primary obstacle in this endeavor is the lack of resolved surface images on other stars. This can be overcome by the Doppler imaging technique, which uses the rotation-induced Doppler-broadening of spectral lines to compute the surface distribution of a physical parameter like temperature. To obtain the surface image of a star, high-resolution spectroscopic observations, evenly distributed over one stellar rotation period are needed. This turns out to be quite complicated for long period stars. The upcoming robotic observatory STELLA addresses this problem with a dedicated scheduling routine, which is tailored for Doppler imaging targets. This will make observations for Doppler imaging not only easier, but also more efficient.As a preview of what can be done with STELLA, we present results of a Doppler imaging study of seven stars, all of which show evidence for differential rotation, but unfortunately the errors are of the same order of magnitude as the measurements due to unsatisfactory data quality, something that will not happen on STELLA. Both, cross-correlation analysis and the sheared image technique where used to double check the results if possible. For four of these stars, weak anti-solar differential rotation was found in a sense that the pole rotates faster than the equator, for the other three stars weak differential rotation in the same direction as on the sun was found.Finally, these new measurements along with other published measurements of differential rotation using Doppler imaging, were analyzed for correlations with stellar evolution, binarity, and rotation period. The total sample of stars show a significant correlation with rotation period, but if separated into antisolar and solar type behavior, only the subsample showing anti-solar differential rotation shows this correlation. Additionally, there is evidence for binary stars showing less differential rotation as single stars, as is suggested by theory. All other parameter combinations fail to deliver any results due to the still small sample of stars available.

Adherent cells constantly collect information about the mechanical properties of their extracellular environment by actively pulling on it through cell-matrix contacts, which act as mechanosensors. In recent years, the sophisticated use of elastic substrates has shown that cells respond very sensitively to changes in effective stiffness in their environment, which results in a reorganization of the cytoskeleton in response to mechanical input. We develop a theoretical model to predict cellular self-organization in soft materials on a coarse grained level. Although cell organization in principle results from complex regulatory events inside the cell, the typical response to mechanical input seems to be a simple preference for large effective stiffness, possibly because force is more efficiently generated in a stiffer environment. The term effective stiffness comprises effects of both rigidity and prestrain in the environment. This observation can be turned into an optimization principle in elasticity theory. By specifying the cellular probing force pattern and by modeling the environment as a linear elastic medium, one can predict preferred cell orientation and position. Various examples for cell organization, which are of large practical interest, are considered theoretically: cells in external strain fields and cells close to boundaries or interfaces for different sample geometries and boundary conditions. For this purpose the elastic equations are solved exactly for an infinite space, an elastic half space and the elastic sphere. The predictions of the model are in excellent agreement with experiments for fibroblast cells, both on elastic substrates and in hydrogels. Mechanically active cells like fibroblasts could also interact elastically with each other. We calculate the optimal structures on elastic substrates as a function of material properties, cell density and the geometry of cell positioning, respectively, that allows each cell to maximize the effective stiffness in its environment due to the traction of all the other cells. Finally, we apply Monte Carlo simulations to study the effect of noise on cellular structure formation. The model not only contributes to a better understanding of many physiological situations. In the future it could also be used for biomedical applications to optimize protocols for artificial tissues with respect to sample geometry, boundary condition, material properties or cell density.